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# Form

## The physical manifestation of

an idea.
Form refers to the height, width,
and depth of an object and its
enclosed volume.

## For example, a triangle, which is

two-dimensional, is a shape…

## but a pyramid, which is three-

dimensional, is a form.

## Cubes, spheres, ovoids, pyramids,

cone, and cylinders are examples of
Types of
Form
Mass
A solid Three-dimensional form.

## Mass refers to the bulk, density,

and weight of matter in space.

## The area occupied by a form such

as a building or sculpture.

As opposed to plane (a flat level or
surface), mass is three-
Henri Moore, Locking Piece,
1963-64
1300-800 B.C. , Stone
Olmec Culture, Jalapa, Veracruz,
Mexico
Volume
Refers to the space within a
form.

## The amount of space an object

occupies; volume refers to an
enclosed area of three-
dimensional space.

## In architecture, volume refers

When considering volume to define
a space, it is important to consider
structural integrity. If the structure
fails, the volume will collapse and
the space will be lost.
Folding, Weaving, and slotting can
be used when creating volume.
Plane

## A plane is a three dimensional form

that has length and width, but minimal
thickness.

## Depending on the material used,

planes can be transparent or opaque,
rigid or flexible.

## Complex surfaces and enclosures can

be constructed using folded or bent
Alexander Calder La Grande
Vitesse 1969

## Painted Steel Plate 43’ x 55’

Alexander Calder,
Untitled 1976
Painted Aluminum and Tempered Steel, 29’
10.5” x 76’
Antoine Pevsner, Torso,
1924-26
Construction in Plastic and Copper
Positive Form and Negative
Space

## Form is generally seen as occupying

space, but sometimes it is seen as
blank space surrounded by occupied
space.

## When it is seen as occupying space,

we call it positive form.

## When it is perceived as blank space

Geometric Form

A three-dimensional form
derived from or suggestive of
geometry.

## Examples include cubes,

spheres, tetrahedrons, etc.
Organic Forms

## Forms that visually suggest

nature or natural forces.

## They are often bounded by free

curves suggesting fluidity and
growth.
Static Forms

## Forms that appear stable and

unmoving are static forms.

Dynamic Forms

## Forms that imply movement

are dynamic forms.
Kinetic Forms

kinetic forms.

Scale

## A size relationship between two

separate objects.

## Example: The relationship

between the Statue of Liberty
and a human visitor to the
monument.
Ron Mueck
Australian Hyperrealist
Sculptor