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The COMMON RAIL system was developed in late

1960`s by Robert Huber of Switzerland . After which many refinement took place in this field and finally , it was sold for general purpose in 1995.
the technology that has been revolutionizing diesel


CRDi is one of the most advanced diesel technologies

in the world, and combines both performance and fuel economy.

Common Rail Direct Injection Engine (CRDI)WAS

FIRST designed by Europian based Detroit Diesel


An advanced diesel engine technology that improves

diesel performance and emissions level, making diesel engines on par with comparable gasoline engines.
It runs at more than 50% thermal efficiency. It

emits fewer exhaust carbons per gallon of fuel burnt,

making an eco-friendly engine.

Cause Of Origin
The driving motivation behind the development of CRDi
is the adherence to ever-increasing emission regulations while maintaining the drivability and low combustion noise characteristics of gasoline-driven engines, and the superior fuel economy of the diesel


What Is DICOR?
D I Co R

The DICOR technology makes the diesel engine run

like a gasoline-powered one. "It's fast, quiet and economical, while maintaining the diesel engine characteristics of higher pulling power,"

In the DICOR unit, a tube -- also called common rail --

connects all the injectors and contains fuel at a constant high pressure of 1800 bars.

Direct & Indirect Injection

Indirect Injection :- An indirect injection diesel

engine delivers fuel into a chamber off the combustion chamber, called a pre-chamber, where combustion begins and then spreads into the main combustion chamber. This has the effect of slowing the rate of combustion, which tends to reduce audible noise. It also softens the shock of combustion and produces lower stresses on the engine components.


The addition of a pre-chamber, however, increases

heat loss to the cooling system and thereby lowers engine efficiency by between 5-10% in comparison to a direct injection engine, and nearly all require some form of cold-start device such as glow plugs.
Indirect injection engines are cheaper to build and it is

easier to produce smooth, quiet running vehicles with a simple mechanical system

Direct injection : the Direct Injection system has the injection nozzle

actually fixed to the top of the combustion chamber, usually the piston on the engine with this type of injection system has a crown shape in the top to create the needed swirl.

Why Direct Injection ?

Cold starting is easier.
More Economical. Smaller combustion space, better thermal efficiency. VERY High compression ratio is not required to aid


Direct-Injection - Benefits
However, because of the big increase in cost and complexity of a DI system, would like to get more benefits to offset system costs than just improved cold and transient engine performance and emissions. Are there any additional benefits of a DFI system?

Yes. Increased Fuel Economy !!

But, this increase in thermal efficiency is currently possible only if the mixturepreparation state, within the cylinder, is more atomised. `

Thermodynamic Levers to Increase Thermal Efficiency

increased volumetric efficiency
increased compression ratio Lean combustion Decreased heat losses In trying to work the above levers, DFI is an enabler with high potential. Note that advanced MPFI systems are also enablers, but with lesser potential than DFI.

Direct-Injection Benefits Increased Volumetric Efficiency

Airflow Characterisitics



Airflow (g/s)



Engine Speed = 2000 rev/min, Wide-open-throttle, Air-Fuel ratio=15:1


7 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400

End-of-Injection (bTDC Firing)

Direct-Fuel-Injection Benefits

Increased Volumetric Efficiency

Direct-Fuel-Injection can result in an increase

(up to 8% has been reported) in airflow due to spray-cooling of the intake air, when injection occurs during the intake stroke. The resulting increased performance can be converted to 1-2% increase in fuel economy.

Direct-Injection Benefits Increased Compression Ratio

70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30

Effect of Compression Ratio on Otto-Cycle Thermal Efficiency

Typical Compression Ratio for Port-Fuel-Injection engine

Otto Cycle Efficiency, E (%)

Typical Compression Ratio for Direct-Fuel-Injection engine








Compression Ratio (r)

Direct-Injection Benefits Increased Compression Ratio

Direct-Fuel-Injection permits an increase in compression ratio from 10.5 to about 12.0,

resulting in about 2% increased efficiency.

Disadvantages of DI
Higher engine noise & vibration
Low thermal efficiency More polluted exhaust Relatively low power

Cut fuel consumption by 20%.
Appox. Double torque. Increase power by 25%. Reduction in noise and vibration. Less pollutant exhaust.

What is the difference?

The difference mainly lies in the fuel injection system
the fuel injection timing is electronically controlled and fuel at high pressure is available all the time and is independent of engine speed, unlike in conventional diesel engines. This results in precisely metered, quickly injected and highly atomised fuel being delivered which results in much greater overall combustion efficiency. With this greater engine efficiency and a better air and fuel mixture both in terms of quantities and mixing, a common rail engine is also much more environmentally friendly and fuel efficient.

Technical aspect of dicor

Combustion control equals or exceeds that for a petrol

high fuel compression and injection pressure are

Fuel efficiency is improved 20%.

Torque improved by 50%.

Power output is improved by 25%. Emission reductions are 20% for carbon dioxide, 40%

for carbon monoxide, 50% for hydrocarbons and 60% for particulate materials.

Characteristics of DICOR
electronic control over the injection time and quantity
Use of "pilot" injection. Use of post ignition. Four to five injection per cycle. High pressure in common rail.


the combustion behaviour is affected by


Timing of start of injection

2. Injection duration

3. Injector discharge curve

Company manufacturing dicor

Delphi Siemens Denso

How Effective?


Emision standard

In emission, greenhouse gases (CO2) is reduced by

At a constant level of NOx, carbon monoxide (CO)

emissions are reduced by 40%, unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) by 50%, and particle emissions by 60%.


conventional engine

CRDi engine
Pressures exceeding 1200 bar, uniformly maintained Direct injection of high pressure fuel Less engine noise (Pilot injection prior to main injection increases compression pressure, thus reducing the noise) Injection pressure remains constant throughout the injectionprocess Electronically controlled metering of fuel quantity Electronically controlled injection timing & independent ofengine speed Low fuel consumption at all engine speeds (due to optimum airfuelratio) Low emission at all engine speeds (due to optimum air-fuelratio) Variable (electronic) control of exhaust gas recirculation intointake manifold reduces NOx emission & delivers optimum performance Finely atomized fuel results in efficient air-fuel mixing & reduced

Pressures ranging from 200 - 400 bar Indirect injection of fuel Noisy engine Fuel injection pressure varies during the injection process Mechanical metering of fuel quantity to be injected in thecylinder Fuel injection timing mechanically controlled by Fuel Injection Pump & variable with engine speed High fuel consumption at low engine speed (due to imperfectair-fuel ratio) High emission at low engine speed (due to imperfect air-fuelratio) Mechanical control of exhaust gas recirculation into intakemanifold Poor air-fuel mixture causes particulate emissions

Different Names of DICOR technology

Honda's i-CTDi Hyundai-Kia's CRDi Mahindra's CRDe Nissan's NEO-Di Mitsubishi's DI-D Tata's DICOR Renault's dCi BMW's D-engines Ford Motor Company's TDCi Duratorq and


For environmentalists and those who are out to make
tighter emission rules, here is a brilliant technology that promises to reduce and give cleaner emissions to leave a healthier environment behind for our next generation.

For engineers, its a milestone achieved in the process

of making way for the emission free automobile.

For engineers, its a milestone achieved in the process of making way for the emission free automobile. This is what Engineering is all about, creating a better tomorrow.

The Common Rail Technology is an Engineering Marvel:
Gives more POWER; Improved FUEL ECONOMY; Less POLLUTION; and last but not the least A DIESEL ENGINE whose noise levels match a PETROL