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Prof. S. Ganguly

CHAPTER 6

OBJECTIVES

Prof. S. Ganguly

Facility Layout and Basic Formats Process Layout Layout Planning Assembly Line balancing Service Layout
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FACILITY LAYOUT

Facility layout can be defined as configuration of departments, work centers and equipment, machinery with focus on flow of materials or work through production systems.
Prof. S. Ganguly

Factors considered in Plan Layout


Machines. Equipments. Work-stations. Customer service areas. Tooling. Rest rooms. Lunch rooms. Coffee/tea base. Toll cribs, ailes.
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LAYOUT PLANNING
Involves decisions about physical arrangement of economic activity centers within a facility.. Important things to be taken care are:

Prof. S. Ganguly

Type of Centers. Space and capacity for each center. Configuration of each centers space. Location of each center in terms of Relative and Absolute location.

NEED FOR LAYOUT DECISIONS.


Layout decisions Need: To determine long run efficiency in operations. It establishes organizations competitive priorities in regards to capacity, flexibility, cost, processes, quality of work life, customer contact and image (in case of service organizations). To achieve strategic advantage that supports differentiation, low cost, fast response or flexibility.

Prof. S. Ganguly

OBJECTIVES : GOOD PLANT LAYOUT

Higher utilization of space,equipment,flexibility and people. Improved flow of materials, production capacity,information,people. Employee morale and safe working conditions. Reduced material handling, bottleneck center, health hazards and accidents. To provide product, volume flexibility, ease of supervision, allow ease of maintenance. To facilitate effective co ordination and face to face communication.

Prof. S. Ganguly

FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT CHOICES


Materials. (Cranes, trolleys, conveyors, pipelines) Product. (Nature and type) Workers. (Gender, Position, Facilities) Machinery and equipments. Type of industry. Location. Managerial policies.

Prof. S. Ganguly

PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT


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Principle of minimum travel. Principle of sequence. Principle of Usage. Principle of compactness. Principle of safety and satisfaction. Principle of flexibility. Principle of Minimum investment.

Prof. S. Ganguly

BASIC PRODUCTION LAYOUT FORMATS

Process Layout (also called job-shop or functional layout)


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Product Layout (also called flow-shop layout)

Group Technology (Cellular) Layout


Fixed-Position Layout Combination or Hybrid Layout
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SPECIFICATIONS OF PROCESS LAYOUT.


The raw material flows through different departments wherein the equipments and machineries are already fixed. Its also known as functional or batch production layout. Distance needs to be short. Departments should be located in accordance with the principle sequence of operations. Convenience for inspection and supervision.

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES PROCESS LAYOUT.

Advantages.

Reduced investment on machinery. Greater flexibility in production. Greater scope for expansion. Better utilization of man and machines. Easier to handle breakdown by transferring work to another department. Greater incentive to specialized worker to increase his productivity

Prof. S. Ganguly

Disadvantages.
Difficulty in movement of materials. Requires More floor space. Production time increases due to more travelling and accumulation of work-in-progress.

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PRODUCT LAYOUT/STRAIGHT LINE LAYOUT


Product moves through a series of special purpose machinery. Raw Materials fed into the first machine and finished product comes out of the last. characteristics:

Prof. S. Ganguly

Machines and equipments should be placed at the point demanded by the sequence. No line crossing. All operations included in the line. Materials may be fed where they are required, but not necessarily all at one point.

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.

Advantages Reduction in material handling. Avoids production bottlenecks. Saves manufacturing time. Facilitates better production control. Requires less floor area. Reduced WIP, minimized investment. Early detection of mistakes is possible. Greater incentives to a group of workers. Disadvantages. Inflexible and expensive. Difficulty in supervision and expansion. Any Breakdown disrupts the whole system.

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FIXED POSITION LAYOUT/STATIC LAYOUT.


Machines and tools are moved to the product, which in turn remains stationary. E.G:

Prof. S. Ganguly

Construction of buildings, Dams, Bridges, Service industries like hospitals, scan centers etc.

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.

ADVANTAGES
Men and machines can be used for a wide variety of operations to produce different products. Low yearly investment. Pride for workers. Avoids high costs, and difficulty in transportations.

Prof. S. Ganguly

DISADVANTAGES.
High initial investment. Large quantity of production is not possible. Requires high degree of workers and employee expertise. Time consuming.

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CELLULAR MANUFACTURING LAYOUT/GROUP TECHNOLOGY LAYOUT.

Machines are grouped into cells, and they function like a product layout with a larger shop or process layout.

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.

Advantages. Lower WIP inventory. Reduced material handling cost. Shorter flow times in production. Simplified PPC. Increased operator responsibilities. Improved visual control. Fewer tooling changes facilitating quicker setups. Disadvantages Less flexibility Increased machine downtime. Duplicate equipments is essential to avoid transportation of parts between cells.

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COMBINATION/HYBRID LAYOUT
A combination of product and process layout, with an emphasis on either according to the product produced. E.G:

Prof. S. Ganguly

Soap manufacturing, two wheelers.

ULTIMATELY PROFIT IS WHAT MATTERS.

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SERVICE FACILITY LAYOUTS


It is specially designed to bring together services and customers. Provisions of easy entrances, gangways, busy trough fares. Two types of service facility layouts

Prof. S. Ganguly

Totally designed around customer receiving service function. Totally designed around technologies and machinery.

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PLANT UTILITIES

Plant Lighting.

Characteristics. Sources.
Natural Artificial.

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Features to be considered.

Type of illumination. Type of light source. Quality and intensity of light. Glare and its effects. Color of walls and ceilings. Maintenance.

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PLANT UTILITIES

Ventilation.

Methods Importance.
General ventilation. Local exhaust ventilation.

Prof. S. Ganguly

Sources.
Natural. Artificial/mechanical.

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PLANT UTILITIES
Air

conditioning. Objectives. Types.


Depending on season. Depending on purpose.

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PLANT UTILITIES
Industrial sanitation. Noise control.

Prof. S. Ganguly

Importance Methods

Control at source. Control by enclosures. Control by absorption. Control through protection of ears.

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