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ZOOLOGY

branch of biology devoted to the study of the animal kingdom (Animalia). Preview: (Contributors) Aristotle (400 BC) first made a system of classifying animals by their reproduction and habitat.

recognized a basic unity of plan among diverse organisms. different structures can have similar functions.

Greek physician Galen, dissected farm animals, monkeys, and other mammals and described many features accurately. English physician William Harvey (17th Cent.) established the true mechanism of blood circulation. 12th century it began to emerge as a science St. Albertus Magnus, denied many of the superstitions associated with biology and reintroduced the work of Aristotle

Leonardo da Vinci grasped the concept of homology (the similarity of corresponding parts in different kinds of animals, suggesting a common grouping). Belgian physician Andreas Vesalius is considered the father of anatomy. Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus developed a system of nomenclature that is still used todaythe binomial system of genus and species (phylum chordata, phylum anthropoda)

Robert Hooke introduced the word cell. Germans, Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, proved that the cell is the common structural unit of living things

Karl Ernst von Baer embryology Claude Bernard, of the study of animal physiology, including the concept of homeostasis

Charles Darwin observed the plant and animal life of South America and Australia and developed his theory of evolution by natural selection Austrian monk Gregor Mendel, who first formulated the concept of particulate hereditary factorslater called genes

In the 20th century zoology has become more diversified and less confined to such traditional concerns as classification and anatomy. Broadening its range to include such studies as genetics, ecology, and biochemistry, zoology has become an interdisciplinary field applying a great variety of techniques to obtain knowledge of the animal kingdom

In Summary, Zoology deals with:

Taxonomically oriented studies concentrate on the different divisions of animal life (vertebrates, invertebrates,arachnids, mammals; paleontology) Morphology, the study of structure, includes gross morphology, which examines entire structures or systems, such as muscles or bones; histology, which examines body tissues; and cytology, which focuses on cells and

Physiology, the study of function of cells, organs, and systems and how they relate and interact in their environment. Animal behavioral studies developed along two lines.
Animal Psychology, is primarily concerned with physiological psychology and has traditionally concentrated on laboratory techniques such as conditioning. Ethology, had its origins in observations of animals under natural conditions, concentrating on courtship, flocking, and other social contacts.

The study of the interactions between animals and their environment is known as ecology.
This has been central to the development of conservation and environmental control during the past 20 years. It has revealed the deleterious effects of pesticides and industrial pollutants and has provided important insights into wiser management of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.

And, lastly... Evolutionary zoology, which draws on all of the fields just mentioned, is concerned with the mechanisms of evolutionary change speciation and adaptationand with the evolutionary history of animal groups.

Antoni Van Leeuwenhoe

is credited with inventing the precursor to the modern microscope. Leeuwenhoek was the first to document the structure of red blood corpuscles and the nature of the circulatory system. In addition to describing animalcules (protozoans and bacteria), Leeuwenhoek also accurately described the life cycles of many types of insects

MICROSCOPE

Microscope, is an instrument used to obtain a magnified image of minute objects or minute details of objects. world opened up as you A miniature

slipped a glass slide under the instrument and peered at all sorts of interesting things perhaps a butterfly's wing or a drop of blood or a swatch of cloth. These images could be exciting, even revelatory, but they were a long way from what sophisticated modern microscopes can provide.

Diagram of Microscope Parts

How to Use Your Compound Microscope


Set your microscope on a tabletop or other flat, sturdy surface where you will have plenty of room to work. Plug the microscope's power cord into an outlet. (Note: some compound microscopes don't use electric lighting, but have a mirror to focus natural light instead.) Switch on your microscope's light source and then adjust the diaphragm to the largest hole diameter, allowing the greatest amount of light through. If you have an iris diaphragm, slide the lever till the most light comes through.

Rotate the nosepiece to the lowest-power objective usually 4x for 40x magnification). It is easiest to scan a slide at a low setting, since you have a wider field of view at low power.

Place a microscope slide on the stage, either under the stage clips or clipped onto the mechanical stage if your microscope has one. A prepared slide works best when you do this for the first time. Move the slide until

Adjust the large coarse focus knob until the specimen is in focus. Slowly move the slide to center the specimen under the lens, if necessary. Do this by nudging it gently with your fingers or by turning the slide control knobs if you have a mechanical stage. Adjust the small fine focus knob until the specimen is clearly in focus. Then adjust the diaphragm to get the best lighting. Start with the most light and gradually lessen it until the specimen image has clear, sharp contrast.

Scan the slide (right to left and top to bottom) at low power to get an overview of the specimen. Then center the part of the specimen you want to view at higher power. Rotate the nosepiece to the 10x objective for 100x magnification. Refocus and view your specimen carefully. Adjust the lighting again until the image is most clear (you will need more light for higher power). Repeat with the 40x objective for 400x magnification, which will enable you to see all of the specimen detail that's necessary for high school biology lab work.

Optional: If your microscope has a 100x oilimmersion lens, you'll need to put 1-2 drops of immersion oil over the slide coverslip (the piece of glass over the middle of the slide) before viewing it at highest power. Move the 100x objective lens into position, and then slowly move the stage up until the lens makes contact with the oil. Continue focusing with the coarse focus knob until the color or blurred outline of the specimen appears. Finish focusing with the fine focus knob. With the 100x lens, you will be able to see additional caafvell detail, but you will need to take extra care with focus and contrast for a clear image. When you are done using the slide, clean the oil off of the slide and the lens with lens cleaning paper and solution.