Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis
Mehmet YILMAZ May 2009
What is FMECA? Why to perform FMECA? How to perform FMECA? Conclusions
Failure Modes = Incorrect behavior of a subsystem or component due to a physical or procedural malfunction. Effects = Incorrect behavior of the system caused by a failure. Criticality = The combined impact of
– The probability that a failure will occur
– The severity of its effect
Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) = a step-by-step approach for identifying all possible failures in a design, a manufacturing or assembly process, or a product or service.
MIL-STD-1629 establishes requirements and procedures for performing FMECA
.Evolution of FMECA
FMEA was originally developed by NASA to improve and verify the reliability of space program hardware.
Provide a basis for maintenance management.Purpose of FMECA
Select the most suitable design with high reliability and high safety potential in the design phases. Provide a basis for reliability and availability analyses. Provide necessary documentation for future design and consideration of design changes. Develop criteria for test planning and requirements. List potential failures and identify the severity of their effects in the early design phases.
Basic Questions of FMECA
Why failures will happen (Failure mode)? What is the consequence when the failure occurs (Failure effect)? Is the failure in the safe or danger direction (Failure Criticality)? How to remove the failure or reduce its frequency?
– to prioritize and focus on high-risk failures
. The FMECA facilitates identification of potential design reliability problems
– Identify possible failure modes and their effects – Determine severity of each failure effect
– removing causes of failures – developing systems that can mitigate the effects of failures.Benefits of FMECA
FMECA is one of the most important and most widely used tools of reliability analysis.
Information gained by performing FMECA can be used as a basis for
– troubleshooting activities – maintenance manual development – design of effective built-in test techniques.
.Benefits of FMECA
It provides detailed insight about the systems interrelationships and potentials of failures.
Highlight single point failures requiring corrective action Identify reliability and safety critical components
.The results of the FMECA
Rank each failure mode.
. it isperformed as a combination of the two methods.FMECA Techniques
The FMEA can be implemented using a hardware (bottom-up) or functional (topdown) approach Due to system complexity.
– Evaluates risks that the component incorrectly implements its functional specification.
Hardware Approach :
– The bottom-up approach is used when a system design has been decided already. – Each component in the system on the lowest level is studied one-byone.
Functional Approach :
– Considers the function of each item. Each function can be classified and described in terms of having any number of associated output failure modes.
. but not yet identified specific hardware to be used. – The functional method is used when hardware items cannot uniquely identified – This method should be applied to when the design process has developed a functional block diagram of the system.
FMECA pre-requirements System structure and failure analysis Preparation of FMECA worksheets Team review Corrective actions to remove failure modes
Collect necessary information about previous and similar designs.
Collect available information that describes the system functions to be analyzed.FMECA Prerequisites
Define the system to be analyzed
– System boundaries. – Main system missions and functions. – Operational or/and environmental conditions.
– to review schematics of the system to show how different parts interface with one another by their critical support systems to understand the normal functional flow requirements. temperature. – to list all functions of the equipment before examining the potential failure modes of each of those functions.
. – to include operating conditions (such as.Functional Block Diagram
Functional block diagram shows how the different parts of the system interact with each other. and environmental conditions in the components list. loads. and pressure). It is recommended
– to break the system down to different levels.
Functional Block Diagram
Rate the Risks Relatively
A systematic methodology is used to rate the risks relative to each other. The Risk Priority Number is the critical indicator for each failure mode.
.000 – Higher RPN = higher priority to be improved. RPN = Severity rating X Occurrence rating X Detection rating
– The RPN can range from 1 to 1.
A qualitative measure of the worst potential consequences resulting from a function failure. It is rated relatively scaled from 1-10.
with loss of primary function. Very high severity ranking. A potential failure mode affecting safe tool operation and/or involves noncompliance with government regulation with warning. socketed DIP chips). Probably cause damage to other components on board or system.
Redundant systems failed but tool still works. Failure can be easily fixed (for example. Tool / item inoperable. Tool / item inoperable with loss of primary function. Failure cannot be easily fixed (true if not field repairable).
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Boarderline pass but still shippable. Would fail manufacturing testing but tool still functions with degraded performance.Severity Classification
1 Failure would cause no effect. Tool / item inoperable with loss of primary function. Probably scraping one or more PCBAs. Very high severity ranking when a potential failure mode affects safe tool operation and/or involves noncompliance with government regulation without warning. No damage to other components on board. No damage to other components on board. Tool / item inoperable with loss of primary function.
Probability of Occurrence
Probability that an identified potential failure mode will occur over the item operating time. It is rated relatively scaled from 1-10.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 >= 50% (1 in two) >= 25% (1 in four) >= 10% (1 in ten) >= 5% (1 in 20) >= 2% (1 in 50) >= 1% (1 in 100) >= 0.01% (1 in 10.001% (1 in 100.000) Almost Never
.1% (1 in 1.000) >= 0.000) >= 0.
A numerical ranking based on an assessment of the probability that the failure mode will be detected given the controls that are in place.
. It is rated relatively scaled from 1-10.
9 Very Remote. or there is no Design Control. There are more than 5-10 possible candidates for the technician to find out the sources of failure mode.
2 Easily detected by standard visual inspection or ATE. Theoretically the defect can be detected. 8 The symptom can be detected by the design control.Detection rating
1 Detected by self test. 4 Symptom can be detected at test bench. Design Control will not and /or cannot detect a potential cause/mechanism and subsequent failure mode. but high chance would be ignored by the operators.
. There are more than 2-4 possible candidates for the technician to find out the sources of failure mode. Very remote chance the Design Control will detect a potential cause/mechanism and subsequent failure mode. 10 Absolute uncertainty. but no way to determine the source / cause of failure mode. 5 Symptom can be detected at test bench. 3 Symptom can be detected. 6 Symptom can be detected at test bench. 7 The symptom can be detected. and it required considerable engineering knowledge/resource to determine the source / cause. There are more than 10 possible candidates for the technician to find out the sources of failure mode. The technician would know exactly what the source of the failure is.
FMECA CASE STUDY
Component = D1 Function = restricting the direction of current Failure = short Cause = Physical Damage Effect = Reverse current
FMECA CASE STUDY
Severity = 7 Occurrence = 5 Detection = 9 RPN = 7*5*9 = 315
Recommendation Occurrence Component D1 R41 U10 detection Function Severity 7 7 7 Failure Cause Effect RPN
restricts the direction of current Current limit for T1
Physical Damage Standard Defect
no current limit high current draw
Change test procedure Change test procedure
RPN reduction: the risk reduction related to a corrective action.
System description/specification Ground rules Functional Block Diagram Identify failure modes Failure effect analysis Worksheet (RPN ranking) Recommendations (Corrective action) Reporting
effects and criticality analysis http://www.com/
MIL-P-1629 “Procedures for performing a failure mode.