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NGOs: Meaning, History, and Significance

09/03/2003

Class Outline The meaning of NGOs: Nongovernmental organizations NGO characteristics Different types of NGOs History of NGOs Reasons for the current growth of NGOs NGO and globalization Challenges and responses

Meaning of NGO
Formal: institutionalized Private: nongovernmental Self-governing Exhibition of altruistic value and ideologically driven Nonprofit distributing Development oriented

Different Types of NGOs


By location I. Northern NGOs or international NGOs - western industrialized countries - national, multinational, fully multinational II. Southern NGOs or local, indigenous NGOs low income, aid recipient countries less developed areas

SNGOs
National NGOs or GRSOs - intermediary organizations - Professionally staff, nationally based, educated middle class - Bureaucratic org - Externally funded GROs known as CBOs or Pos Membership orgs Community oriented Small self-help orgs Run by volunteers Locally based

By NGO Purpose
Supply-Side NGOs Welfare oriented NGOs Provide services directly to local community Rely on volunteers and staff CARE, Plan International, MSF Demand-Side NGOs Advocacy/lobbying work Advance beliefs and ideologies Seek to influence public policy the Interaction and Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response (SCHR)

Evolution of NGOs

Lindenberg & Bryant David Korten NNGOs Four-Generation NGOs Based on org structure, First generation: welfare production of services, and oriented governance Second generation: National NGOs: MSF France sustainable, self-help orgs Multinational NGOs: Mercy Third generation: Corps advocacy, structural Fully multinational NGOs: change CARE, SCF, Plan

Fourth: social movement

History of INGOs I. Emergence: 1775-1918 III. Disengagement: 19411944 - National issues: slave trade, peace movement, - Humanitarian and emergency for war victims labour rights - Growing hostility - Humanitarian relief for war victims and refugees - Inhibited NGO participation II. Engagement: 1920 to IV. Formalization 19451940 late 1960s - raising awareness of - recognition by international issues international agencies - Interacting with - No real cooperation governments

NGO History
V: Late 1960s-1970s: Quite Growth Gov as recipient of international aid Gov as the engine of development Prevalence of TNCs Mutual mistrust NGO presence was tolerated VI: 1980s: Limited contribution of NGOs Reagan and Thatcher era Market as the engine of growth Dominance of institutional donors Donor-led development Development of NGO cooperation with official aid system

NGO History
VII: 1990s: Favored Child - alternative model of development (peoplecentered model) - NGOs as the preferred mechanism of development - Failure of past efforts - Evidence of NGO growth - Gained access to policymakers VIII: 2000-current: Selfexamination - critical path of NGOs - Welfare providers for official aid system or advocacy organizations - Fundamental values and roles of NGOs in development

NGO-Growth Factors
Fiscal crisis: budget cut, slow economy, economic recession The End of Cold War The Third Wave of Democratic Opening An increasing use of public bilateral and multilateral resources Privatization Change in ideology: The New Policy Agenda Growing demand

Globalization Challenges

3 aspects of globalization Social globalization Economic globalization Political globalization NGO Challenges 1.New Waves of Complex Emergencies

2. New Form of Global Poverty 3. Declining capacity of national governments 4. Weak and outmoded global institutions 5. New pressure for accountability and efficiency 6. New pressures to respond globally 7. Recreating purpose and mystique

Internal Response Needed


Reexamine our values Create a new vision and mission Design new relief and development programs Transform organizational culture Increases accountability Build global networks for services, fundraising, and advocacy Restore meaning in organizational work

Variables in Managing Change

Stakeholder review Staff morale and issues Partnership choices Program review problems/possibilities Financial/base/options for change Donors roles and relationships A learning organization

Progress and Bumps in the Road


Progress Mission and values Relief and development programming Service and Support systems National Boards and global family governance Partnership beyond the family Bumps Middle managers Structure of NGO families Donor pressure Unpredictable external environment Staff motivation and organizational culture