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PROVIDING SERVICES ACROSS CULTURES

By: Donna Millington, Michelle Deen, Michelle Kerslake, and France Goulard

Table of Contents
Introduction Addressing Vignette Canadian

model

code of ethics Universal declaration of ethics Alberta college of psychologists The bosses of school psych Hazards of cross-cultural practices Cross-cultural competence Summary Future directions

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Introduction
Individuals

considered minorities will soon become the numerical majority Psychologists will have further contact with clients from diverse backgrounds Clients may not share the same views on behavior and lifestyle

Introduction
Under-utilize psychological services Terminate services sooner Given less preferential services Encouraged to pursue less educational programs Given more negative psychological evaluations (Sue, 2001)

Minority Persons

Culture:
1. Set

Introduction

of shared meanings that form the structure of social interactions

to a broad range of groups who share norms Minority:


1. Culturally

2. Applies

defined group that has suffered oppression

2. Minority

status - related to the access of power within a society

ADDRESSING Model (Hayes, 1996)


Cultural Factor AGE DISABILITY RELIGION ETHNIC HERITAGE SOCIAL STATUS SEXUAL ORIENTATION INDIGENOUS HERITAGE NATIONAL ORIGIN GENDER Minority Group Older adults People with disabilities Religious minorities Ethnic minorities Oppression Ageism Ableism Religious intolerance Racism

People of lower status Classism Gay, lesbian and other sexual minorities First Nations persons Refugees and Immigrants Women Heterosexualism

Colonialism Racism Sexism

Vignette
A seventeen-year-old young man of First Nations heritage has been referred to you by his school for an assessment of his treatment needs. He has become increasingly withdrawn and his academic performance has been declining over the past year. He arrives with his parents present. He reports hearing voices that are predominantly benign and that he is unsure what the voices signify, but that they do upset him. All indicators point toward an incipient schizophrenic process. As you present your opinion, the parents state that they do not want you deliver this bad news to their son. They understand his voices to be communications from his dead grandfather who was a powerful healer. They fear that a pathological understanding of his experience will sever the link with his ancestral heritage.

Canadian Code of Ethics: References to Diversity

Respect for Dignity of Persons

Psychologists acknowledge

that all persons have a right to have their innate worth as human beings appreciated, and that worth is not dependant upon their culture, nationality, ethnicity, colour, race, religion, sex, gender, marital status, sexual orientation, physical or mental abilities, age, socioeconomic status, or any other preference or personal characteristic, condition or status

Canadian Code of Ethics: References to Diversity

Responsible Caring All human beings are of equal worth

Cognizant of power differentials in society that discriminate against diverse cultures

Canadian Code of Ethics: References to Diversity

Integrity in Relationships Professionals avoid bias may be easily compromised when working with diverse populations, especially groups that may be devalued in society

Canadian Code of Ethics: References to Diversity


Responsibility

Society

to

concern

for welfare of ALL human beings Use professional power to contribute to societal changes

Universal Declaration of Ethical Principals for Psychologists

While it is NOT actually a code, it can act as a guideline for those looking to develop codes Provides a moral framework on universally accepted ethical principles based on shared human values across cultures Four Principles very similar to Canadian code of Ethics

Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists


1. 2. 3.

4.

Respect for Dignity of Persons and People Competent Caring for the Well Being of Persons and Peoples Integrity Professional and Scientific Responsibilities to Society

Alberta College of Psychologists

Professional Guideline for Psychologists; NonDiscriminatory Practice

The Bosses of school psych


PSYCHOLOGY IN GENERAL CPA (Canadian Psychological Association) SCHOOL CPA section of psychologists in Education NASP (National Association of School Psychologists)

So what do they have to say about cultural and diversity?

CPA section of psychologists in Education


Document for guiding best practices No particular reference made to working with culturally diverse groups!

National Association of School Psychologists


Blueprint

for Training and Practice

Not much mentioned on culture! They speak to the need to recruit more diverse school psychologists. Need to recognize the impact of language and culture on school performance, and the use of inappropriate or unsystematic methods for assessing English language learners reflects inadequate competence in this domain

Question for you


How many people in this class would Add picture of classify question mark. themselves as a Animate slide minority?

Question for you


How many of you feel like you have experience working with diverse cultures?

Add picture of question mark. Animate slide

At least 25 % of the population in Calgary displays some type of cultural diversity


almost 1 000 000 people in Calgary (2006 census)

English NOT mother tongue 245,790

Immigrants 242,750

Visible Minority 232,465

English as a Second Language


Between

1988 and 2008, the number of identified ESL students in Alberta has tripled from 14,673 to 48,346. guidelines that speak to the need to acknowledge and differentiate for culturally diverse learners, ESL learners are OVER-represented in special education.

Despite

Why? What is our responsibility as psychologists in training?

Hazards of Cross-Cultural Practice


Unequal access to power in society Oppression and mistreatment Internalizing norms of culture related behaviors

Hazards of Cross-Cultural Practice

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Cultural encapsulation

Discrimination

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Cultural Encapsulation
Unconscious discrimination Cultural oppression

Cultural blindness

Scientific methods

Differential approach

Discrimination
Members of the group acculturation Values

Distinguishing characteristics

Individual characteristics

Generalization

Expectations

Canadian culture

Beliefs

Cross Cultural Competence


Openness Awareness Knowledge Services

Openness
Attitude

for openness Acceptance Tolerance Move beyond objective and subjective

Awareness
Cultural

values, assumptions, and biases A fish has no sense of the concept of water, until on land (p.119)

Knowledge
Pursuit

of knowledge of diverse cultures in Canada Ethical obligation

Services
Culturally

appropriate services Psychoeducational assessments Standard interventions

Summary
Ethical

problems can arise between psychologists and clients from different cultural backgrounds Cultural differences can be based on several factors Psychologists must protect their clients needs and safety Ethical psychologists must be open, aware, knowledgeable and provide appropriate services

Future Directions
Psychologists

still working on adopting multicultural principles and standards Opinion of advocates of multiculturalism (Truscott & Crook, 2004) Codes of Ethics define unjust discrimination but tend to emphasize neutrality rather than considering the need for differential services for cultural minorities

References
Canadian Psychological Association (2001). Companion Manual to the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, Third Edition. Canada: Canadian Psychological Association. Canadian Psychological Association (2007). Professional Practice Guidelines for School Psychologists in Education. Retrieved from http://www.cpa.ca/cpasite/userfiles/Documents/publication s/CPA%20Guideline%20Practice.pdf Cohen, L. G. & Spenciner, L. J. (2011). Assessment of children and youth with special needs (4th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. College of Alberta Psychologists (2002). Professional Guidelines for Psychologists: Non-Discriminatory Practice. Retrieved from http://www.cap.ab.ca/pdfs/HPAPGFP-NondiscriminatoryPractice.pdf

References
Gauthier, J., Pettifor, J., Ferrero, A., (2010). The universal declaration of ethical principles of psychologists: A culturesensitive model for creating and reviewing a code ethics. Ethics and Behaviour, 20 (3), 179-196. Hayes, P. A. (1996). Addressing the complexities of culture and gender in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74, 332-38. National Association of School Psychologists (2006). School Psychology: A Blueprint for Training and Practice III. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/blueprint/FinalBlueprint Interiors.pdf Sue, D. W. (2001). Multidimensional facets of cultural competence. The Counseling Psychologist, 29, 780-821.

References
Statistics Canada (2006). 2006 Community Profiles: Calgary, Alberta. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.ca/censusrecensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92591/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=4806016 &Geo2=PR&Code2=48&Data=Count&SearchText=calgary&S earchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom= Truscott, D. & Crook, K. H. (2004). Ethics for the practice of psychology in Canada. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: The University of Alberta Press.