You are on page 1of 52

CHAPTER 26

TAXONOMY
AND SYSTEMATICS

Prepared by
Brenda Leady, University of Toledo

1 reprod
Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for
Taxonomy and systematics
 Taxonomy
 Field of biology concerned with the theory,
practice, and rules of classifying living and
extinct organisms and viruses
 Systematics
 Study of biological diversity and the
evolutionary relationships among organisms,
both extinct and modern
 Taxonomic groups are now based on
hypotheses regarding evolutionary
relationships derived from systematics
2
Taxonomy
 Hierarchical system involving successive
levels
 Each group called a taxon
 Domain
 Highest level
 All of life belongs to one of 3 domains
 Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

3
4
5
Binomial nomenclature
 Genus name and species epithet
 Genus name always capitalized
 Species epithet never capitalized
 Both names either italicized or underlined
 Rules for naming established and
regulated by international associations

6
Domains similar but different
 Scientists think all life originated from
primordial prokaryotic cells between 4.0
and 3.5 bya
 Soon after, 2 prokaryotic domains,
Bacteria and Archaea, diverged
 2.5-2.0 bya first unicellular eukaryotic
species
 Multicellular eukaryotes arose about 1.5
bya 7
Similarities
 DNA is used as the genetic material
 All species use the same genetic code (with only
a few rare codon exceptions)
 Messenger RNA encodes the information to
produce proteins
 Transfer RNA and ribosomes are needed to
synthesize proteins, using mRNA as a source of
genetic information
 All living cells are surrounded by a plasma
membrane
 Certain metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis,
are found in all three domains 8
 These traits are universal because all 3
domains evolved from a common ancestor
 Dissimilarities exist because major
evolutionary changes have occurred since
the time that the three domains diverged

9
10
 Domain Bacteria
 Diverse collection of many species
 So widespread only generalizations about
their ecology
 Key to success is metabolic diversity
 Come in a myriad of shapes and sizes
 Domain Archaea
 Less diverse than Bacteria
 Discovered in 1970s
 Many found in extreme environments
 Most are extreme halophiles, methanogens or
hyperthermophiles
 Not entirely restricted to extreme
environments 11
12
Domain Eukarya
 4 traditional kingdoms
 Protista
 Fungi
 Plantae
 Animalia

13
14
Kingdom Protista
 Simplest eukaryotes
 Most unicellular but some are colonial or
simple multicellular
 Some photosynthesize while others eat
bacterial or other protists
 Most live in aquatic habitats
 Leftover organisms not put in other 3
kingdoms
15
16
Kingdom Fungi
 Yeasts, molds, mushrooms
 Present worldwide in aquatic and
terrestrial environments
 Many symbiotic with plants
 Cell walls contain chitin
 Most multicellular
 Mass of hyphae combine to make
mycelium
17
18
Kingdom Plantae
 Multicellular
 Almost all capable of photosynthesis
 Mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants
 Cell wall made primarily of cellulose

19
20
Kingdom Animalia
 Multicellular and eat others for food
 More than 1 million species
 Sponges, worms, insects, mollusks, fish, amphibians,
birds, reptiles, mammals
 Most ingest food and digest it in an internal
cavity
 Bodies composed of cells organized into tissues
(except sponges)
 Capable of complex and rapid movement
 Nervous system
 Lack a rigid cell wall
21
22
Systematics
 Phylogeny – evolutionary history of a
species or group of species
 Gather morphological or molecular data
 Use mathematical strategies to analyze
data
 Construct evolutionary trees
 Molecular data has caused many revisions

23
Phylogenetic tree
 Diagram that describes phylogeny
 A hypothesis of evolutionary relationships
among various species
 Based on available information
 New species can be formed by
 Anagenesis – single species evolves into a
different species
 Cladogenesis – a species diverges into 2 or
more species
24
25
 Monophyletic group or clade
 Group of species, taxon, consisting of the
most recent common ancestor and all of its
ancestors
 Smaller and more recent clades are
subsets of larger clades
 For larger taxa, common ancestor existed
a long time ago (kingdom)
 For smaller taxa, common ancestor more
recent (family or genus)
26
27
Homology
 Similarities among various species that
occur because they are derived from a
common ancestor
 Bat wing, human arm and cat front leg
 Genes can also be homologous

28
Morphological analysis
 First systematic studies focused on
morphological features of extinct and
modern species
 Convergent evolution (traits arise
independently due to adaptations to
similar environments) can cause problems

29
30
Molecular systematics/clocks
 Analyzing genetic data to identify and
study genetic homology and reconstruct
phylogenetic trees
 DNA sequences from closely related
species are more similar to each other
than to sequences from more distantly
related species

31
Molecular clock
 Favorable mutations rare and detrimental
mutations eliminated
 Most mutations are neutral
 If neutral mutations occur at a constant rate they
can be used to measure evolutionary time
 Longer periods of time since divergence allows
for a greater accumulation of mutations
 Not perfectly linear
 Not all organisms evolve at the same rate
32
33
Primate evolution example
 Evolutionary relationships derived by comparing
DNA sequences in a mitochondrial gene
 3 branch points to examine (A,D, E)
 A- common ancestor diverges into siamangs
and other species
 Gene in siamangs more different than the gene in the
other 7 species
 Humans and siamangs have more differences
than humans and chimpanzees because there
has been more time for them to accumulate
differences
 2 chimp species diverged recently and have very
similar gene sequences 34
35
Cladistic approach
 Reconstructs phylogenetic tree by
considering various possible pathways of
evolution and then proposing plausible
tree
 Phylogenetic trees or cladograms
 Compares traits shared or not shared
 Shared trait – shared primitive character or
symplesiomorphy
 Not shared – shared derived character or
synapomorphy
36
 Branch point – 2 species differ in shared
derived characters
 Ingroup – monophyletic group we are
interested in
 Outgroup – species or group of species
that is most closely related to an ingroup
 All traits shared by the outgroup and the
ingroup must have arisen in a common
ancestor that predates the divergence of
the 2 groups
37
38
 Cladogram can also
be constructed with
gene sequences
 7 species called A- G
 A mutation that
changes the DNA
sequence is
analogous to a
modification of a
characteristic

39
40
Constructing a cladogram
1. Choose species
2. Choose characters
3. Determine order of character states
 primitive or derived?
4. Group species (or higher taxa) based on
shared derived characteristics

41
1. Build a cladogram based on
 All species (or higher taxa) are placed on tips in the
phylogenetic tree, not at branch points
 Each cladogram branch point should have a list of
one or more shared derived characters that are
common to all species above the branch point unless
the character is later modified
 All shared derived characters appear together only
once in a cladogram unless they arose independently
during evolution more than once
2. Choose the most likely cladogram among
possible options

42
Strategies for a likely cladogram
 Challenge in a cladistic approach is to determine the
correct order of events
 May not always be obvious which traits are ancestral
and came earlier, and which are derived and came later
in evolution
 Different approaches can be used to deduce the correct
order
 Analyze fossils and determine the relative dates that certain
traits arose
 Assume that the best hypothesis is the one that requires the
fewest number of evolutionary changes (principle of parsimony)
 Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis for gene sequence
data

43
Example
 4 taxa (A-D)
 A is the outgroup
 Has all the primitive
states
 3 potential trees
 Tree 3 requires
fewest number of
mutations so is the
most parsimonous
44
45
Cooper and Colleagues Extracted DNA from Extinct
Flightless Birds and Then Compared It with DNA from
Modern Species to Reconstruct Their Phylogeny

 Ancient DNA analysis or molecular


paleontology
 Under certain conditions DNA samples may
be stable as long as 50,000 – 100,000
years
 Discovery based sciences- gather data to
propose a hypothesis
 Sequences are very similar
 New Zealand colonized twice by the
ancestors of flightless birds
 First by moa ancestor, then by kiwi ancestor
 Ideal goal of taxonomy to place organisms in
monophyletic groups

49
 Many recent models propose several major
groups, supergroups, as a way to organize
eukaryotes into monophyletic groups
 Shows that protists played a key role in the
evolution of diverse eukaryote species

50
Due to Horizontal Gene Transfer, the
Tree of Life Is Really a “Web of Life”
 Vertical evolution involves changes in species due
to descent from a common ancestor
 Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genes
between different species
 Significant role in phylogeny of all living species
 Still prevalent among prokaryotes but less common
in eukaryotes
 Horizontal gene transfer may have been so
prevalent that the universal ancestor may have
been a community of cell lineages