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Introduction to Animals

Invertebrates, Protostomes, and Deuterostomes

Chapters 29, 30, 31

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
Evolution of Animals
• All animals are multicellular & heterotrophic
• Classification Criteria
– Level of organization

 Cellular, tissue, organ

– Symmetry

 Asymmetrical, radial, bilateral

– Body plan (digestive system)

 Sac (incomplete digestive system)

 “Tube-within-a-tube” (complete)

– Type of coelom

 Acoelom, psuedocoelom, coelom

• Major Phyla of Invertebrates

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Level of organization
• Cellular – no true tissues
– Ex.: Sponges (phylum Porifera)
• Tissue – two germ layers (diploblastic:
ectoderm and endoderm)
– Germ layer = “beginning layer” (of cells)
– Ex.: Cnidarians and Comb jellies
• Organ – three germ layers (triploblastic:
ecto-, meso-, & endoderm)
– All other animals

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Symmetry and Body Plans
• Asymmetrical
• Radial
– organized circularly
– two identical halves no
matter how divided length-
• Bilateral
– Definite right and left
– Only one longitudinal
section = identical halves

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Digestive system
Incomplete digestive system
one opening serves as
mouth and anus
Complete digestive system
two openings – one is
mouth other is anus

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Type of Coelom
Animals with the organ
level of organization
are subdivided
according to type of
coelom (body cavity)
Body Cavity = space
containing internal
• Acoelom = no coelom
• Pseudocoelom = “false
body cavity”
• Coelom

Mader: Biology 8th Ed. Fig. 29A, p. 530

• Segmentation is repetition of body
parts along the length of the body.
• a. Among coelomates, molluscs and
echinoderms are non-segmented.
• b. Annelids, arthropods, and chordates
are segmented.
• c. Segmentation leads to specialization
of parts as they differentiate for specific

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
Sponges (phylum Porifera)
• Cellular organization
• Asymmetrical or crude radial symmetry
• Flagella of choanocytes function in filter feeding
Fig. 29.3,
• Can reproduce sexually and asexually p. 520
• Unique evolutionary history among animals

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Cnidarians and Comb jellies
• Tissue organization: diploblastic
• Radially symmetrical
• Incomplete digestive system Comb jelly


Fig. 29.4, p. 522 Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

Cnidarian Diversity Fig. 29.5, p. 523
Polyp and
medusa body
stinging cells
– Fluid-filled


Sea anemone Cup coralMader: Biology 8 Ed.Man-of-war

• Freshwater cnidarians Fig. 29.6,
• Can reproduce sexually and asexually p. 524

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

A colony of polyps
• Feeding polyps - Have nematocyst-bearing tentacles

Reproductive polyps - Budding of new polyps
Also has sexual reproduction (medusa) stage

Fig. 29.7, p. 525

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Flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes)
• Organ-level
• Bilateral Symmetry
• Incomplete digestive
• Acoelomate
• Free-living flatworms:
planarians Fig. 29.9, p. 527
• Parasitic flatworms:
flukes and tapeworms

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Transmission of Schistosomiasis
Fig. 29.10, p. 528 A Blood Fluke

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Head region (scolex) modified for attachment to
intestinal wall of host
• Long series of proglottids after scolex - each has male
and female sex organs Fig. 29.11, p. 529

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Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
Roundworms (phylum Nematoda)
Organ-level organization:
Bilateral Symmetry
Complete digestive system
Nonsegmented, generally
colorless worms
Several parasitic
roundworms infect humans

– Elephantiasis
Fig. 29.13, p. 532

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Molluscs (phylum Mollusca)
• Organ-level organization: triploblastic
• Bilateral Symmetry (or “unique” – bivalves)
• Complete digestive system
• Coelomate
• Three groups of molluscs
– Bivalves (“two valves” [of the shell])

 Clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops

– Gastropods (“stomach foot”)

 Snails, slugs, nudibranchs

– Cephalopods (“head foot”)

 Octopi, squids, chambered nautilus

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Annelids (phylum Annelida)
• Organ-level organization: triploblastic
• Bilateral Symmetry
• Complete digestive system
• Coelomate • Segmented

– Partitions (septa)
divide fluid-filled
coelom, which acts as
hydrostatic skeleton
• Examples:
– Earthworms
– Leeches
– Clam worm
Fig. 30.7, p. 543
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• Molluscs (phylum Mollusca)
– Have three-part body plan.

 Visceral Mass

 Contains internal

 Mantle

 May secrete shell

and/or contribute to
development of gills
or lungs.
 Foot

 Muscle adapted for

attachment, or food

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

Arthropods (phylum Arthropoda)
• Organ-level organization: triploblastic
• Bilateral Symmetry
• Complete digestive system
• Coelomate
• Jointed appendages
• Segmented (some segments fused)
 Head, thorax, abdomen

• Three major arthropod subphyla:

– Crustaceans (e.g., crayfish, crabs)

– Uniramians (centipedes, millipedes, insects)

– Chelicerates (e.g., spiders, scorpions, ticks)

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Fig. 30.14, p. 549 Female Grasshopper

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Echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata)
• Organ-level organization: triploblastic
• Bilateral Symmetry
• Complete digestive system
Example: sea
• Coelomate stars (starfish)
• Each arm has a
groove lined by
tube feet
– Locomotion

depends on
this water
Fig. vascular
31.1, system
Mader: Biology 8th Ed. p. 556
– Invertebrates
– Vertebrates
 Fishes

 Amphibians

 Reptiles

 Birds

 Mammals

– Comparison of vertebrate circulatory

and excretory systems
Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
Chordates Phylum Chordata
At some point in their
development, chordates
have these four main
– Notochord

– Dorsal hollow nerve

– Pharyngeal pouches

– Post-anal tail

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

Invertebrate Chordates
Notochord persists and is never replaced by a
vertebral column
Lancets - Fig. 31.2, p. 558 Sea Squirts - Fig. 31.3, p. 558
(Subphylum Cephalochordata) (Subphylum Urochordata)

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Vertebrate Chordates
• Subphylum Vertebrata
– Spinal cord inside vertebral column

– Brain inside cranium

• Closed circulatory system

• Paired appendages
• Efficient respiration and excretion
• High degree of cephalization
• Adapted to active lifestyles

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• Aquatic, gill-breathing & usually have
fins and scales
• Jawless fishes (Superclass Agnatha)
– Lack a bony
– Examples:
 Lampreys

 Hagfishes

Fig., 31.5,
p. 560 Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
Fishes With Jaws
Jaws believed to have evolved from first pair of
gill arches of agnathans
Class Chondrichthyes = Cartilaginous Fishes -
skeleton of cartilage
– Lack gill cover of bony fish.
– Utilize lateral line system Fig. 31.6, p. 561

Bull shark stingray

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Bony Fishes
Class Osteichthyes - skeleton of bone
• Most are ray-finned fishes.
• Have a gas-filled sac (swim bladder)
– Used to change buoyancy

p. 562
Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
Tetrapods (“Four feet”)
• Hypotheses of evolution
– Lobe-finned fishes had an evolutionary advantage
due to movement capability
– Supply of food on land and the absence of
predators promoted further adaptations Fig. 31.8, p. 563

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Diversity of Amphibians
• Salamanders and newts - Internal fertilization
• Frogs and toads - Tailless
• Caecilians
– Legless, sightless, worm-shaped
• Most return to water for reproduction
• Three-chambered heart
Tiger salamander
• Ectothermic

Biology 8 Ed.
Practice internal Fig. 31.3, p. 567
fertilization and
lay eggs
protected by a
leathery shell
– Dry, scaly skin

– Ectothermic

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

Anatomy and Physiology of Reptiles
• Reptiles have a thick, scaly skin that is
keratinized and impermeable to water.
– Usually tetrapods.

– Lungs with expandable rib cage.

– Shelled amniotic egg.

– Dry, scaly skin.

– Ectothermic

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Phylogenetic Tree

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

• Feathers
• Hard-shelled egg
• Four-chambered heart
• Often winged Northern Cardinal
• Air sacs
• Endothermic

Bald Eagle
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• Skull accommodates larger brain relative
to body size
• Chief characteristics are hair and milk-
producing mammary glands
• Internal Development
• Differentiated Teeth
• Endothermic

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Monotremes - Hard-shelled eggs
Marsupials - Females contain pouch
Placentals - Females have organ for
exchange of maternal and placental blood

Duck-billed platypus Koala bear White-tailed deer

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

Vertebrate Circulatory Systems
Fig. 31.11, p. 565

2: Fishes 3: Amphibians and 4: Some reptiles,

most reptiles
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Birds, & mammals
Major Orders of Mammals
• Perissodactyla • Chiroptera
– Horses
– Bats
• Artiodactyla • Rodentia
– Deer
– Mice
• Carnivora
– Cats
• Proboscidea
– Elephants
• Primates
– Monkeys • Lagomorpha
• Cetacea – Rabbits

– Whales

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
Mader: Biology 8th Ed.