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The physical manifestation of

an idea.
Form refers to the height, width,
and depth of an object and its
enclosed volume.

For example, a triangle, which is

two-dimensional, is a shape…

but a pyramid, which is three-

dimensional, is a form.

Cubes, spheres, ovoids, pyramids,

cone, and cylinders are examples of
Types of
A solid Three-dimensional form.

Mass refers to the bulk, density,

and weight of matter in space.

The area occupied by a form such

as a building or sculpture.
As opposed to plane (a flat level or
surface), mass is three-
Henri Moore, Locking Piece,
Colossal Head
1300-800 B.C. , Stone
Olmec Culture, Jalapa, Veracruz,
Refers to the space within a

The amount of space an object

occupies; volume refers to an
enclosed area of three-
dimensional space.

In architecture, volume refers

When considering volume to define
a space, it is important to consider
structural integrity. If the structure
fails, the volume will collapse and
the space will be lost.
Folding, Weaving, and slotting can
be used when creating volume.

A plane is a three dimensional form

that has length and width, but minimal

Depending on the material used,

planes can be transparent or opaque,
rigid or flexible.

Complex surfaces and enclosures can

be constructed using folded or bent
Alexander Calder La Grande
Vitesse 1969

Painted Steel Plate 43’ x 55’

Alexander Calder,
Untitled 1976
Painted Aluminum and Tempered Steel, 29’
10.5” x 76’
Antoine Pevsner, Torso,
Construction in Plastic and Copper
Positive Form and Negative

Form is generally seen as occupying

space, but sometimes it is seen as
blank space surrounded by occupied

When it is seen as occupying space,

we call it positive form.

When it is perceived as blank space

Geometric Form

A three-dimensional form
derived from or suggestive of

Examples include cubes,

spheres, tetrahedrons, etc.
Organic Forms

Forms that visually suggest

nature or natural forces.

They are often bounded by free

curves suggesting fluidity and
Static Forms

Forms that appear stable and

unmoving are static forms.

Ex. The great Pyramids of Giza

Dynamic Forms

Forms that imply movement

are dynamic forms.
Kinetic Forms

Forms that actually move are

kinetic forms.

Ex. Rube Goldberg Devices


A size relationship between two

separate objects.

Example: The relationship

between the Statue of Liberty
and a human visitor to the
Ron Mueck
Australian Hyperrealist
British artist Benedict Radcliffe
full-scale sculpture of a Subaru