Managing Quality

M.• According to J. Juran: Quality is “Fitness for use” • According to Philip Crosby: Quality is “Conformance to specifications” .

Quality Meeting. or exceeding. . customer requirements now and in the future.

Dimensions of Quality QUALITY .

Quality of Design • Determined before the product is produced • Determined by market research • Translates the “requirements” of customers into specifications .

Quality of Conformance Producing a product that meets the specifications .

The Quality Cycle Needs CUSTOMER Specifies quality needs Product MARKETING Interprets customer needs Works with customer to design product to fit operations Interpretation of needs ENGINEERING Defines design concept Prepares specifications Define quality characteristics Specifications OPERATIONS Produces the product or services QUALITY CONTROL Plans and monitors quality .

Implementation of quality improvement Define quality attributes on the basis of customer needs Decide how to measure each attribute Set quality standards Establish appropriate tests for each standards Find and correct causes of poor quality Continue to make improvements .

. • Internal failure costs. and • Prevention costs. • Appraisal costs.Quality Costs Quality Costs are classified into four categories: • External failure costs.

Statistical Process Control • Assignable Causes. • Random Causes. .

Process Control Chart y Average + 3 standard deviations Quality measurement average Average .3 standard deviations Upper control limit (UCL) Center line (CL) Lower control limit (LCL) Time x .

The individual observations from each sample are shown as follows: . such as drive shafts in machinery or motors.e.Mean Charts • The Goliath Tool Company produces slipring bearings. n=5). They fit around shafts or rods. which look like flat doughnuts or washers.. In the production process for a particular slip ring bearing the employees have taken 10 samples of 5 slip ring bearings (i.

92 5.97 7.01 5.10 4.06 5.98 Observations 4. 5.09 9.08 5.06 4.92 5. 5.99 4.08 5.09 4.10 4.02 2.07 4.05 8.01 5.96 4. 4.10 5.05 5. 5.03 4. 5.99 The company wants to develop mean and R-chart to monitor the process variability.00 4.89 5.03 5.95 6.98 5.93 4.99 5.00 4.99 5.95 4.99 4.07 4.01 5.01 5.Sample 1. 5.91 4. 4.96 5.01 4. 4. 5. .96 5. 5.94 4.99 5.14 10.99 4.01 3.08 5.03 5.96 4.03 5.

During the past month. Compute the central line and 3-sigma control limits for a p-chart for this tube process.Control Charts for Attributes • An electronic company manufactures several types of cathode ray tubes on a mass production basis. tube type A has caused considerable difficulty. The following table contains data from 21 days of this troublesome period. . 100 units are inspected each day.

Day Fraction Rejected Day Fraction Rejected 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 .29 .24 .22 .24 .22 .29 .33 .22 .24 .18 .21 .31 .24 .26 .21 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 .27 .20 .24 .18 .46 .31 .

However. i. thorough inspection for quality-control purposes. The hotel’s housekeeping department is responsible for maintaining the quality of the rooms’ appearance and cleanliness.. defective lamps. Following are the results from 15 inspection samples conducted at random during a 1 month period: . The management inspectors not only check for normal housekeeping service defects like an inoperative or missing TV remote. toiletries. hotel management also conducts inspection tours at random for a detailed. poor TV picture quality or reception.C-chart • The Ritz Hotel has 240 rooms. Any defects that the housekeeping staff notice that are not part of the normal housekeeping service are supposed to be reported to the hotel maintenance. and so on are restocked each day.e. Each individual housekeeper is responsible for an area encompassing 20 rooms. or a malfunctioning curtain pull. a malfunctioning clock. one room selected at random from each of the twelve 20-room room blocks serviced by a housekeeper. tears or stains in the bedcovers or curtains. Every room in use is thoroughly cleaned and its supplies. Every room is briefly inspected each day by a housekeeping supervisor. An inspection sample includes 12 rooms.

• Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Number of Defects 12 8 16 14 10 11 9 14 13 15 12 10 14 17 15 .

with 1 percent caused by nonrandom variability. . They want to construct c-chart to monitor the house keeping service.The hotel believes that approximately 99 percent of the defects are caused by natural. random variations in the housekeeping and room maintenance service.

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