Common Types of Woven Fabric

Basic weave structures

Woven Structure

. or longitudinal direction  And fill with the 90° or transverse direction However .Orientations in a Woven Fabric  Machine direction = "warp" or "end"  Perpendicular direction = "fill" or "weft" or "pick" or "woof”  Frequently the warp direction corresponds with the 0°.this is not necessarily the case and should be carefully noted.

Woven Fabrics  Generally characterized by two sets of perpendicular yarns systems  One set is raised and lowered to make “sheds” (these are warp yarns)  The other set is passed through these sheds. perpendicular to the warp yarns (these are fill. or pick or weft yarns) .

or not interlace for some distance within a woven fabric .Woven Fabrics  The structure of the woven fabric is the pattern of interlacing between the warp and weft yarns  Yarns can “float”.

and mechanical performance of fabric.  Crimp levels influence fiber volume fraction. .  High crimp leads to Reduced tensile and compressive properties Increased shear modulus in the dry fabric and the resulting composite Fewer regions for localized delamination between individual yarns.Crimp in Weaves  The crimp is defined as one less than the ratio of the yarn's actual length to the length of fabric it traverses. thickness of fabric.

Crimp  Crimp is defined as the ratio of excess length of yarn in a fabric to the length of the fabric C = ly/ lf .1 lf ly .

the warp yarns have most of the crimp. in weaving.Crimp  Crimp is determined by the texture of the weave and the yarn size  Generally. the fill very little This is a direct result of the warp yarns lifting during weaving and the filling yarn being inserted along a straight path .

θ1 D d2 θ1 p2 .Crimp  Various models of crimp exist. the most rigorous developed by Pierce in the 1930s.

. ci  = Yarn  crimp. di = Yarn diameter.j = warp and weft directions. sum of warp and weft diameters  i.  hi  = Modular height. li     = Modular length.Crimp ○ pi = (lj – D θ j) cos θ j + D sin θ j ○ hi = (li – D θ i)sin θ i + D(1 ­ cos θ i) ○ ci =  (li/pj) ­ 1 ○ h1 + h2 = d1 + d2 = D  Where pi =Thread spacing. θi = Weave  angle D   = Scale factor.

Crimp  Simplified crimp calculations: assume triangle wave shape ○ tan θ = (tf + tw) pf ○ C= 1/cos θ .1 tf + tw pf θ .

6% 1.Crimp 2.2% 0.8% 1.2% 1.8% 0.6% 0.4% 1.0% 1.4% 0.0% 22T ­ 12K 5HS ­ 6K 22T ­ 3K 3K 12K ­ 22B 4HS ­ 12K 44T ­ 3K 6K 22T ­ 6K 4HS ­ 3K 8HS ­ 3K 12K 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Ends per inch .0% 0.

Thickness  Thickness is a difficult parameter to measure.  Thickness is dependent on applied transverse pressure to the fabric  Predictions of thickness show variation throughout the unit cell .

Thickness .

Theoretical Predictions of Thickness  Consider yarns to be ellipses with major axes ai and minor axes bi.  Thickness is between  4bw + 2bf ≤ t ≤ 2bw + 2bf .

Theoretical Predictions of Thickness .

 Areal density is a more reliable experimental metric for fabrics than thickness  Areal density can be correlated to volume fraction .Areal Density  Areal density is a measure of the weight per unit area of the fabric Usually expressed in g/m2 or oz/yd2.

and I=warp or weft. ni = number of i yarns per unit length. w = width. Li = linear density of the i yarn. l = length.Areal Density  Areal density can be calculated as A = [l (1+Cw) nw Lw + w (1+Cf) nf Lf]/(w l) Where Ci = crimp of the i yarn. .

Areal Density .

Woven Structures Twill 3D Woven Double Cloth Satin .

Mechanical behavior: The Effect of Yarn Crimp Plain weave Intro to composites. Hull & Clyne .

FiberTex ‘92 . Norman et al.Mechanical behavior: The Effect of Yarn Crimp Angle Interlock weave T.

Mechanical behavior: The Effect of Yarn Crimp XYZ orthogonal weave .

3D Weaves Layer-to-layer Through thickness XYZ .

Doubly Stiffened Woven Panel

Variations in Weave Design

If large yarns are used in the warp direction and small yarns are infrequently spaced in the weft direction, the resulting fabric resembles a unidirectional material.  Weaves can be formed with gradients in a single or double axis by changing yarn size across the width or length  Complex shapes can be achieved through “floating” and cutting yarns to reduce total number of yarns in some section of the part

Gradations through yarn size

Shape through floats .

whereas most tooling will be approximately continuous. The tailoring occurs in a discrete manner. using individual yarns. .Issues with shaping woven fabrics  Tailoring the cross-section of a woven fabric will generally result in a change in weave angle. a change in the distribution of longitudinal. weaver.  Some fiber volume fraction effects can be controlled by tooling. and  a change in fiber volume fraction in consequence to the change in thickness. and fill.

Example of single taper weave  Consider a tapered panel where gradation in thickness is achieved by changing yarn size/count across the width .

warps and wefts per dent are modified to taper  Z yarn path changes to accommodate the weave. Number 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 3 Pick Columnsper inch Warp per dent Picks per column 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Dent .Design of tapered woven panel  Pick count is constant.

500 Distan c fro mThin E g e e d (in) .000 1.000 2.Variation in Fiber Volume Fraction 60 %  This variation in yarn packing results in variations in Vf for the resulting Fib e r composite.500 2. V olum e Fract n io 58 % 56 % 54 % 52 % 50 % 48 % 46 % 44 % 42 % 40 % 0.000 C a lat d lcu e Tar e gt 0.500 1.

Weave Angle 40° 35° 30° Calculat ed Targe t 25° 0.5 2.0 2.5 1.0 0.5 Distanc fromThin E (in) e dge .0 1.Variation in weave angle  The weave angle will 55° also change throughout the width of the part due 50° to varying warp yarn count and part 45° thickness.

0 2.0 1.Yarn Distributions  The distribution of warp.0 %Z % Wa rp % Fill 0.5 1. 50 % 45 % 40 % Yarn Distribution 35 % 30 % 25 % 20 % 15 % 0. 60% weft.5 .5 Distanc fromThin E (in) e dge 2. and Z yarn will also 55% vary throughout the part.

5 2.0 1.5 Distanc from Thin Edge(in) e .0 2.Variations in Modulus  All mechanical properties will vary throughout the part 14 12 10 E11 Tensile Modulus (Msi) 8 6 4 2 0 0.5 1.0 E22 E33 0.

Volume Fraction  Volume fraction is the percent of fiber contained within a given volume (usually the composite in question)  Volume fraction can be calculated from areal density Vf = A ρ / t Where Vf = fiber volume fraction. ρ = density of the fibers. and t = composite thickness . A = areal density.

Process Control and Variability  Processing Errors Damaged yarns Misplaced yarns  Sources of error Machinery malfunction Machinery variability Bad control parameters Post-manufacturing deviations .

Distortions in Woven Fabrics .

On-line Monitoring of Manufacturing  Realtime feed-back from shedding and insertion mechanisms  Visual scan of fabric surfaces  Xray or neutron scan of fabric interior Using tracer yarns .

Three Dimensional Weaving  Uses "standard" weaving technology  Complexity of weave is limited by number of independent shedding devices  Some limitations on maximum thickness of fabric due to shed size and beatup limitations .

Types of 3-D Woven Fabrics  XYZ  Layer-to-layer  Through-thickness .

3-D Weaving shed weaver warp filling insertion fabric movement .

XYZ 3-D Woven Fabrics .

Layer-to-layer 3-D Woven Fabrics .

Through thickness 3-D Woven Fabrics .

t=max  Filling yarns Lie in fill-thickness plane Generally aligned with the fill direction .Components of 3-D Woven Fabrics    Longitudinal yarns Parallel to warp direction Weaving yarns (web yarns) Lie in warp-thickness plane Surface weavers Lie in warp-thickness plane Located at t=0.

Components of 3-D Woven Fabrics 1/hp Fills Longitudinals Weaver t θ Surface Weaver warp .

Physical Relationships of 3-D Woven Fabrics  Vf = ∑ Ωi / Ωc = (1/hp) (1/hw) t = mi Ai li  Ωc  Ωi l = (1/h ) l p l = (1/h )/cos(θ ) w p w l = (1/h )/cos(θ ) s p s l = (1/h ) p w .

Process Variables  Yarn sizes (all independent)  Reed size (limited by yarn size)  Picks per inch (limited by yarn size)  Weave angle  Number of filled warp positions .

thickness (t). ply percentages (wt%) as inputs: Here ρ is fiber density for each n fiber type and w is the preform areal density.Preform Input Parameters  Using fiber volume (Vf). weaver) can then be found using the tow linear density N: .  Yarn spacings needed for each ith system (warp. fill.

Weave Angle Projection 1/ ppil t α Np / ppil tan α = t • ppil Np .

100 inches = 11 tows • .Determining Preform Thickness Requirements  Tows required to meet thickness can be estimated assuming a common aspect ratio (AR): d a b AR= b a2 A= πab= πa AR a= A =d 1 4AR πAR a = A = 6π 3.00455 in π 6 2 −4 tows needed for thickness = total thickness= t = 0.00455 inches tow thickness 2a 2 .9 ×10 in = .

3D Woven Preform Case Study Two sample preforms were specified. .100 56 77 IM7-12k 17 IM7-12k 6 AS4-6k 0.100 56 The preforms were procured from a weaver. then evaluated based on the design methodology. each with a 45°weave angle requested: Parameter %0° fiber 0° fiber type %90° fiber 90° fiber type %z fiber z fiber type thickness (inches) Volume fraction (%) Sample 1 Sample 2 47 IM7-12k 47 IM7-12k 6 AS4-3k 0.

46 74.4 ypi •   25.63 4.23 2 • 110.Example Calculations  Example Calculations for Sample 2.46 2 cos αi = 7.23 12. using IM7-12k graphite tows for all inputs: Fiber direction % tows directionalareal density (oz/yd2) 57.32 0°: 2  lb • yd  = ypi = 57.9 ypi   25.63 2 24.0 lbs 16 oz 36 in yd 6 2  oz • 10 in • lb • yd  • ypi = 4.0 lbs 16 oz 36 in yd oz 10 in 6 0° 90° ttt Total 77 17 6 100 90°: 6 2  oz • 10 in • lb • yd  = ypi = 12.0 lbs 16 oz 36 in yd z: .4 ypi   25.

6 4.9 67.5 8.5 26.2 110 34.9 67.9 4.5 26.3 4.2 110.5 6 2.9 67.5 12.4 34.3 4.6 24.9 34.5 18.7 .9 Sample 2 Parameter areal weight 2 (oz/yd ) yarns per inch Volume fraction 57.4 9.9 67 22.3 3.2 3.Applying the Methodology Sample 1 Parameter areal weight 2 (oz/yd ) yarns per inch Volume fraction 34.5 24 7.4 43.4 0° Required Reported 90° Required Reported ttt Required Reported 34.5 22.2 0° Required Reported 90° Required Reported ttt Required Reported 12.4 57.5 16 2.

Measuring the Weave Angle 9° 22.5 ° .

45 =71.26 oz 2 lb yd Vf =53.7% It was calculated that 74.064 lbs • in 3    36 in  • .3 oz/yd2 was needed to meet the 56% volume fraction specified .26 oz /yd2 + Vf • .100 in  yd  2 • 16 oz = 71.Examining Volume Fraction from Input Parameters  Evaluating Sample 2: 6 2 oz • 10 in • lb • yd  • 6 ypi = wz 2   cos (22.22 12.8 lbs 16 oz 36 in yd w =1.59+ 57.5) 11.

25 inch  All warp slots filled  aspect ratio = (np mp)/t .Example 6 ends per inch.rise/run =tan(θ w) ar  Thickness = 0. 4 picks thick  12K AS-4 yarns long. & fill. 6 picks per inch. 6K weavers. no surface weavers  Weaver yarn ratio .

55 0.65 Fiber Volume Fraction 0.6 4 epi 6 epi 0.3 0.25 0 2 4 6 8 Weave Angle Ratio 10 12 14 .75 0.45 0.35 0.Effect of Weave yarn ratio on Fiber Volume Fraction 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.

Effect of Weave Yarn Ratio on Weave Angle 70 Weave Angle (deg) 60 50 40 30 20 10 4 ppi 6 ppi 0 2 4 6 8 Weave Angle Ratio 10 12 14 .

Effect of Weave Angle on Distribution  Based 0.8 0.5 0.6 Distribution Ratio 0.2 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 on varying weave yarn ratio only Percent longitudinal Percent weaver Percent fill 40 45 Weave Angle (deg) .4 0.3 0.7 0.

15 0 2 4 6 8 Picks per inch 10 12 14 16 .2 0.Effect of picks per inch on Fiber Volume Fraction 0.3 0.35 0.4 Fiber Volume Fraction 0.45 0.25 0.

Effect of picks per inch on Weave angle 45 40 35 Weave Angle (deg) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 Picks per inch 10 12 14 16 .

8 0.2 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Weave Angle (deg) Percent longitudinal Percent weaver Percent fill on varying ppi only .4 0.7 0.5 0.6 Distribution Ratio 0.3 0.Effect of Weave Angle on Distribution  Based 0.

nonuniform section . but uniform section  Very complex shape .Production of Complex Shaped Weaves  Complex shape .complex.complex.

Production of Complex Shaped Weaves  Consider section as consisting of rectangular pieces  Develop weave parameters for each piece  Develop interconnection paths .

Production of Very Complex Shaped Weaves part into rectangular and  Decompose shell sections  Consider impact of cutting yarns  Consider "folding" type operations .

Ideal vs. Actual Geometry .

Bad Control Parameters .

Bad Control Parameters  Bad scan of image  Mistake in keying of "dots and spots"  Slipped card/chain at pick insertion failure .

Compression Induced Errors .

RTM & Handling Induced Errors .

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