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ECE 102 Electronics Ciruit 2

Bipolar Junction
Transistor (BJT)
- AC Analysis
Subtopics
5.0 Introduction to BJT Small Signal Analysis (3 Hours)
5.1 Amplification in the AC domain
5.2 BJT transistor modeling
5.3 The r
e
Transistor Model

6.0 BJT Small Signal Analysis (9 Hours)
6.1 Common-Emitter fixed-bias configuration.
6.2 Voltage divider bias.
6.3 Common Emitter bias.
6.4 Emitter-follower configuration.
6.5 Common-base configuration.
6.6 Collector-feedback configuration.
Amplification in AC Domain
For a system that has input power P
i
and
output power P
0
, the power efficiency can be
defined as = P
0
/ P
i
and it is not greater
than 1.
However, if the factor of applied dc power to
be considered, the conversion efficiency can
be greater than one which is defined as =
P
0(ac)
/ P
i(dc)
Amplification in AC Domain
In this chapter, the amplification will be
expressed as voltage gain (A
v
) and current
gain (A
i
)
i
o
i
i
o
v
I
I
A
V
V
A
=
=
AC & DC Supplies
DC supply
AC supplies
AC components
AC equivalent
To do analysis in ac-domain, the circuit has to
transform into its ac equivalent circuit
There are four steps have to be taken:
1. Set all DC source to zero (grounded)
2. Replace all capacitors with a short-circuit
equivalent
3. Remove elements that will be bypass by the short-
circuit equivalent
4. Redraw the network for convenient look
AC equivalent
Consider a voltage-divider bias configuration:
AC equivalent
Step 1: Set all DC source to zero (grounded)
AC equivalent
Step 2: Replace all capacitors with a short-circuit
equivalent
Step 3: Remove elements that will be bypass by the
short-circuit equivalent
AC equivalent
AC equivalent
Step 4: Redraw the network for convenient look
BJT Transistor Modeling
3 types of modeling:
r
e
model
hybrid equivalent model
hybrid model
r
e
model will be focused throughout the class
Before applying these models to a circuit, the
circuit itself must be converted into an ac
equivalent network (as for only ac response
are interested)
r
e
Transistor Model
In this approach, the important parameter of
the equivalent circuit was determined by the
actual operating conditions
There will be 3 BJT configuration:
common-base (CB)
common-emitter (CE)
common-collector (CC)

r
e
Transistor Model
Lets reflect the BJT equivalent circuit as in two-port network
where the current and impedance are assumed going into the
network regardless whether its an input or an output
CB Configuration
Lets consider a pnp-BJT first:
CB Configuration
By examining the input, the transistors arrow from terminal E to B
means that the current is supposed to be in that direction. As for
that, a diode is suitable for its equivalent representation.
At the output, the collector current is related to emitter current by
equation I
c
= I
e
. A dependent source is very suitable for its
equivalent representation
CB Configuration
For ac response, the diode can be replaced
with an equivalent ac resistance
AC resistance of a diode are determined as
r
ac
= 26 mV / I
D
. As for the diode current in
this case is I
E
, the equivalent ac resistance
can be expressed as:
E
e
I
r
mV 26
=
notice the capital letter
is for dc level
CB Configuration
The r
e
equivalent model:
At input:
e
e
e e
i
i
i
e i
e e eb i
r
I
r I
I
V
Z
I I
r I V V
= = =
=
= =
CB Configuration
For output, I
0
= I
C
due to the two-port reverse current
V
0
will be determined later when load (R
L
) is inserted
For Z
0
, it will be determined by the transistors output characteristic:
Notice that the slope
remains the same for any
input current
And the slope is very close
to a perfect horizontal
This means the resistance
is infinity (Z
0
)
CB Configuration
If a load (R
L
) is connected at output terminal,
voltage gain (A
v
) and current gain (A
i
) can be
defined
For A
v
For A
i
:
e
L
e e
L e
i
v
L e L c
e e i i i
r
R
r I
R I
V
V
A
R I R I Z I V
r I Z I V
o o
o
= = =
= = =
= =
0
0 0 0
) )( (
o
o
o
=

= =
= =
=
e
e
i
i
e c
e i
I
I
I
I
A
I I I
I I
0
0
CB Configuration
A load is connected at the output terminal:
CB Configuration
For npn transistor, the only difference is the current
flow
For this case the current I
i
and I
0
are reversed
resulting in I
i
= I
e
and I
0
= I
C
= I
e

Problem 5.5
Question:
For the common-base configuration, an ac
signal of 10 mV is applied, resulting in an emitter
current of 0.5 mA. If = 0.980, determine:
a. Z
i

b. V
0
if R
L
= 1.2 k
c. A
v

d. Z
0

e. A
i

f. I
b

Problem 5.5
Solution:
Convert the CB
configuration into its
equivalent circuit:

And then convert it into
the r
e
equivalent circuit:
Problem 5.5
Given:
ac voltage, V
i
= 10 mV
I
e
= 0.5 mA
= 0.980
Remember:
small letter subscript for ac
capital letter subscript for dc
Problem 5.5
a) As for Z
i
= r
e
:


b) Applying nodal analysis at V
0
:
O = = = = = 20
5 . 0
10
m
m
I
V
I
V
r Z
e
i
i
i
e i
V 588 . 0 ) 2 . 1 )( 5 . 0 )( 980 . 0 (
) (
0 0
0
0
= =
= = =
=
k m
R I R I R I V
R
V
I
L e L c L
L
o
Problem 5.5
c) For voltage gain, A
v
= V
0
/ V
i
:


d) For Z
0
, by removing the R
L
will result in high
impedance (open-circuit equivalent):
8 . 58
10
588 . 0
0
= = =
m V
V
A
i
v
O =
0
Z
Problem 5.5
e) For current gain, A
i
= I
o
/ I
i
:


f) All BJT have the same current equation:
980 . 0
0
= =

= = o
o
e
e
e
C
i
v
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
A 10 5 . 0 ) 980 . 0 1 (
) 1 (

o o
= =
= = =
+ =
m
I I I I I I
I I I
e e e c e b
c b e
CE Configuration
Lets consider a CE configuration using an npn
transistor:
CE Configuration
Transforming into its
equivalent ac model:
Same with CB
configuration, at input
terminal the current must
flow from terminal B to E
(equivalent to a diode)
At output terminal, the
collector current is
dependent to the base
current, I
c
= I
b

(equivalent to a
dependent source)
CE Configuration
Transforming the ac equivalent model into r
e

equivalent model:
In order to convert the r
e
model in Figure 1 to r
e
model in Figure
2, the current I
e
need to independent by not depending on I
b

and I
c
. As for that r
e
need to be reconfigured

CE Configuration
Figure 1 Figure 2
CE Configuration
In dc, the emitter current I
E
= ( + 1)I
B
. The equation still remains
the same in ac condition:

All the input parameters will be:





However, in ac, is usually sufficiently larger than 1, so the
approximation:
b e
I I ) 1 ( + = |
e
b
e b
i
i
i
b i
e b e e be i
r
I
r I
I
V
Z
I I
r I r I V V
) 1 (
) 1 (
) 1 (
+ =
+
= =
=
+ = = =
|
|
|
e i
r Z | ~
CE Configuration
For output, I
0
= I
C
and V
0
will be determined when R
L
is inserted
For Z
0
, it will be determined by the transistors output characteristic:
Notice that the slope is different from various input current
As for that, a resistance r
0

connected from terminal C to E
is equivalent to this slope
(Z
0
= r
0
)
CE Configuration
The complete r
e
model for CE configuration:
CE Configuration
For a load situation:
r
o

Problem 5.7
Question:
Using the model given, determine the following for a
common-emitter amplifier if = 80, I
E
= 2 mA and r
0

= 40 k.
a) Z
i

b) I
b

c) A
i
if R
L
= 1.2 k
d) A
v
if R
L
= 1.2 k
Problem 5.7
Solution:
a) From the r
e
model given, Z
i
= r
e
:



b) I
b
can be obtained from I
E
:



Even though I
B
is a dc current, I
b
= I
B
due to the current can
only flow in one direction (diode equivalent):
O = = =
O = = =
k 04 . 1 ) 13 ( 80
13
2
26 mV 26
e i
E
e
r Z
m
m
I
r
|
A 69 . 24
1 80
2
1
) 1 (

|
|
=
+
=
+
=
+ =
m I
I
I I
E
B
B E
A 69 . 24 =
b
I
Problem 5.7
c) For A
i
, examine the I
i
and I
0
first:
For I
0
, r
0
and R
L
is in parallel. In that case, V
ec

can be obtained:




From Ohms law:
V 301 . 2
2 . 1 40
) 2 . 1 )( 40 )( 69 . 24 )( 80 (
0
0
0
=
+
=
+
=
+ =
k k
k k
R r
R r I
V
R
V
r
V
I
L
L b
ec
L
ec ec
b
|
|
mA 918 . 1
2 . 1
301 . 2
0
= = = =
k R
V
I I
L
ec
L
Problem 5.7
As I
i
is equal to I
b
, the current gain can be obtained
now:

d) For A
v
:
68 . 77
69 . 24
918 . 1
0
= = =

m
I
I
A
i
i
61 . 89
) 13 )( 69 . 24 )( 80 (
301 . 2
0
=

= = = =
|
e b
ce
be
ce
i
v
r I
V
V
V
V
V
A
CC Configuration
The r
e
equivalent for CC configuration is the
same with CE configuration except for its
current flows direction
Things to Remember
r
e
model of CE configuration
using npn transistor:
r
e
model of CB configuration
using pnp transistor:
7 . 0 but 7 . 0 = =
be BE
V V
Small Signal Analysis (AC analysis)
For better understanding, subtopic 6.1 6.6 will be rearrange by
referring to the chart below:
Fixed-bias (CE: bypassed)
Due to the absent of R
E
, fixed-bias configuration will be
automatically categorize under CE bypassed
The configuration:
Fixed-bias (CE: bypassed)
Transform the circuit into its ac equivalent:
Fixed-bias (CE: bypassed)
Transform the npn transistor into r
e
model:










After this, the analysis can be done
Example 5.4
For the network given:
a. Determine r
e

b. Find Z
i
(with r
o
= )
c. Calculate Z
o
(with r
o
=
)
d. Determine A
v
(with r
o
=
)
e. Repeat part (c) and (d)
including r
o
= 50 k in
all calculations and
compare results
Example 5.4
a. Determine r
e
:
As r
e
is determine by I
E
, the DC biasing needs to be analyze
first
O = = =
= = + =
=

=
=
=
= =
71 . 10
43 . 2
26 mV 26
mA 43 . 2 ) 04 . 24 )( 101 ( ) 1 (
A 04 . 24
470
7 . 0 12
7 . 0
0
7 . 0
m
m
I
r
I I
k
I
V
V
V V V
E
e
B E
B
B
E
E B BE
|

Example 5.4
b. Find Z
i
(with r
o
= )
Transform the circuit into its r
e
model ac equivalent circuit:

470 k
O = = = k 07 . 1 ) 71 . 10 )( 100 ( 470k r R Z
e B i
|
Example 5.4
c. Calculate Z
o
(with r
o
= )
As r
o
= , r
o
is
equivalent to an open-
circuit


d. Determine A
v
(with r
o
=
)
3 k
O = = k 3
C o
R Z
11 . 280
71 . 10
3
= = =

= =
k
r
R
r I
R I
r I
R I
V
V
A
e
c
e b
c b
e b
c c
i
o
v
|
|
|
Example 5.4
e. Repeat part (c) and (d)
including r
o
= 50 k in all
calculations and compare
results
3 k
O = = = k 83 . 2 50 3 k k r R Z
o C o
( )
26 . 264
) 3 50 ( 71 . 10
) 3 )( 50 ( 1
=
+
=
+
=
+
= = =
+
=
= +
k k
k k
R r r
R r
r I R r
R r I
r I
V
V
V
A
R r
R r I
V
R
V
r
V
I
C o e
C o
e b C o
C o b
e b
o
i
o
v
C o
C o b
o
C
o
o
o
b
|
|
|
|
|
Problem 5.27
For the network given, determine V
cc
for a voltage gain A
V
= 200
Problem 5.27
Transform the circuit into its r
e
model ac equivalent circuit:
Problem 5.27
Examine V
o
and V
i
as A
v
is given: 200 (r
o
is set to open-circuit
equivalent due to r
o
= ). r
e
can be obtained:





From r
e
, I
E
can be obtained (DC analysis):

O =

= =
5 . 23
7 . 4
200
e
e
e
C
e b
C b
i
o
v
r
r
k
r
R
r I
R I
V
V
A
|
|
mA 11 . 1
26
5 . 23
mV 26
=
=
=
E
E
E
e
I
I
m
I
r
Problem 5.27
I
B
can be obtained from I
E
:




V
B
= 0.7 V due to V
E
= 0 V
From this, V
cc
can be obtained:
A 16 . 12
91 11 . 1
) 1 (

|
=
=
+ =
B
B
B E
I
I m
I I
V 86 . 12
1
7 . 0
16 . 12
=

=
cc
cc
B
B cc
B
V
M
V
R
V V
I

Emitter-bias (CE: bypassed)


Consider an emitter-bias
configuration:
Its r
e
model ac equivalent circuit:






By bypassing R
E
, the equivalent
circuit above is results in the
same equivalent circuit as in
fixed-bias configuration
As for that, the analysis is the
same as fixed-bias configuration
Voltage-Divider Bias (CE: bypassed)
The voltage-divider bias configuration would be:
Voltage-Divider Bias (CE: bypassed)
The r
e
model ac equivalent circuit would be:








Notice the difference in input impedance but the output impedance
remains the same as fixed-bias configuration
Example 5.5
For the network given,
determine:
a. r
e

b. Z
i

c. Z
o
(r
o
= )
d. A
v
(r
o
= )
e. The parameters of
parts (b) through (d) if
r
o
= 50 k and
compare results
Example 5.5
a. Determine r
e

Use DC analysis
Testing R
E
10R
2
:


The rest of the analysis:
O = = =
= =

=
= = =
= =
=
+
=
+
=
44 . 18
41 . 1
26 mV 26
mA 41 . 1
5 . 1
11 . 2 0
11 . 2 7 . 0 81 . 2
7 . 0
V 81 . 2 ) 22 (
2 . 8 56
2 . 8
2 1
2
m
m
I
r
k R
V
I
V V V
V V V
k k
k
V
R R
R
V
E
e
E
E
E
BE B E
E B BE
CC B
) (satisfied 82 135
) 2 . 8 )( 10 ( ) 5 . 1 )( 90 (
k k
k k
>
>
Example 5.5
b. Determine Z
i
Transform into its r
e
model ac equivalent circuit:






By looking from the input, R
1
, R
2
and r
e
is connected in
parallel
O = = = k 35 . 1 ) 44 . 18 )( 90 ( 2 . 8 56
2 1
k k r R R Z
e i
|
Example 5.5
c. Determine Z
o

As r
o
= , leaving only R
C
as the output impedance


d. Determine A
v

O = = k 8 . 6
C o
R Z
76 . 368
44 . 18
8 . 6
= = =

= =
k
r
R
r I
R I
r I
R I
V
V
A
e
c
e b
c b
e b
c c
i
o
v
|
|
|
Example 5.5
e. Determine the parameters of parts (b) through (d) if r
o
= 50 k and
compare results
For Z
i
, it remains the same because nothing is changed at input

For Z
o
, the additional r
o
results in r
o
and R
C
connected in parallel

For A
v
:
O = k 35 . 1
i
Z
O = = = k 99 . 5 8 . 6 50 k k R r Z
C o o
( )
62 . 324
1
=
+
=
+
= =
+
=
= +
C o e
C o
e b C o
C o b
i
o
v
C o
C o b
o
C
o
o
o
b
R r r
R r
r I R r
R r I
V
V
A
R r
R r I
V
R
V
r
V
I
|
|
|
|
Problem 5.29
For the network
given:
a. Determine r
e

b. Calculate Z
i
and Z
o

c. Find A
v

d. Repeat parts (b)
and (c) with r
o
= 25
k
Problem 5.29
a. Determine r
e

Use DC analysis
Testing R
E
10R
2
:

The rest of the analysis:
O = = =
= =

=
= = =
= =
=
+
=
+
=
59 . 30
85 . 0
26 mV 26
mA 85 . 0
2 . 1
02 . 1 0
02 . 1 7 . 0 72 . 1
7 . 0
V 72 . 1 ) 16 (
7 . 4 39
7 . 4
2 1
2
m
m
I
r
k R
V
I
V V V
V V V
k k
k
V
R R
R
V
E
e
E
E
E
BE B E
E B BE
CC B
) (satisfied 47 120
) 7 . 4 )( 10 ( ) 2 . 1 )( 100 (
k k
k k
>
>
Problem 5.29
b. Calculate Z
i
and Z
o
Transform into its r
e
model ac equivalent circuit:
O = = =
O = = =
k 62 . 3 9 . 3 50
k 769 . 1 ) 59 . 30 )( 100 ( 7 . 4 39
2 1
k k R r Z
k k r R R Z
c o o
e i
|
Problem 5.29
c. Find A
v

( )
27 . 118
) 9 . 3 50 ( 59 . 30
) 9 . 3 )( 50 ( 1
=
+
=
+
=
+
= =
+
=
= +
k k
k k
R r r
R r
r I R r
R r I
V
V
A
R r
R r I
V
R
V
r
V
I
C o e
C o
e b C o
C o b
i
o
v
C o
C o b
o
C
o
o
o
b
|
|
|
|
Problem 5.29
d. Repeat parts (b) and (c) with r
o
= 25 k
O = = =
O =
k 37 . 3 9 . 3 25
k 769 . 1
k k R r Z
Z
c o o
i
( )
29 . 110
) 9 . 3 25 ( 59 . 30
) 9 . 3 )( 25 ( 1
=
+
=
+
=
+
= =
+
=
= +
k k
k k
R r r
R r
r I R r
R r I
V
V
A
R r
R r I
V
R
V
r
V
I
C o e
C o
e b C o
C o b
i
o
v
C o
C o b
o
C
o
o
o
b
|
|
|
|
Problem 5.31
For the network
given:
a. Determine r
e

b. Calculate V
B
and
V
C

c. Determine Z
i
and
A
v
= V
o
/ V
i

Problem 5.31
a. Determine r
e

Use DC analysis
Testing R
E
10R
2
:

As R
E
10R
2
is not satisfied, E
TH
and R
TH
needs to be
calculated (exact analysis)
O = = =
=
+
=
+
=
k 64 . 44 56 220
V 06 . 4 ) 20 (
56 220
56
2 1
2 1
2
k k R R R
k k
k
V
R R
R
E
TH
CC TH
satisfied) (not 560 396
) 56 )( 10 ( ) 2 . 2 )( 180 (
k k
k k
>
>
Problem 5.31
The rest of the analysis: b. Calculate V
B
and V
C
:
O = = =
= = + =
=
=
=
=

= + =
=

=
= =
98 . 18
37 . 1
6 2 mV 6 2
mA 37 . 1 ) 59 . 7 )( 181 ( ) 1 (
A 59 . 7
7 . 0 2 . 398 64 . 44 06 . 4
2 . 398
2 . 2
0
) 1 (
64 . 44 06 . 4
64 . 44
06 . 4
7 . 0
m
m
I
r
I I
I
kI kI
kI V
k
V
R
V
I I
kI V
k
V
R
V E
I
V V V
E
e
B E
B
B B
B E
E
E
E
B E
B B
B
TH
B TH
B
E B BE
|

|
V 68 . 10
8 . 6
20
37 . 1
mA 37 . 1
V 72 . 3
) 59 . 7 ( 64 . 44 06 . 4
64 . 44 06 . 4
=

=
= ~
=
=
=
C
C
C
C CC
C
E C
B B
V
k
V
m
R
V V
I
I I
k
kI V

Problem 5.31
c. Determine Z
i
and A
v
= V
o
/ V
i
:
O = = = k 17 . 3 ) 98 . 18 )( 180 ( 56 220
2 1
k k r R R Z
e i
|
( )
38 . 315
) 8 . 6 50 ( 98 . 18
) 8 . 6 )( 50 ( 1
=
+
=
+
=
+
= =
+
=
= +
k k
k k
R r r
R r
r I R r
R r I
V
V
A
R r
R r I
V
R
V
r
V
I
C o e
C o
e b C o
C o b
i
o
v
C o
C o b
o
C
o
o
o
b
|
|
|
|
Collector DC Feedback (CE: bypassed)
A collector dc feedback configuration:
Collector DC Feedback (CE: bypassed)
Its r
e
model ac equivalent circuit:








Z
i
& Z
o
can be easily obtained as the input & output are isolated:
e F i
r R Z |
1
=
C F o o
R R r Z
2
=
Collector DC Feedback (CE: bypassed)
For A
v
, V
i
and V
o
need to be examined first
V
i
:
V
o
:
e b i
r I V | =
2 2
2
2
2
2
F o C o C F
b C F o
o
o
C F
F C
C
o
F
o
o
o
b
R r R r R R
I R R r
V
V
R R
R R
R
V
R
V
r
V
I
+ +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
|
|
( )
2 2
2
2 2
2
1
F o C o C F e
C F o
e b F o C o C F
b C F o
i
o
v
R r R r R R r
R R r
r I R r R r R R
I R R r
V
V
A
+ +
=
+ +
= =
|
|
Example 5.13
For the network given, determine:
a. r
e

b. Z
i

c. Z
0

d. A
v

Example 5.13
a. For DC analysis, R
F1
and R
F2
can be added together as R
F
or R
B
:
A 59 . 18
420 12 188 7 . 0
188 7 . 0
188
7 . 0
7 . 0 , 7 . 0 0
=
= +
+ =

=
= = = =
B
B B
B C
C
B
B C
B
B B E B BE
I
kI kI
kI V
k
V
R
V V
I
V V V V V
B C
C
C
C CC
B C
kI V
k
V
R
V V
I I
420 12
3
12
=

= = |
O = = =
= = + =
92 . 9
62 . 2
26 mV 26
mA 62 . 2 ) 59 . 18 )( 141 ( ) 1 (
m
m
I
r
I I
E
e
B E
|
O = + = + = k 188 68 120
2 1
k k R R R
F F B
b. The r
e
model ac equivalent circuit:








c. For Z
0
:
Example 5.13
O = = = k 37 . 1 39 . 1 || 120 ||
1
k k r R Z
e F i
|
O = = = k 62 . 2 3 || 68 || 30 || || ||
2
k k k R R r Z
C F o o
Example 5.13
For A
v
:
( )
( )
33 . 264
) 68 )( 30 ( ) 3 )( 30 ( ) 3 )( 68 ( 92 . 9
) 3 )( 68 )( 30 (
1
2 2
2
2 2
2
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
= =
k k k k k k
k k k
R r R r R R r
R R r
r I R r R r R R
I R R r
V
V
A
F o C o C F e
C F o
e b F o C o C F
b C F o
i
o
v
|
|
e b i
r I V | =
2 2
2
2
2
2
F o C o C F
b C F o
o
o
C F
F C
C
o
F
o
o
o
b
R r R r R R
I R R r
V
V
R R
R R
R
V
R
V
r
V
I
+ +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
|
|
Emitter-bias (CE: unbypassed)
Emitter-bias configuration with R
E
unbypassed:
Notice there is no capacitor
to bypassed R
E
, so R
E
need
to be consider in the analysis
Emitter-bias (CE: unbypassed)
The r
e
model ac analysis circuit would be:









In all CE unbypassed configuration, r
o
will be ignored to keep the
analysis simple
Emitter-bias (CE: unbypassed)
To simplified the ac equivalent network
furthermore, it can be isolated from its input
and output terminal
To do this I
e
needs to become I
b
and this can
be done by the equation I
e
= (+1)I
b
I
b

When I
e
becomes I
b
, the new R
E
would be:
E
b
E b
b
e
E
R
I
R I
I
V
R |
|
= = = new
Emitter-bias (CE: unbypassed)
The simplified r
e
model ac analysis circuit would be:
Emitter-bias (CE: unbypassed)
The common parameters required (Z
i
, Z
o
and A
v
) can be easily
obtained using the same method as discussed before:
( )
C o
E e B i
R Z
R r R Z
=
+ = | ||
( )
C b o
C b o
E e b i
R I V
R I V
R r I V
|
|
|
=
=
+ =
( )
E e
C
E e b
C b
i
o
v
R r
R
R r I
R I
V
V
A
+
=
+

= =
|
|
Example 5.6
For the network given, determine:
a. r
e

b. Z
i

c. Z
0

d. A
v

Example 5.6
a. For r
e
, apply DC analysis:
V 7 . 0 = =
E B BE
V V V
B B
B
B
B CC
B
kI V
k
V
R
V V
I
470 20
470
20
=

= ( )
B E
B
E
E
E
B E
kI V
I
k
V
R
V
I I
76 . 67
121
56 . 0
1
=
= = = + = |
O = = =
= = + =
=
=
99 . 5
34 . 4
26 mV 26
mA 34 . 4 ) 89 . 35 )( 121 ( ) 1 (
A 89 . 35
7 . 0 76 . 67 470 20
m
m
I
r
I I
I
kI kI
E
e
B E
B
B B
|

Example 5.6
b. The r
e
model ac equivalent circuit would be:
Example 5.6
The simplified r
e
model ac equivalent circuit would be:
( ) O = + = + = k 34 . 59 ) 56 . 0 99 . 5 ( 120 || 470 || k k R r R Z
E e B i
|
Example 5.6
c. For Z
o
:
d. For A
v
:
O = = k 2 . 2
C o
R Z
( )
89 . 3
56 . 0 99 . 5
2 . 2
=
+
=
+
=
+

= =
k
k
R r
R
R r I
R I
V
V
A
E e
C
E e b
C b
i
o
v
|
|
For the network given:
a. Determine r
e

b. Find Z
i
and A
v

Problem 5.35
Problem 5.35
In this case, for DC analysis, the circuit will have two R
E
in series
(R
E
= R
E1
+ R
E2
= 1.2k + 0.47k = 1.67 k)
For AC analysis, only one R
E
will be considered as for R
E2
is
bypassed by capacitor C
E
(R
E
= R
E1
= 0.47k)
B B
B
B
B CC
B
kI V
k
V
R
V V
I
330 22
330
22
=

= ( )
B E
B
E
E
E
B E
kI V
I
k
V
R
V
I I
27 . 135
81
67 . 1
1
=
= = = + = |
O = = =
= = + =
=
=
= =
01 . 7
71 . 3
26 mV 26
mA 71 . 3 ) 78 . 45 )( 81 ( ) 1 (
A 78 . 45
7 . 0 27 . 135 330 22
7 . 0
m
m
I
r
I I
I
kI kI
V V V
E
e
B E
B
B B
B B BE
|

Problem 5.35
The simplified r
e
model ac equivalent circuit would be:
( )
O =
+ =
+ =
k 70 . 74
) 2 . 1 01 . 7 ( 80 || 330
||
k k
R r R Z
E e B i
|
( )
64 . 4
2 . 1 01 . 7
6 . 5
=
+
=
+
=
+

= =
k
k
R r
R
R r I
R I
V
V
A
E e
C
E e b
C b
i
o
v
|
|
Voltage-Divider Bias (CE: unbypassed)
The circuit would be the same as any voltage-divider bias circuit
except for R
E
will not be bypassed by any capacitor
Voltage-Divider Bias (CE: unbypassed)
The simplified r
e
model ac equivalent circuit will be same as in
emitter-bias circuit with an addition of R
2
at input
R
1
R
2

Voltage-Divider Bias (CE: unbypassed)
By examining the simplified r
e
model ac equivalent circuit, only the
input impedance is change while the output impedance and voltage
gain remains the same
( )
C o
E e i
R Z
R r R R Z
=
+ = | || ||
2 1
( )
E e
C
E e b
C b
i
o
v
R r
R
R r I
R I
V
V
A
+
=
+

= =
|
|
Example 5.8
For the network given, determine:
a. r
e

b. Z
i

c. Z
0

d. A
v

Example 5.8
O = = =
= =

=
= = =
= =
=
+
=
+
=
64 . 19
32 . 1
26 mV 26
mA 32 . 1
68 . 0
9 . 0 0
9 . 0 7 . 0 6 . 1
7 . 0
V 6 . 1 ) 16 (
10 90
10
2 1
2
m
m
I
r
k R
V
I
V V V
V V V
k k
k
V
R R
R
V
E
e
E
E
E
BE B E
E B BE
CC B
) (satisfied 100 8 . 142
) 10 )( 10 ( ) 68 . 0 )( 210 (
10
2
k k
k k
R R
E
>
>
> |
( )
O = =
O =
+ =
+ =
k 2 . 2
k 48 . 8
) 68 . 0 64 . 19 ( 210 || 10 || 90
|| ||
2 1
C o
E e i
R Z
k k k
R r R R Z |
( )
14 . 3
68 . 0 64 . 19
2 . 2
=
+
=
+
=
+

= =
k
k
R r
R
R r I
R I
V
V
A
E e
C
E e b
C b
i
o
v
|
|
Emitter-Follower (CE: unbypassed)
Emitter-Follower circuit is
very different from the other
CE unbypassed circuit
Notice that the absent of R
C

while V
o
and I
o
are taken at
the emitter leg
Emitter-follower means that
the magnitude and value of
V
o
follows the magnitude
and value of V
i

As for that the voltage gain
will approximately have the
value of 1 (A
v
1)
Emitter-Follower (CE: unbypassed)
The r
e
model ac equivalent would be:
Notice that input
and output are
not isolated.
And output is
taken within the
input elements.
Emitter-Follower (CE: unbypassed)
For input:
Apply the same
simplified r
e
model ac
equivalent circuit as in
other CE unbypassed
circuit
Z
i
will be:
( )
E e B i
R r R Z + = | ||
Emitter-Follower (CE: unbypassed)
For output:
Consider again the r
e
model ac equivalent circuit
For the output purpose, I
e
will be put into consideration rather
than I
b
because I
E
is the output current
The resistor r
e
needs to reconfigured due to the change of I
b
to
I
e

Consider the voltage across r
e
namely V
re
:


As for that, the new r
e
will be:
e e
e e e e
e b r
r I
r I r I
r I V
e
= ~
+
= =
|
|
|
|
|
|
1
e
e
e e
e
r
e
r
I
r I
I
V
r
e
= = =
|
| new
Emitter-Follower (CE: unbypassed)
The simplified r
e
model ac
equivalent circuit (for
output):
For Z
o
, set V
i
= 0
R
B
will be bypassed when V
i

= 0
By looking from Z
o
, the
resistor R
E
and r
e
will be in
parallel
e E o
r R Z || =
I
e

Emitter-Follower (CE: unbypassed)
For A
v
, consider back the r
e

model ac equivalent
By applying nodal analysis
at node V
o
:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
E e
E
E e
E
i
o
v
i E o E e
o E i E o E i E o e
e
o i
e
o i
E
o
b b e
R r
R
R r
R
V
V
A
V R V R r
V R V R V R V R V r
r
V V
r
V V
R
V
I I I
+
=
+
= =
+ = + +
+ =

+ =
|
|
| | |
| | |
|
|
1 1
0
Example 5.10
For the emitter follower network given, determine:
a. r
e

b. Z
i

c. Z
0

d. A
v

Example 5.10
a. For r
e
, apply DC analysis:
V 7 . 0 = =
E B BE
V V V
B B
B
B
B CC
B
kI V
k
V
R
V V
I
220 12
220
12
=

= ( )
B E
B
E
E
E
B E
kI V
I
k
V
R
V
I I
3 . 333
101
3 . 3
1
=
= = = + = |
O = = =
= = + =
=
=
60 . 12
06 . 2
26 mV 26
mA 06 . 2 ) 42 . 20 )( 101 ( ) 1 (
A 42 . 20
7 . 0 3 . 333 220 12
m
m
I
r
I I
I
kI kI
E
e
B E
B
B B
|

Example 5.10
The r
e
model ac equivalent circuit would be:
Example 5.10
b. For Z
i
, apply the simplified r
e
model ac equivalent circuit (for input):
( )
( )
O =
+ =
+ =
k 20 . 132
3 . 3 6 . 12 100 || 220
||
k k
R r R Z
E e B i
|
Example 5.10
c. For Z
o
, apply the simplified r
e
model ac equivalent circuit (for
output):
O =
=
=
55 . 12
6 . 12 || 3 . 3
||
k
r R Z
e E o
I
e

Example 5.10
d. For A
v
, apply the r
e
model
ac equivalent circuit:
Then, apply nodal analysis
at node V
0
:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
996 . 0
3 . 3 6 . 12
3 . 3
1 1
0
=
+
=
+
=
+
= =
+ = + +
+ =

+ =
k
k
R r
R
R r
R
V
V
A
V R V R r
V R V R V R V R V r
r
V V
r
V V
R
V
I I I
E e
E
E e
E
i
o
v
i E o E e
o E i E o E i E o e
e
o i
e
o i
E
o
b b e
|
|
| | |
| | |
|
|
Problem 5.37
For the network given:
a. Determine Z
i
and Z
0

b. Find A
v

c. Calculate V
0
if V
i
= 1 mV
Problem 5.37
Start the analysis with DC analysis to find r
e
:
V 7 . 0 = =
E B BE
V V V
B B
B
B
B
B
kI V
k
V
R
V
I
390
390
0
=

= ( )
8 6 . 677
121
6 . 5
8 ) 8 (
1
=
=
+
=

= + =
B E
B
E
E
E
B E
kI V
I
k
V
R
V
I I |
O = = =
= = + =
=
= +
42 . 31
83 . 0
26 mV 26
mA 83 . 0 ) 84 . 6 )( 121 ( ) 1 (
A 84 . 6
7 . 0 8 6 . 677 390
m
m
I
r
I I
I
kI kI
E
e
B E
B
B B
|

Problem 5.37
The r
e
model ac equivalent circuit would be:
Problem 5.37
a. For Z
i
, apply the simplified r
e
model ac equivalent circuit (for input):
( )
( )
O =
+ =
+ =
k 29 . 247
6 . 5 42 . 31 120 || 390
||
k k
R r R Z
E e B i
|
Problem 5.37
For Z
o
, apply the simplified r
e
model ac equivalent circuit (for
output):
O =
=
=
25 . 31
42 . 31 || 6 . 5
||
k
r R Z
e E o
I
e

Problem 5.37
b. For A
v
, apply the r
e
model
ac equivalent circuit:
Then, apply nodal analysis
at node V
0
:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
994 . 0
6 . 5 42 . 31
6 . 5
1 1
0
=
+
=
+
=
+
= =
+ = + +
+ =

+ =
k
k
R r
R
R r
R
V
V
A
V R V R r
V R V R V R V R V r
r
V V
r
V V
R
V
I I I
E e
E
E e
E
i
o
v
i E o E e
o E i E o E i E o e
e
o i
e
o i
E
o
b b e
|
|
| | |
| | |
|
|
Problem 5.37
c. If V
i
= 1 mV:
mV 994 . 0 ) 1 ( 994 . 0 994 . 0
994 . 0
= = =
= =
m V V
V
V
A
i o
i
o
v
Common-Base Configuration
Usually, in a common-base configuration, a pnp transistor will
be used rather than npn
Also, in a common-base configuration, is given instead of
Common-Base Configuration
The same steps to transform the circuit into its ac equivalent
circuit is taken just like in all the CE bypassed and unbypassed
configuration, resulting in:
Common-Base Configuration
By examining the input, R
E
and r
e
are connected in parallel:


When examine the output, the only impedance appeared is R
C
:


And for its voltage gain:
e E i
r R Z || =
e
C
e e
C e
i
o
v
r
R
r I
R I
V
V
A
o o
= = =
C o
R Z =
Example 5.11
For the network given, determine:
a. r
e

b. Z
i

c. Z
0

d. A
v

Example 5.11
a. For determining r
e
, DC analysis will be conduct
O = = =
=

=
+
=
= + = + =
=
= =
20
3 . 1
26 mV 26
mA 3 . 1
1
7 . 0 2 ) 2 (
7 . 0 0 7 . 0
0
7 . 0
m
m
I
r
k R
V
I
V V V
V
V V V
E
e
E
E
E
B EB E
B
B E EB
Example 5.11
b. Transform the circuit into its r
e
model ac equivalent circuit:









c. For Z
o
:
O = = = 61 . 19 20 || 1 || k r R Z
e E i
O = = k 5
C o
R Z
Example 5.11
d. For its voltage gain:
245
20
) 5 )( 98 . 0 (
= = = = =
k
r
R
r I
R I
V
V
A
e
C
e e
C e
i
o
v
o o
Problem 5.39
For the common-base configuration given:
a. Determine r
e

b. Find Z
i
and Z
0

c. Calculate A
v

Problem 5.39
a. For determining r
e
, DC analysis will be conduct
O = = =
=

=
+
=
= + = + =
=
= =
36 . 33
78 . 0
26 mV 26
mA 78 . 0
8 . 6
7 . 0 6 ) 6 (
7 . 0 0 7 . 0
0
7 . 0
m
m
I
r
k R
V
I
V V V
V
V V V
E
e
E
E
E
B EB E
B
B E EB
Problem 5.39
b. Transform the circuit into its r
e
model ac equivalent circuit:
O = = = 20 . 33 36 . 33 || 8 . 6 || k r R Z
e E i
O = = k 7 . 4
C o
R Z
Problem 5.39
d. For its voltage gain:
61 . 140
36 . 33
) 7 . 4 )( 998 . 0 (
= = = = =
k
r
R
r I
R I
V
V
A
e
C
e e
C e
i
o
v
o o
AC Analysis Hints and Tips
For CE configuration, usually npn transistor is
used ( is given) while in CB configuration, a
pnp transistor is usually used ( is given)
Memorize the CE and CB devices r
e
model ac
equivalent circuit
For CE unbypassed and CB circuit, assume that
r
o
=