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**Sect. 4.5: Cayley-Klein Parameters
**

• 3 independent quantities are needed to specify a rigid body orientation. Most often, we choose them to be the Euler Angles: ,θ,ψ. • Sometimes, it’s convenient to use variable sets which contain more than the minimum number of 3, even though these can’t be used as indep generalized coords. • One set of 4 parameters, due to Klein (& Cayley) & originally Euler Cayley-Klein Parameters is often convenient.

– These are very useful in theoretical physics. – Also much easier to deal with than Euler Angles when obtaining numerical solutions to rigid body problems!

γ*. Constraints: β = .δ? . δ = α* • DEFINE general transformation matrix A in terms of * complex conjugate these as: • Of course.γ.β. • A in this form looks complex.θ.β.δ & angles .β.ψ.γ. But A is real! • PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION of α. this is the SAME A that we wrote in terms of Euler Angles! There MUST be a connection between α.• Cayley-Klein Parameters: 4 complex variables denoted as: α.γ.δ.

since β = . A in this form is real. • Orthogonality of aij (e0)2 + (e1)2 + (e2)2 + (e3)2 = 1 • PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION of e0. e2. define the real quantities e0. e1. e2. A looks like: • Clearly. e1.γ* & δ = α* γ -e2 +i e1 δ e0 . e3? .i e3 • In terms of these real parameters.• To see that A is real. e3 ( Euler parameters) as: α e0 +i e3 β e2 +i e1 Also.

the body orientation with respect to some external set of axes can be specified by an orthogonal transformation A. – Can express elements of A (aij) with a convenient choice of parameters: Euler angles: .β.e1.ψ. As time progresses.θ. Cayley-Klein Parameters: α. Each is time dependent. Euler Parameters: e0.6: Euler’s Theorem • Now have the complete math formalism to describe the motion of any rigid body. 4.γ.e2.e3.δ.Sect. – At any time t. the orientation of the body changes: A = A(t) Time dependence is obtained by solving Lagrange’s Eqtns! .

A = A(t) 1 • Physics: Motion must be continuous The transformation matrix A must evolve continuously from the identity transformation 1.• Assume initial conditions so that body axes are the same as the external axes at t = 0. . Euler’s Theorem: The general displacement of a rigid body with one point fixed is a rotation about some axis. Proof: As we proceed. Initial condition: A(0) = 1 • Later as orientation changes.

oriented at particular polar angles θ. • Physical meaning: For every such rotation it is always possible to find an axis through the fixed point.ψ characterize the rotation & these ARE the Euler angles • The fixed point is often (but not necessarily!) the CM of the body. 3 parameters θ. • Take the fixed point as origin of body axes “Displacement” of body involves no translation of body axes.• Euler’s Theorem: The general displacement of a rigid body with one point fixed is a rotation about some axis. such that a rotation about this axis by a particular angle ψ duplicates the rotation. but only a change in ORIENTATION ..

. the rotation axis is to be determined! • 1st Characteristic of a rotation: The magnitudes of all vectors are unchanged on rotation! – This results automatically from the orthogonality conditions on the aij! . • In other words: The OPERATION implied by the general orthogonal transformation A describing the motion of a rigid body IS A ROTATION! • Given the Euler angles θ.• Euler’s Theorem restated: The body axes at time t can be obtained by a SINGLE rotation (about an appropriate axis. to be determined!) of the initial axes.ψ.

Any vector lying on this axis has the same components in both the initial & the final axis systems! If we can show that there exists a vector R having the same components in both systems. This proof follows: • In general.λ1)R = 0 . then R = R • For generality.• 2nd Characteristic of a rotation: The direction of the rotation axis is unchanged on rotation. under a rotation characterized by A: R = AR • If R = rotation axis. will have proven Euler’s Theorem. for vector R. To prove Euler’s theorem. write R = λR. look for solutions where λ = +1 • Combining gives: (A .

we need to solve: (A .• To prove Euler’s theorem. λ might be real or complex Vectors R which satisfy (1) Eigenvectors Eigenvalue German for characteristic value.λ1)R = 0 (1) The Eigenvalue Problem Values of λ which satisfy (1) Eigenvalues In general. orthogonal matrix specifying the physical motion of a rigid body with one fixed point always has the eigenvalue λ=+1 . • Euler’s theorem restated: The real.

λ)X + a12Y + a13Z = 0 a21X + (a22 . Y. . not the magnitude. For each λ. homogeneous.λ1)R = 0 (1) • Note that: X a11 a12 a13 100 R Y A a21 a22 a23 1 010 Z a31 a32 a33 001 (1) becomes 3 simultaneous.• Solve the eigenvalue problem: (A . can be determined.λ)Y + a23Z = 0 (1) a31X + a32Y + (a33 .λ) Z = 0 Solutions to (1): (in general 3) eigenvalues λ. Physics: Only the direction of R. ratios of components of corresponding eigenvector R. Z (a11 . linear algebraic eqtns for the components X.

Solution requires: |A . orthogonal matrices A.λ) a12 a13 a21 (a22 .• Eigenvalue problem: (A .λ) a23 = 0 (2) a31 a32 (a33 . & Z vanishes. the secular eqtn must have the root λ = +1 .λ)Y + a23Z = 0 (1) a31X + a32Y + (a33 .Y. Euler’s theorem restated again: For real.λ) Z = 0 Has a solution only when the determinant of the coefficients of X.λ)X + a12Y + a13Z = 0 a21X + (a22 .λ1)R = 0 Or: (1) (a11 .λ1| = 0 or: (a11 .λ) (2) Characteristic or secular eqtn of matrix A.

Y.3) 3 eigenvectors R Xk (k =1.λ1| =0 (2) • Notation: 3 eigenvalues λk (k =1.λ1)R = 0 (1) Solution requires: |A . Eqtn resulting from (1) for kth eigenvalue (summation convention not used!): ∑jaijXjk = λkXik (3) .Z!) 1st subscript (i) labels the component 2nd subscript (k) labels the eigenvector to which the component belongs.2.2.• Eigenvalue problem.3) Each eigenvector Xk has 3 components labeled as Xik (Change of notation from X. (slightly) alternate formulation: (A .

k notation: ∑jaijXjk = ∑jXij δj. . the elements of diagonal A are the eigenvalues sought & the X’s which do this are the eigenvectors.• Eigenvalue problem: ∑jaijXjk = λkXik (3) • Rewrite using δj. If an appropriate X can be found.kλk (3) (3): Both sides have the form of matrix products: Define the (diagonal) eigenvalue matrix: λ1 0 0 λ 0 λ2 0 (3) becomes: AX = Xλ (4) 0 0 λ3 • Multiply (4) from left by X-1: X-1AX = λ (5) (5): A similarity transformation operating on A. Can diagonalize A by performing a suitable similarity transformation.

Ã|. the reciprocal is equal to the transpose: A-1 = Ã • Consider the expression (A .A = -(A .1| = |1 . Recall for orthogonal matrices.1| = |1 . the secular eqtn must have the root λ = +1” • Diagonalize A & find eigenvalue λ = +1. orthogonal matrices A.• A proof of Euler’s Theorem in form: “For real. • Another proof: Use property of transpose Ã.1 = determinant of matrix 1 .Ã. Determinant of a matrix = determinant of its transpose: |A .Ã| • To describe rigid body motion.1)Ã = 1 . • Take the determinant of both sides: |A . A(t) must correspond to a proper rotation |A| = |Ã| =1 |A .A| Determinant of matrix A .1) .1||Ã| = |1 .

noting that |A| = 1 (previous result) & that determinant is invariant under similarity transformation: |A| = 1 = |λ| = λ1λ2λ3 . We had: AX = Xλ (4) and X-1AX = λ (5) Take determinant of (5).A| = -|A -1| |A -1| = 0. Euler’s Theorem is proven! • What about the other 2 eigenvalues? • Determinant of any matrix is unaffected by similarity transformation.λ1| = 0 A must always have at least one eigenvalue λ = + 1.|A .1| = |1 . Compare to secular eqtn |A .

• If the eigenvalue λ1 is complex. then it’s complex conjugate λ* is also an eigenvalue. the corresponding eigenvector R1 is also complex. must have λ2 = λ1*. – For complex vectors R. If the eigenvalue λ1 is complex. the square of the magnitude is given by RR* .• Determinant of A = product of its 3 eigenvalues: |A| = 1 = λ1λ2λ3 • Euler’s theorem: At least one eigenvalue is 1 (say λ3 = 1) λ1λ2 = 1 • A is real If λ is an eigenvalue.

the first part of (1) becomes: RR* = λλ* RR* (2) (1) & (2) together λλ* =1 Conclusion: All eigenvalues of a general orthogonal transformation A have unit magnitude.• The square of the magnitude is invariant under a real orthogonal transformation A RR* = (AR)AR* = RAAR* = RR* (1) • If R is a complex eigenvector corresponding to a complex eigenvalue λ. .

say λ3 = 1 & the other 2. One. λiλi* =1 (i =1.3) The λ’s have 3 possible distributions: 1. λ1λ2 = 1 d. A = 1 (trivial) 2. λ2.2. λ1 = λ2 = -1 A = rotation by π about some axis 3. All are = +1. say λ3 = 1 & the other 2. One. λ1λ2λ3 = 1 b.Summary: The 3 eigenvalues λ1. λ1 & λ2 are complex conjugates of each other. Euler’s Theorem One of them (say λ3) = 1 c. λ3 of an orthogonal transformation matrix A must satisfy: a. .

λ)Y + a23Z = 0 (1) a31X + a32Y + (a33 .• Consider case 3. .λ) Z = 0 setting λ = 1 & solving for X. Y.λ)X + a12Y + a13Z = 0 a21X + (a22 . Z. where λ3 = 1 & λ2 = λ1*: Still must have λ1λ2 = 1 λ1 & λ2 must be of the form λ1 = eiΦ λ2 = e-iΦ • Direction cosines of axis of rotation (eigenvector R for eigenvalue λ = 1) are obtained by going back to eigenvalue eqtns: (a11 .

A a rotation about the z axis through angle Φ Can easily write: cosΦ sinΦ 0 A = -sinΦ cosΦ 0 0 0 1 Trace of A = TrA = aii = 1 + 2 cosΦ • The trace of a matrix is invariant under a similarity transformation TrA = aii = 1 + 2 cosΦ .• Can also get angle of rotation for eigenvalue λ = 1. Do this by a similarity transformation BAB-1 A to transform A into a system of coords where z axis is axis of rotation.

this TrA = Trλ = 1 + 2 cosΦ (1) • Now. λ2 = e-iΦ . are special cases of complex eigenvalues (special choices for rotation angle Φ). Φ = 0 All λ’s =1 A = 1 Φ = π λ1 = λ2 = -1 (as already noted) (as already noted) . λ3 = 1 TrA = Trλ = 1 + eiΦ + e-iΦ (2) (1) & (2) are the same. cases when eigenvalues are all real.TrA = aii = 1 + 2 cosΦ • Again using the same property. since eiΦ + e-iΦ 2 cosΦ • Clearly. the rotation angle Φ can clearly be seen to be identical to the phase angle of the complex eigenvalues: λ1 = eiΦ.

-Φ satisfies TrA = 1 + 2 cosΦ) The sense of direction of the rotation angle is not exactly specified.• Note: The prescription for getting the rotation axis direction R & for rotation angle Φ are not unique & unambiguous. can show that the inverse or transpose A-1 = Ã has the same eigenvalues & eigenvectors as A.g. . (e. so is -R Sense of direction of rotation axis is not exactly specified. – Can go even further & say that the eigenvalue eqtn does not uniquely specify the orthogonal transformation matrix A . if replace Φ by -Φ all of the formalism is unchanged. – If R is eigenvector.Φ. Could be direction of R or -R – Also. Could be Φ or .g. e.

• Corollary Chasles’ Theorem: The most general displacement of a rigid body is a rotation about some axis plus a translation. p 161): It is always possible to choose the origin of the body set of coordinates so that the translational motion is in the same direction as the rotation axis Screw motion. – Removing the constraint of the one fixed point introduces 3 more (translational) degrees of freedom (3 more generalized coords. – A stronger form (footnote. Useful in crystallography! .• Euler’s Theorem: The general displacement of a rigid body with one point fixed is a rotation about some axis. giving a total of 6. as discussed at beginning of the chapter).

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