Software re-engineering

Reorganising and modifying existing software systems to make them more maintainable

©Ian Sommerville 2000

Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 28

Slide 1


To explain why software re-engineering is a costeffective option for system evolution To describe the activities involved in the software re-engineering process To distinguish between software and data reengineering and to explain the problems of data re-engineering

©Ian Sommerville 2000

Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 28

Slide 2

Topics covered
    

Source code translation Reverse engineering Program structure improvement Program modularisation Data re-engineering

©Ian Sommerville 2000

Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 28

Slide 3

System re-engineering    Re-structuring or re-writing part or all of a legacy system without changing its functionality Applicable where some but not all sub-systems of a larger system require frequent maintenance Re-engineering involves adding effort to make them easier to maintain. Chapter 28 Slide 4 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 . 6th edition. The system may be restructured and re-documented Software Engineering.

When to re-engineer    When system changes are mostly confined to part of the system then re-engineer that part When hardware or software support becomes obsolete When tools to support re-structuring are available ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. Chapter 28 Slide 5 . 6th edition.

Chapter 28 Slide 6 . 6th edition. There may be development problems. staffing problems and specification problems The cost of re-engineering is often significantly less than the costs of developing new software  Reduced cost • ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.Re-engineering advantages  Reduced risk • There is a high risk in new software development.

Chapter 28 Slide 7 . 6th edition.Business process re-engineering    Concerned with re-designing business processes to make them more responsive and more efficient Often reliant on the introduction of new computer systems to support the revised processes May force software re-engineering as the legacy systems are designed to support existing processes ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 8 .Forward engineering and re-engineering System specification Forward engineering Existing software system Software re-engineering Design and implementation Ne w system Understanding and transformation Re-engineered system ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 9 .The re-engineering process Original program Reverse engineering Source code translation Program structure improvement Structured program Reengineered data Program modularisation Data reengineering Program documentation Modularised program Original data ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

Re-engineering cost factors     The quality of the software to be re-engineered The tool support available for re-engineering The extent of the data conversion which is required The availability of expert staff for re-engineering ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. 6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 10 .

Chapter 28 Slide 11 . 6th edition.Re-engineering approaches Automated progr am restructuring Program and data restructuring Automated source code conversion Automated r estructuring with manual changes Restructuring plus architectural changes Increased cost ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

g. FORTRAN to C May be necessary because of: • • • Hardware platform update Staff skill shortages Organisational policy changes  Only realistic if an automatic translator is available ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. Chapter 28 Slide 12 .Source code translation   Involves converting the code from one language (or language version) to another e. 6th edition.

6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 13 .The program translation process System to be re-engineered System to be re-engineered Re-engineered system Identify source code differences Design translator instructions Automatically transla te code Manually transla te code ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

) may be used in this process Software Engineering. crossreference generators.Reverse engineering     Analysing software with a view to understanding its design and specification May be part of a re-engineering process but may also be used to re-specify a system for reimplementation Builds a program data base and generates information from this Program understanding tools (browsers. etc. 6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 14 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 .

6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 15 .The reverse engineering process Program stucture diagrams System information store Manual annotation Document generation Data stucture diagrams Traceability matrices Automated analysis System to be re-engineered ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

Chapter 28 Slide 16 .Reverse engineering  Reverse engineering often precedes reengineering but is sometimes worthwhile in its own right • The design and specification of a system may be reverse engineered so that they can be an input to the requirements specification process for the system’s replacement The design and specification may be reverse engineered to support program maintenance • ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. 6th edition.

6th edition.Program structure improvement    Maintenance tends to corrupt the structure of a program. It becomes harder and harder to understand The program may be automatically restructured to remove unconditional branches Conditions may be simplified to make them more readable ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. Chapter 28 Slide 17 .

6th edition. Time-off. Chapter 28 Slide 18 . Switch) if Switch = off goto off if Switch = on goto on goto Cntrld off: if Heating-status = on goto Sw-off goto loop on: if Heating-status = off goto Sw-on goto loop Cntrld: if Time = Time-on goto on if Time = Time-off goto off if Time < Time-on goto Start if Time > Time-off goto Start if Temp > Setting then goto off if Temp < Setting then goto on Sw-off: Heating-status := off goto Switch Sw-on: Heating-status := on Switch: Switch-heating loop: goto Start ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. Time. Temp. Setting.Spaghetti logic Start: Get (Time-on.

Setting. end case . Switch) . end if. Heating-status := off . Heating-status := on . case Switch of when On => if Heating-status = off then Switch-heating . when Controlled => if Time >= Time-on and Time < = Time-off then if Temp > Setting and Heating-status = on then Switch-heating. Temp. elsif Temp < Setting and Heating-status = off then Switch-heating. Heating-status = off. when Off => if Heating-status = on then Switch-heating . Chapter 28 Slide 19 . Get (Time-on. Heating-status := on . ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. 6th edition. end if . Time-off. end if. Time. end loop .Structured control logic loop -.environment.The Get statement finds values for the given variables from the system’s -. end if .

-.Simplified condition if (A <= B and (C>= D or E > F). ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.Condition simplification -.. 6th edition..Complex condition if not (A > B and (C < D or not ( E > F) ) )... Chapter 28 Slide 20 .

Automatic program restructuring Program to be restructured Analyser and graph builder Graph repr esentation Program generator Restructur ed program ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. 6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 21 .

6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 22 .Restructuring problems  Problems with re-structuring are: • • • Loss of comments Loss of documentation Heavy computational demands   Restructuring doesn’t help with poor modularisation where related components are dispersed throughout the code The understandability of data-driven programs may not be improved by re-structuring ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

Chapter 28 Slide 23 . 6th edition.Program modularisation   The process of re-organising a program so that related program parts are collected together in a single module Usually a manual process that is carried out by program inspection and re-organisation ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 24 .Module types  Data abstractions • Abstract data types where datastructures and associated operations are grouped All functions required to interface with a hardware unit Modules containing functions that carry out closely related tasks Modules where the functions support a business process or process fragment  Hardware modules •  Functional modules •  Process support modules • ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 25 .Recovering data abstractions    Many legacy systems use shared tables and global data to save memory space Causes problems because changes have a wide impact in the system Shared global data may be converted to objects or ADTs • • • Analyse common data areas to identify logical abstractions Create an ADT or object for these abstractions Use a browser to find all data references and replace with reference to the data abstraction ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

Data abstraction recovery     Analyse common data areas to identify logical abstractions Create an abstract data type or object class for each of these abstractions Provide functions to access and update each field of the data abstraction Use a program browser to find calls to these data abstractions and replace these with the new defined functions Software Engineering. Chapter 28 Slide 26 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 . 6th edition.

6th edition.Data re-engineering    Involves analysing and reorganising the data structures (and sometimes the data values) in a program May be part of the process of migrating from a file-based system to a DBMS-based system or changing from one DBMS to another Objective is to create a managed data environment ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. Chapter 28 Slide 27 .

This should not normally require any associated program changes. Chapter 28 Slide 28 . T he data itself may then have to be rewr itten and cleaned up to reflect the program changes. etc.Approaches to data re-engineering Approach Data cleanup Description The data records and values are analysed to improve their quality. the data and associated programs are re-engineered to remove limits on the data processing. The data may be stored in separate files or may be managed by an older type of DBMS. Data extension Data migration ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. redundant information is deleted and a consistent format applied to all records. data is moved into the control of a modern database management system. T his may require changes to programs to increase field lengths. Duplicates are removed. In this case. modify upper limits on the tables. 6th edition. In this case.

Chapter 28 Slide 29 .Data problems    End-users want data on their desktop machines rather than in a file system. 6th edition. They need to be able to download this data from a DBMS Systems may have to process much more data than was originally intended by their designers Redundant data may be stored in different formats in different places in the system ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

Program 1 Program 2 Program 3 File 1 File 2 File 3 File 4 File 5 File 6 Program 4 Program 5 Program 6 Program 7 Becomes Program 3 Program 4 Program 5 Program 6 Program 7 Program 2 Database management system describes Program 1 Logical and physical data models Data migration .

Chapter 28 Slide 31 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 . 6th edition. The same data may have different names in different programs The same item may be assigned different lengths in different programs Records representing the same entity may be organised differently in different programs  Field length problems •  Record organisation problems •   Hard-coded literals No data dictionary Software Engineering.Data problems  Data naming problems • Names may be hard to understand.

6th edition. Others. Some programs reject negative values for entities which must always be positive. Legacy systems have been written to deal with national currency units and data has to be converted to euros. Data written by one program may be rejected by another. Programs may use different conventions and may therefore reject data which is semantically valid. For example. Different programs apply different data validation rules. T he missing data cannot then be discovered. A major problem of this type has arisen in Europe with the introduction of a single European currency. weight data may be represented in pounds in older programs but in kilograms in more recent systems. however. may accept these as negative values or fail to recognise them as negative and convert them to a positive value. Programs assume some meaning in the way items are represented. some programs may assum e that upper-case text means an address. The same information is represented in different units in different programs. T he problem is compounded when missing values are assigned a default value that is valid.Data value inconsistencies Data inconsistency Inconsistent default values Inconsistent units Description Different programs assign different default values to the same logical data items. in the US o r the UK. This causes problems for programs other than those that created the data. For example. This is a particular problem for archival data which may not have been updated in line with changes to data validation rules. Chapter 28 Slide 32 Inconsistent validation rules Inconsistent representation semantics Inconsistent handling of negative values ©Ian Sommerville 2000 . Software Engineering.

6th edition. Chapter 28 Slide 33 .Data conversion   Data re-engineering may involve changing the data structure organisation without changing the data values Data value conversion is very expensive. Specialpurpose programs have to be written to carry out the conversion ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering.

The data re-engineering process Program to be re-engineered Data analysis Data analysis Entity name modification Literal replacement Data definition re-ordering Stage 1 Stage 2 Data re-formatting Default value conversion Validation rule modification Stage 3 Data conversion Change summary tables Modified data Slide 34 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering. 6th edition. Chapter 28 .

program modularisation and data re-engineering Source code translation is the automatic conversion of of program in one language to another Software Engineering. 6th edition. reverse engineering. Chapter 28 Slide 35 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 . program structure improvement.Key points    The objective of re-engineering is to improve the system structure to make it easier to understand and maintain The re-engineering process involves source code translation.

Key points     Reverse engineering is the process of deriving the system design and specification from its source code Program structure improvement replaces unstructured control constructs with while loops and simple conditionals Program modularisation involves reorganisation to group related items Data re-engineering may be necessary because of inconsistent data management Software Engineering. Chapter 28 Slide 36 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 . 6th edition.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful