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• Any manufacturing organisation can

be termed as a production system to
produce goods & services. There are
three main components of this
system namely inputs,
transformation process and output.
Combination of all activities and
operations to produce some goods
and services is known as
manufacturing system.
Manufacturing systems
• Production is the process by which
goods and services are created. The
inputs can be raw materials,
components, paperwork, etc.
whereas output are completed parts,
products, paper work output services
and scrap. The conversion process
can be characterized as Receipt and
storage of raw materials. These are
drawn by the production department
• The manufacturing system may
therefore be viewed as an
interdependent groups of sub
systems, each related to its
successor, each performing a
different function through yet united
with other for achievement of overall
system objectives. It interacts with
both internal and external
environment. The internal
environment can be a combination of
marketing, a/c’s, personnel and
finance activities. The external
environment can be combined effect
Types of Mfg Systems
• Intermittent system
• Continuous system
Intermittent System
• These are those where the prod’n
facilities are flexible enough to handle a
wide variety of products and sizes.
• Most products are produced in small
• Machines and equipments are laid out by
• Workloads are generally unbalanced.
• Highly skilled operators are reqd. for
efficient use of machines and
• In-process inventory is large.
• Planning and ctrl mechanism for
intermittent systems is such that
here the customers provides the blue
print and other specification
regarding the product to be mfg’d
Then the org. Formulates their
prod’n strategy to suit the needs of
the customer
Types of Intermittent
• Job production : - Job or ‘make complete’
is the Production of single complete unit
by one operator or group. Of operators
e.g. bridge building, dam construction etc.
Here whole project is considered as one
operation and work is completed on each
product before passing on to next. Each
product is a class by itself and requires a
distinct and separate job for prod’n
purposes. The system requires versatile
and highly skilled Labour wit high capital
investment. Control of operations is
• In this system the goods are produced to
definite customer’s orders. There is no
assurance of continuous demand for
specific items and the manufacturing
depends on the receipt of orders from
2. Whole project is taken as single
3. Work is to be completed on each product
before processing the next item.
4. Versatile and skilled Labour is needed .
5. High capital invt.
6. Control operations are relatively simple.
7. High unit cost of production.
Any organisation manufacturing heavy and
Batch production
• In the system of batch production any
product is divided into parts or operations
and that each operation is to be
completed throughout the whole batch
before the next operation is undertaken.
The best example of batch prod’n system
is of chemical industry, where different
medicines are manufactured in batches.
• In this system a batch is not passed to
next operation until the work on the
previous operation is complete for the
whole batch and no new batch enters the
prod’n line, till all the operations for mfg
any product are completed. This results in
considerable idle time for various
Features of Intermittent
1. Demand can be discontinuous .
2. All operational stages may not be
3. Elaborate sequencing and scheduling is
4. Needs high invt.
5. Planning, routing and scheduling changes
with fresh orders.
6. Storage is necessary at each stage of
prod’n process.
7. Can adjust to new situation and
Continuous system
• In this the items are produced for the
stocks and not for specific orders.
Before planning mfg to stock, sales
forecast is made to estimate likely
demand of product and master
schedule is prepared to adjust the
sales forecast according to past
orders and level of inventory. After
setting master production schedule,
detailed planning is carried on.
• In continuous manufacturing systems
each production run manufactures in
large lot sizes and the production
process is carried on in a definite
sequence of operations in a pre-
determined order. FIFO priority rules
are followed in the system. In short,
her input-output characteristics are
standardized allowing for
standardization of operations and
their sequence.
Features of continuous
1. There must be continuity of demand.
2. The product must be standardized .
3. Material shd. Be per specifications and
delivered on time.
4. All operations stages in the process must
be balanced.
5. Work must conform to quality standards.
6. Appropriate plant and equipment must be
7. Maintenance must be by anticipation and
not by default.
8. Inspection must be in line with prod’n
Types of continuous
• Mass production
• Process production
Mass production
• Standardization is the fundamental
characteristic of this system. Here
items are produced in large quantity
and much emphasis is given to
consumers orders. In fact the is to
stock and not to order. Uniform and
uninterrupted flow of material is
maintained through the pre-
determined sequence of operations
reqd. to produce the product. The
Process prod’n
• This method is used for manufacturing
those items whose demand is continuous
and high e.g. petroleum products,
particular brand of medicines, heavy
chemical industries etc. Here single raw
material can be transformed into different
kinds of product at different stages of the
prod’n process e.g. in processing of crude
oil in refinery one gets kerosene, gasoline
etc. at different stages of production.
• In mass and processing systems planning
and scheduling for materials and finished
products is done well in advance.