Defined by the Fédération Dentaire International (FDI) That branch of dentistry which deals which, in the interest of justice, deals with the proper handling and examination of dental evidence, and with the proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings.

Deals with identification, based on recognition of unique features present in an individual‟s dental structure Role in identification in man made or normal disasters-events that result in multiple fatalities Dental evidence can be crucial in crime investigation Relies on sound knowledge of the teeth and jaw, possessed by dentists and incorporates dental anatomy, histology, radiography, pathology, dental materials and developmental anomalies

Identifying unknown human remains through dental records, assisting the location of a mass disaster Eliciting the ethnicity

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Determining the gender
Age estimation Recognition and analysis of bite marks Presenting evidence in court as an expert witness

 Identification is the establishment of a person‟s individuality „The characteristics by which a person may be recognized‟ Tradition methods: visually recognizing the body. personal property Physical features: inherited or acquired    .

 Inherited features: ethnic characteristic   Acquired features: surgical scar. dental restorations Prone to change over time Dental hard tissue: strongest structures  Resistant to post-mortem decomposition  Most dental materials are also resistant  . previous fractures.

missing Combination of 16 missing teeth can produce is approximately 600 million Four missing & four filled teeth in mouth combined can produce more than 700 million combinations     . Human dentition is never the same in any two individuals. ‘uniqueness’ Restorations Extracted.

8 * 10 to power 19 possible combinations of 32 teeth being intact. while not individually unique. There are 1. decayed. when considered together provide a unique totality” . missing or filled  Dental identity: “the total of all characteristics of the teeth and their associated structures which.

and occupation of the dead individual  .  Two forms are there: Comparative identification: attempts conclusive identification by comparing the dead individual‟s teeth with presumed dental records of the individual Reconstructive identification: elicit the ethnicity or „race‟. age. gender.

and ante-mortem dental data  Writing a report and drawing conclusion  . Convectional method Four steps:  Oral autopsy  Obtaining dental records  Comparing post.

. obtained according to the requirement. radiographs. to determine the cause of death Critical examination of the external features   Photographs. Necropsy or post-mortem  Examination of the deceased. fingerprints. usually with dissection to expose the organ. fingernail scraping. hair sample.

     Essential part Rigor-mortis: render jaws rigid Use of mouth-gags Intraoral myotomy is essential Teeth need to be reinforced prior to examination Access for radiography can be obtained by removing the tongue and contents of the floor of the mouth in a ‘tunneling’ fashion from beneath the chin  .

    Examination of : Soft tissue injuries Fractures Presence of foreign bodies Samples of hard and soft tissues may be obtained All information. entered onto ‘Interpol post-mortem form’ Color-coded in pink    .

radiographs. casts and/or photographs Transcribed onto „Interpol ante-mortem form’ Color-coded in yellow   . specialist or hospital records  In the form of dental charts. From the treating dentist.

 Data can be compared Tooth morphology and associated bony structures. pathology & dental restorations Individual with multiple dental treatment and unusual features has a better likelihood of being identified   .

based on the comparison. Detailed report and factual conclusion. must be clearly stated In fingerprinting. differences in the ante-and post-mortem data rule out identification This concept does not apply to dental identification. as long as the inconsistencies are explainable   .

   Confirm Identification: the ante.& postmortem data match each other „beyond reasonable doubt‟ Usually includes radiographic support Probable Identification: data is consistent but a lack of quality  One cannot confirm identity  No radiographic support  .

& postmortem data are clearly inconsistent Indicates mismatch .& postmortem data Insufficient information: the available anteor post-mortem information is minimal or insufficient    Excluded identification: ante. Possible identification: explainable differences exist between the ante.

sometimes thousands. man made events Result in multiple human fatalities Severe mutilations Magnitude of the event is far greater Involves comparing hundreds. of ante & post-mortem data Bodies may be incinerated or commingled Jurisdictional and political issue that need to be addressed   . accidental.     Disasters: natural.

 Part of a team of identification specialists Most disaster identifications have a dental section Inclusion of different specialists and dental auxiliaries Tasks range from talking radiographs to performing clerical duties    .

 Division of dental section into 3 subsections: Post-mortem unit Anti-mortem unit Dental comparison & identification unit    .

 Dentists are more likely to recognize fragmented and burned teeth Sketch should be made of the scene The location at which a body is recovered is noted Preliminary examination of the mouth    .

    Dental examination is usually done after most other procedures such as Photography Fingerprinting Medical autopsy Portable dental radiography apparatus Teeth and jaw specimens may be removed Labeled to prevent a „ mix-up‟    .

Collect as much information as possible in the shortest period of time Written dental records, radiographs, study models Personnel should be capable of reading and interpreting all dental records provided All information transferred onto the standard Interpol ante-mortem form

Comparison and confirmation of identification

All ante-mortem data may or may not be available
Done manually or by computer aid Data can be sorted by gender, age, presence or absence of restoration etc…

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Fragmentary remains will need to be crosschecked with individual bodies

When matched, all set of documents relating to dental features are attached to the relevant sets of documents for the rest of the bodies Computer software programs has also been developed Final identification should always be done by the dentist manually, based on personal evaluation of evidence Success depends on the co-operation between different identification teams

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Teeth are an excellent source of DNA Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), allows amplification of seven highly degraded DNA Sample: hair from hairbrush, epithelium from toothbrush or a biopsy specimen Advantage: if a decedent‟s ante-mortem sample is unavailable, the DNA pattern may be compared to a parent or to a sibling

carious. as well as root-filled teeth Dentine and cementum may be equally viable Particular significance in skeletal remains   . Pulpal tissue is the best source   Cryogenic grinding DNA can be obtained from intact.

     Major drawback of cryogenic grinding: Tooth needs to be completely crushed Less destructive method: Drilling of the root canal Scraping the pulp area with notched medical needle Subsequent flushing of the tissue debris  .

their mother and many maternal relatives Used to establish identity in cases where there is a gap of several generations  .       Two types: Genomic or nuclear DNA: In the nucleus of the cell Mitochondrial DNA: A high copy number of mtDNA Exclusively inherited from mother An identical mtDNA pattern is observed among siblings.

 The rugae pattern on the deceased‟s maxilla or maxillary denture may be compared to old dentures They don't change shape with age and reappear after trauma or surgical procedures  .

 Primary rugae ( > 5 mm) Secondary rugae ( 3-5 mm) Fragmentary rugae (2-3 mm) [ Rugae <2mm is not taken into consideration ]    .

 Traced rugae pattern on to clear acetate  Superimposed these tracing on photographs of plaster models Computer software program. „RUG FP-ID Match‟ Makes use of the principle commonly employed in fingerprint analysis   .

and age . gender.   Profiling includes: Extracting a triad of information The decedent‟s ethnic origin.

Negroid Possible to identify an individual‟s ethnic origin based purely on one‟s dentition   . as well as environmental factors Three „races‟ : Caucasoid.  Humans are a diverse species Results of genetic influences. Mongoloid.

 Dental features have evolved over time as a result of genetic and environmental forces Dental features are a combination of hereditary and environmental factors to which a person is exposed Those dental features that have a stronger genetic and weak environmental influences are useful   .

 Metric Features(tooth size): based on measurements Non-metric (tooth shape): based on presence and absence of a particular feature  .

    Based on data from : Morphology of skull and mandible Metric features DNA analyses of teeth .

 Use of morphologic features of the skull and mandible Not reliable until well after puberty    Use of multiple features Their application may need to be confined to young adults and the middle-aged Measurements of the skull using lateral cephlometric tracings  .

   Variable such as: Length of the cranial base Mastoid height and width   Total face height Maximum length of the skull. male skull is larger Numerous variables on dry skull specimens  .

first and second molars as well as maxillary incisors are also known to have significant differences . Differentiating sex by measuring their mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions  Significant differences between male and female permanent and deciduous tooth crown dimension Such measurements are: population specific Do no apply to the world at large      Canine consistently show the maximum sex difference Premolars.

calculated by: Ii = [MDI² / MDI¹] * 100 Where MDI² is the maximum mesiodistal diameter of the maxillary lateral incisors MDI¹ is the maximum mesiodistal diameter of the central incisors Index is higher in males   .   ‘Incisor index’.

D. explained as a result of greater genetic expression in males .1mm. calculated as: (Mean m-d canine dimension in females + S.  ‘Mandibular canine index’.D.) + Mean m-d canine dimension in males – S. 2  Value: 7. is the maximum possible mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine in females  Dimension is greater in males  Success rate is 89%  Odontometric difference.

located on the X. Sex can be determined with very minute quantities of DNA “Amelogenin”   The AMEL gene.and Ychromosomes Females (XX) have two identical AMEL genes Males (XY) have two non-identical genes   .

grouped in 3 phases Ageing in prenatal. . 3. 2. neonatal and early postnatal Age estimation in children and adolescents Age estimation in adults 1. Age estimation using dentition.

1st molar show germ formation first at about 3.5-4 months IU Age estimation can be very accurate    . Primary tooth germ begins to form at seven weeks in utero (IU) Enamel formation of all deciduous teeth is usually completed by the first year Among the permanent.

 Use of histologic techniques Neonatal lines   Neonatal line may take up to three weeks after birth to form It indicates a live birth  .

   Tooth emergence or „eruption‟ Tooth calcification Visual assessment of teeth present in the mouth Deciduous teeth. relatively regular Emergence pattern of permanent teeth are under the influence of the intraoral environment   . their emergence is under genetic control.

  Affected by infections Arch space   Premature tooth loss Evaluation of radiographs to assess tooth calcification is a much better alternative Number of teeth passing through various stages of calcification. are available Better indication of ages in first two decades   .

 Described 20 chronological stages of tooth development startinh from four months IU until 21 years Based on histologic sections Direct comparisons with radiographs    Dental development of males and females were combined and each stage included the amount of age variation .

 Age estimation method that made use of a scoring system The development of seven mandibular teeth on the left side was divided into eight stages each Stages named as „A‟ to „H‟ While third molars are not used Each tooth is assigned a „maturity score‟     .

 The maturity score assigned is added and a total maturity score is obtained  Total maturity score: plotted on a chronologic „ age conversion table‟ .

    Accuracy in age estimation is questionable due to: Their great variation in genesis Position Morphology Time of formation When all four third molars have completely calcified.1% for females     . the chances of the individual being 18 years old is: 96.3% for males 95.

 When all four third molars are unavailable for age estimation: one or two may be in hand  Only  In such lower third molars are best predictors .

 Age estimation based on: Morphological and   Histological changes of the teeth .

  This assessed regressive changes as: Amount of occlusal attrition (A)    Coronal secondary dentine deposition (S) Loss of periodontal attachment (P) Cementum apposition at the root apex (C)   Root resorption at the apex (R) Dentine translucency (T) .

56X      Maples & Rice proposed Age = 13. a total score was obtained Age estimation using the formula. Different scoring ranging from 0-3 were assigned: Adding the allotted score for each variable.45 + 4.56X .43 + 4. Age = 11.

unstained cross-section of teeth   Preferably mandibular central incisors and third molars Accuracy of within two or three years of the acute chronologic age Major disadvantage: necessity to extract and/or section the teeth   . Age estimation from acellular cementum incremental lines Made use of mineralized.

 Wordings reveal the underlying concepts of age estimation The materials that were obtained for age estimation    Method(s) used It is important to address the applicability of the method(s) to population on which it was used Dental age cannot be expressed precisely. within an age range  . but at best.

food items. Defined by MacDonalds “ A mark caused by the teeth either alone or in combination with other mouth parts” Caused by humans or animals They may be on tissue. or other objects Primitive type of assaults. teeth used as weapon    .

    Outline of human bite marks are: Broad U-shaped Sometimes circular or oval     Bite marks of animals are: Narrow in anterior aspect V-shaped Elongated .

  Difference in the morphology of the teeth Human bite marks have:  Broad central  Relatively narrow lateral incisors  Blunt     Bite by animals exhibit: Broad laterals Narrow centrals Sharper and deeper canines marks .

shape and pattern of the incisal or biting edges of upper and lower anterior teeth to be specified to an individual Depict the „unique‟ pattern of a biter‟s teeth  .Human bite marks are present in cases of:  Sexual assault  Fight and violence  Child abuse  Theft   Size.

body tissue  Food stuff  Other material .     Cameron and Sims Classification Agents Human Animal Material  Skin.

    MacDonald’s Classification Tooth pressure marks “direct application of pressure by teeth” By the incisal or occlusal surface of teeth    Tongue pressure marks When sufficient amount of tissue is taken into the mouth. the tongue presses it against rigid areas such as the lingual surface of teeth and palatal rugae Combination of sucking & tongue thrusting .

g.Tooth scrape marks  Scraping of teeth across the bitten material  Caused by anterior teeth  Present as scratches or superficial abrasions  Webster’s Classification  Bite marks in food stuff     Type I : food item fractured readily Limited depth of tooth penetration e. : hard chocolate .

g. : bite marks in apple & other firm fruits     Type III : complete or near complete penetration of food item With slide marks e.g. cheese .Type II : fracture of fragment of food item  Considerable penetration of teeth  e.

 Type of injury: compression of the skin surface due to tooth pressure during a bite causes indentations initially Indentations soon disappears Brief period of edema over the bite area Once the edema subsides. subcutaneous bleeding is apparent Contusion or bruises Reddish/purplish discoloration on the skin surface      .

 When the intensity of the bite mark is great. where part of the tissue is bitten off Identifying the injury as a bite mark: human bite marks can be identified as:  . there may be a break in the integrity of skin surface Resulting in lacerations   Most extreme form: avulsion.

Gross features:  A circular or elliptical mark  Found on skin with central area of ecchymosis  Circular/elliptical mark is caused by the upper and lower arches  Ecchymosis due to sucking action or negative pressure  Class features:  Differential between different types of teeth  Incisors produce rectangular marks  Canines are triangular or rectangular  .

   Individual features Characteristics such as fractures Rotations   Site of bite mark Can be found on any parts of the body .

 Preliminary questions      Bite mark evidence collection from the victim Should be collected when it is first presented and observed Primary concern is patient Great potential for infection Protocol .

elasticity of the bite site  Physical appearance  Differences between upper and lower arches.Visual examination  Type of injury  Contour. and between individual teeth  If victim is dead. texture. visual examination should be done before autopsy    Photography Permanent record of the appearance of bite marks .

 Color and black-white photographs from different angles Orientation photography: depict the location of bite mark  Close-up photography: taken with a rigid reference scale  Placed on the same plane as the injury  Entire scale and bite mark must be visible in the photograph  Saliva swab  Saliva may have WBCs and sloughed epithelial cells  .

or impression compound. self cure acrylic.A potential source of DNA  A cotton swab moistened with distilled water should be used for swabbing  If the bite has occurred through clothing. to prevent against dimensional changes Impression of the victim‟s teeth should be made for suspected self-inflicted bites . cloth must also be swabbed for saliva       Impression When tooth indentations exist Material of choice: Vinyl polysiloxane Reinforced with dental stone.

date.          Evidence collection from the suspect A signed and witnessed information consent or a court order Infection control and asepsis Items of evidence recovered should include: Photographs of the suspect‟s teeth Maxillary and mandibular impression Models poured in dental stone Bite registration in centric occlusion Saliva swab Case number. as well as any witnesses involved must be recorded at every step . time. place.

   Consider movement on part of the victim The flexibility of the bitten tissue Distortion introduced during photography consider uncommon characteristics of the bite mark Measurements obtained from the bite mark should be compared to that of the suspect‟s dental model Metric analysis. in conjunction with „pattern association‟   .

in situ Incisal and occlusal edges of the suspect‟s teeth were traced on clear acetate Superimposed on life-size photographs of bite marks Indirect method: Computer software programs     .e.  Direct method of comparison: suspect‟s models were placed directly over the bite mark photograph or on the bite mark itself i.

 Positive identification  Possible identification  Excludes identification .

 Wrinkles and grooves visible on the lip as „sulci labiorum rubrorum‟ Imprint produced by these grooves is termed „lip print‟ Examination of it is referred to as ‘Cheiloscopy’ Grooves are heritable & individualistic    .

 • • • • Simple wrinkles Straight line Curved line Angled line Sine-shaped line Compound wrinkle Bifurcated Trifurcated Anomalous  • • • .

 Type I: Clear-cut vertical groove that run across the entire lip  Type I’: Similar to type I. but do not cover the entire lip Type II: Branched grooves Type III: Intersected grooves     Type IV: Reticular grooves Type V: Grooves that cannot be morphologically differentiated .

with sweat glands in between .     Combinations of these grooves may be found Lips are divided into quadrants A horizontal line dividing the upper and lower lip A vertical line dividing right an left sides The lip prints can be „lifted‟ using material such as aluminium powder and magnetic powder   The vermilion border have minor salivary glands The edges of the lips have sebaceous glands.

pathosis    Surgical treatment rendered to correct the pathosis. Secretions of oil and moisture from these enable development of „latent‟ lip prints. affects the size and shape of the lip. may alter the pattern and morphology of the grooves . analogous to latent finger prints Disadvantage: uncertainty about the prominence of lip patterns Major trauma of lip resulting in scarring.

a zone is extremely mobile Differ in appearance depending on the pressure applied and its direction   . Anatomic position of lip grooves on the zones of transition Close to vermilion border.

usually requried to provide testimony in the court of law in the capacity of an „expert witness‟ “Expert witness are those whose training. qualifications. & dental fraud. or experience enables them to give an opinion on a relevant matter where the ordinary person is not so enabled” Dentist may need to testify in cases involving malpractice based on deficiency and negligence. accidents and injuries.   . Forensic dentists.

 Expert witness may appear for the prosecution or for the defense Make bold statements while preparing reports and framing conclusions Any change in opinion during questioning by the opposition lawyers can render the expert witness fallible “Always present the evidence and conclusions based on facts” Truth is paramount. and repeatable     .

 Opinion should be presented in such a way that it is accurate and yet simple enough for the layperson to understand  Never to discuss matters pertaining to a case with anybody as long as the case is under trail The expert witness in particular and the forensic dentist in general. must be:  Professional.  Unbiased  Ethical  Truthful  .

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