BUILDING CONSTRUCTION III

HEAVY REINFORCED CONCRETE, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE AND STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Heavy Reinforced Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0 Steel Construction Foundations Systems 3.1 Foundation Walls, Basement Construction, Cisterns

3. HEAVY REINFORCED CONCRETE, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE AND STEEL CONSTRUCTION

3.1 FOUNDATION SYSTEMS (Deep and Shallow Foundation)
The foundation system transfers the lateral loads on the superstructure to the ground. The horizontal component of these lateral forces is transferred largely through a combination of soil friction on the bottom of footings and the development of passive soil pressure on the sides of footings and foundation walls. Foundation systems are classified into two broad categories --shallow foundations and deep foundations.

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3.1.1 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
Shallow or spread foundations are employed when stable soil of adequate bearing capacity occurs relatively near the ground surface. They are placed directly below the lowest part of a superstructure and transfer building loads directly to the supporting soil by vertical pressure. The types of shallow or spread footings are: 1. Individual or isolated footings – are spread footings supporting freestanding columns and piers. a. Block or square footings c. Slope or pyramidal footings

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b. Stepped footings

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2. Strip footings – are the continuous spread footings of foundation walls. Stepped footings are strip footings that change levels to accommodate a sloping grade and maintain the required depth at all points around a building.

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STRIP FOOTINGS

STEPPED FOOTINGS

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3. Combined footings. a. Combined footings. supporting two or more columns. This type of footing is used where it is not possible to center the footing beneath its supported column as in the case of columns located at or very near the property line. In such case, the nearest interior column is selected and a combined footing constructed under both columns.

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The footing is so designed so that the center of gravity of the combined loads passes through the center of gravity of the footing area. Combined column footings are usually rectangular or trapezoidal in shape.

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b. Cantilevered footings. This type of footing may be used in place of a combined footing under the same conditions. In this type of construction, the footings of the exterior and interior columns are connected by a tie-beam or strap which is so extended to support the exterior column. The top of the beam or strap is usually placed level with the top of the footings.

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c. Continuous footings. These may be: 1. supporting a line of columns 2. supporting all of the columns by strips at right angles to each other. They may be inverted slab or inverted tee continuous footings. 4. Mat or Raft Foundations Mat foundations, like continuous footings are used on soil of low bearing power where there is a tendency towards unequal settlement due to unequal loading of soil. In this type of foundation all parts of the foundation are so tied together so that they will act as one and assist each other in keeping level and plumb.

L/4

L/4

L/4

L/4

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L/5

L/5

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Mat foundations may be divided into the following general classes: 1. Flat slabs of plain or reinforced concrete

2. Beams or girders with a slab underneath

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3. Beams or girders with a slab on top

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4. STEEL GRILLAGE FOUNDATION

When it is desired to avoid the deep excavation required for concrete and masonry footings, and when the load has to be distributed over a wide area of support, steel rails or beams are used to give the required moment of resistance with a minimum of depth.
For steel-grillage foundations the foundation bed should first be covered with a layer of concrete not less than 6” in thickness and so mixed and compacted as to be nearly impervious to moisture as possible. The beams are placed on this layer, the upper surface brought to a line and the lower flanges carefully grouted so as to secure an even bearing. Subsequently, concrete should be placed between and around the beams so as to permanently protect them. The beam must not be spaced so near as to prevent the placing of concrete between them. The clear space between the flanges of the top layer of beams should not be less than 2” and should be somewhat more for the lower layers.

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3.1.2

DEEP FOUNDATIONS

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Deep foundations are employed when the soil underlying a shallow foundation is unstable or of inadequate soil bearing capacity. They extend down through unsuitable soil to transfer building loads to a more appropriate bearing stratum of rock or dense sand and gravel well below the superstructure. The types of deep foundations are pile and caisson foundations.
1. PILE FOUNDATIONS – A pile foundation is a system of end bearing or friction piles, pile caps, COLUMN LOAD and tie beams for transferring building loads down to a suitable bearing stratum.

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LOAD BEARING WALL REINFORCED CONCRETE GRADE or TIE BEAM

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REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE CAP
Pile Cap – 1. A slab or connecting beam which covers the heads of a group of piles, tying them together so that the structural load is distributed and they act as a single unit. 2. A metal cap which is placed, as temporary protection, over the head of a precast pile while it is being driven into the ground.

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End bearing piles – depend principally on the bearing resistance of soil or rock beneath their feet for support. The surrounding soil mass provides a degree of lateral stability for the long compression member.
Friction piles – depend principally on the frictional resistance of a surrounding earth mass for support. The skin friction developed between the sides of a pile and the soil into which the pile is driven is limited by the adhesion of soil to the pile sides and the shear strength of the surrounding soil mass.
PILE CAPS

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END BEARING PILES FRICTION PILES

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SAMPLE OF PILE CAPS

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A. WOOD PILES
Wood-pile Foundations. When it is required to build upon a compressible soil saturated with water and of considerable depth, the most practicable method of obtaining a solid and enduring foundation for buildings of moderate height is by driving wooden piles. Wooden piles are made from the trunks of trees and should be as straight as possible, and not less than 5” in diameter at small end for light buildings, or 8” for heavy buildings. The piles are driven by means of a drop-hammer or with a steamhammer, a succession of blows being given with a block of cast iron or steel called the hammer, which slides up and down; the uprights of the machine is placed over the pile-driver. The machine is placed over the pile so that the hammer descends fairly on its head, the piles being driven with the small end down.

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In driving wooden piles with a drop-hammer, the hammer is generally raised by steampower and is dropped either automatically or by hand. The weight of the hammers used for driving piles for building foundations is usually from 1,500 to 2,500 lb., and fall varies from 5 to 20 ft., the last blows being given with a short fall. Steam hammers are to a considerable extent taking the place of the ordinary drop-hammers as they will drive more piles in a day, and with less damage to the piles. The steam-hammer delivers quick, short blows, from 60 to 70 to the minute, and seems to jar the piles down, the short interval between the blows not giving time for the soil to settle around them.

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In driving piles care should be taken to keep them plumb, and when the penetration becomes small, the fall should be reduced to about 5 ft., the blows being given by rapid succession. Whenever a pile refuses to sink under several blows before reaching the average depth, it should be cut off and another pile driven beside it. When several piles have been driven to a depth of 20 ft. or more or refuse to sink more than ½ in. under 5 blows of a 1200 lb. hammer falling 15 ft., it is useless to try them further, as the additional blows result only in brooming and crushing the heads and points of the piles, and splitting and crushing the intermediate portions to an unknown extent. When the penetration is less than 6 in. at each blow the top of the pile should be protected from brooming by putting on an iron pile ring, about 1 in. less in diameter than the head of the pile, and from 2-1/2 to 3 in. wide by 5/8 in. thick. The head should be chamfered to fit the ring.

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Pile Ring – also called a drive band; a steel band which encircles the head of a timber pile to prevent it from splitting when being driven.

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In driving in soft and silty soils, the piles drive better with a square point. When driven into compact soil, such as sand, gravel, or stiff clay, the point of the pile should be shod with iron or steel. This is usually in the form of a cast conical point about 5 in. in dia., secured by a long dowel with a ring around the end of the pile. Piles that are driven in or exposed to salt water should be thoroughly impregnated with creosote, dead oil or coal-tar, or some mineral poison to protect them from teredo or shipworm which will completely honeycomb an ordinary pile in three or four years.

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Piles should not be spaced less than 2 ft. on centers; usual spacing is from 2 to 3 ft. When long piles are driven closer than 2 ft. on centers, there is danger that they may force each other up from their solid bed on bearing stratum. Driving the piles close together also breaks up the ground and diminishes the bearing power. Maximum allowable load on wood piles is usually 20 tons.
The top of the piles should be cut off at or below the low water mark, otherwise they will soon commence to decay. They should then be capped, either with concrete, or with timber or steel grillage. The usual practice is to use the reinforced-concrete cap, the method being to excavate 6 to 12” below the tops and one foot outside of the piles. Concrete is then placed around and above the piles. Approximately 3” above the top of the piles a layer or reinforcement running in both directions is placed. Caps are usually 18” or more in thickness.

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Heavy timber grillages may also be used for capping. These are bolted to the top of the piles and the concrete footings laid on top of it. The timbers for the grillages should be at least 10” x 10” in cross-section, and should have sufficient transverse strength to sustain the load from center to center of piles. They should be laid longitudinally on top of the piles and fastened to them by means of driftbolts. The advantages of timber grillage are that it can be easily laid and effectually holds the top of piles in place. It also tends to distribute the pressure evenly over the piles, as the transverse strength of the timber will help to carry the load over a single pile, which for some reason, may not have the same bearing capacity as the others. Where timber grillage is used, it should be kept entirely below the lowest recorded water line, as otherwise it will rot and allow the building to settle.

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Steel beams embedded in concrete are also sometimes used to distribute the weight over piles, but this is too expensive a method to be commonly used.

Driftbolt – a short rod or square bar driven into holes bored in timber, for attaching adjacent sticks to each other or to piles; varies from 1 to 2 ft (300 x 600 mm) in length; often provided with a head or with a sharpened end; also called a drift or driftpin.

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B. CONCRETE PILES

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Concrete Piles. Concrete piles, either plain or reinforced, possess many advantages over wooden piles and, in general, can be used in all places where wooden piles can be driven. Concrete piles are generally used where wooden piles would be subject to decay or deterioration by the action of marine worms. They are especially advantageous for foundations on land where the permanent ground water is at a considerable depth. Wooden piles must cut of under water as, when subjected to an atmosphere which is alternately wet and dry, they will decay. This is unnecessary with concrete piles, and foundations under such conditions need not start so low as would be the case if timber piles were used. In practice concrete piles are generally reinforced. Reinforced-concrete piles are of two general types: those molded in place and those molded before driving. Spacing for concrete piles usually from 2’ – 6” to 4’. Concrete piles are extended at least 4” into the concrete of the footing, and where a steel casing surrounds the pile, 3 to 4 in. of concrete is required between the top of the piles and the footing reinforcement, unless the casing is trimmed back at a distance, in which case the case reinforcement is allowed to lie directly upon the butts of the piles.

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1. PRE-CAST PILES Pre-cast Piles These are usually moulded in a yard or at the site allowed to cure for 4 weeks before using. In driving, a pre-cast pile is provided with a cast-iron point, and a driving head is used in which a cushion of sand, rope or other material is placed between a driving block of wood and the concrete in order to prevent the crushing of the pile. Concrete piles are often sunk by means of water-jet. This method is made possibly by inserting an iron pipe in the center of the pile.

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2. CAST-IN-PLACE PILES Cast-in-place Piles Cast in place piles are constructed in the ground in the position they are to occupy, and are often reinforced. Practically all cast in place piles are covered by patents.

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Cast-in-place piles may be formed by any of the following methods:

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a. A hollow cylindrical steel tube usually furnished with a tight-fitting collapsible steel core or mandrel, is driven into the soil. The core is then collapsed and removed, and the steel shell filled with concrete. Thus there is a shell or form for every pile, e.g. McArthur piles, Raymond piles (this uses a No. 24 gauge shell in which a spiral of No. 3 wire is encased). This is also commonly called a cased pile.

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A steel tube is fitted at the bottom with a driving point and is driven into the ground to the required depth. Concrete is then poured into the hole thus formed as the steel tube is gradually withdrawn. The driving point may be either a conical cast-iron point that is left in place or a hinged cutting-edge called an alligator point which opens as the tube is withdrawn, e.g. Simplex piles. This is called an uncased pile.

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A steel pipe or shell is first driven into the ground. The steel driving core is then removed and the bottom of the shell is filled with concrete to a height of about 5 ft. from the bottom. Pressure is then applied to force out the concrete into the surrounding soil as the core is withdrawn. These are known as pedestal piles.

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C. STEEL PILES
Steel-pipe Piles. These are concretefilled steel pipes which are made to bear on rock or hard pan. The pipes are generally 10 to 18 inches in diameter, having a thickness of 3/8 to 5/8 inches. The pipe is driven in sections with a steam-hammer and, as additional sections are required, these are attached to the driven section by means of a cast-iron or steel internal sleeve and re-driven. When the pipe has reached its bearing level it is cleaned out by blowing or dug out by means of augers or similar tools. The pipe is then pumped out and concreted.

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D. COMPOSITE PILES
Composite Piles. These are combination timber and concrete or steel and concrete piles. They may be composed of timber piles with concrete coatings held in position by steel reinforcements in the shape of expanded metal or wire netting. The latter are to be considered as timber, rather than concrete, piles.

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2. CAISSON FOUNDATIONS
Caissons are cast-in-place, plain or reinforced concrete piers formed by boring with a large auger or excavating by hand a shaft in the earth to a suitable bearing stratum and filling the shaft with concrete. For this reason they are also referred to as drilled piles or piers.

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3.2 FOUNDATION WALLS, BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION, CISTERNS
Foundation walls provide support for the superstructure above and enclose a basement wall or crawl space partly or wholly below grade. In addition to the vertical loads from the superstructure, foundation walls must be designed and constructed to resist active earth pressure and anchor the superstructure against wind and seismic forces.
FOUNDATION WALLS

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BASEMENT WALLS

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SECTION OF CISTERN

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3.3 REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS
There may be short columns or long columns. Short columns – occur when the unsupported height is not greater than ten times the shortest lateral dimension of the cross section. Long columns – occur when the unsupported height is more than ten times the shortest lateral dimension of the cross section.

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3.3.1 TYPES OF RC COLUMNS
Reinforced-concrete columns may be classified into five types: 1. Tied Columns. These are columns with longitudinal bars and lateral ties. The ratio of the effective cross-sectional area of vertical reinforcement to the gross column area should not be less than 1% nor more than 8%, and should consist of at least 4 bars of a minimum size of #5.

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Lateral tiles shall be at least 3/8” (10 mm) diameter and shall be spaced apart not over than 16 bar diameters, 48 tie diameters, or the least dimension of the column. Where there are more than four vertical bars, additional ties should be provided so that every longitudinal bar will be firmly held in its designed position. The reinforcement for tied columns shall be protected by a covering of concrete, cast monolithically with the core, of at least 1-1/2” (38 mm) thickness.

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2. Spiral Columns. These are columns with longitudinal bars and closely spaced continuous spiral hooping. For spiral columns, the ratio of the area of the vertical reinforcement to the gross column area shall not less than 1% nor more than 8%. The minimum number of bars shall 6, and the minimum bar size shall #5.

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The spiral reinforcement, with min size of 3/8” shall consist of evenly spaced continuous spirals held firmly in place by at least three vertical spacer bars. The center to center spacing of the spirals shall not exceed 3” (75 mm) nor be less than 1-3/8” (35 mm) or 11/2 times the maximum size of the coarse aggregate. Protective covering for the column reinforcement shall not be less than 1-1/2” (38 mm).

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3. Composite Columns – where structural steel columns are embedded into the concrete core of a spiral column. 4. Combined Columns – where structural steel is encased in concrete of at least 7 cm thick, reinforced with wire mess surrounding the column at a distance of 3 cm inside the outer face of the concrete cover. 5. Lally Columns – are fabricated steel pipes provided with flat steel plates which holds a girder or girt, and is filled with grout or concrete to prevent corrosion.

3.3.2 DOWEL BARS
Dowel bars are short bars used to transfer the stress at the bottom of the columns to the footings. When dowel bars are used, there should be at least one dowel bar for each column bar. The total crosssectional area of dowels should not be less than the cross-sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement in the column. The dowels shall extend into the column and into the pedestal or footing not less than 50 bars diameter for plain bars or 40 diameters for deformed bars.

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3.4 REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS
3.4.1 SUSPENDED SLABS
In general, there are six types of reinforced-concrete floors systems:
1. One way solid slab and beam 2. One way joist slab or Ribbed slab 3. Two way solid slab and beam 4. Two way waffle slab 5. Two way flat plate 6. Two way flat slab Each particular system has its distinct advantages, depending upon the spacing, of columns, the magnitude of the loads to be supported, lengths of spans, and the cost of construction. Although the arrangement of the plan of a building frequently determines the column spacing, approximately square bays are desirable. Column spacing of 20 ft., more or less, has proved to be most economical, but this, of course, depends on the type of floor construction to be used.

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1. ONE-WAY SLABS Probably the most commonly used type or reinforced concrete construction consists of a solid slab supported by two parallel beams, the beams framing into girders, and the girders in turn framing into columns. The reinforcement slabs runs in one direction only, from beam to beam, hence the slab is known as one-way slab. The number of beams in a panel depends upon the column spacing and the live load to be supported. The beams are spaced uniformly and generally frame into the girders at the center, third or quarter points. This type of framing is called the beam-and-girder floor. It is readily constructed and the formwork is simple. The one-way slab is economical for medium and heavy live loads for comparatively short spans, 6 to 12 ft. For light live loads, 40 to 60 psf, the spans may be increased, but long spans for one-way slabs results in comparatively large dead loads.

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The main tensile reinforcement (running along the short direction) in fully continuous slabs are alternately bent up, usually at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees, at the fifth points of the span and extend over the supports to the quarter points of the adjoining span. The remaining bars are straight, placed in the bottom of the slab. For single span slabs the bars are bent up at the quarter points. Another method of placing the reinforcement is to place straight bars at the bottom of the slab and the other straight bars at the top of the slab over the supports. If the bent bars are used, bent bars from the adjoining bars are extended over the supports, thus providing the same amount of reinforcement over the supports as at mid-span. In addition to the tensile reinforcement, temperature bars are also provided running along the long direction. These serve to provide against the effect of shrinkage and changes in temperature and also to distribute possible load concentrations over larger areas. The size and spacing of temperature bars depends upon the slab thickness.

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Minimum protective covering for slab reinforcement is 20mm (¾”).

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2. ONE WAY JOIST OR RIBBED SLABS
For medium span lengths with light or medium live loads, ribbed slabs have proved to have an economical type of floor construction. They are not so well suited to heavy concentrated loads as the solid one or two-way slabs. A one-way joist slab consists of relatively small adjacent T-beams. When the open spaces between the webs or rings are filled with clay tile, gypsum tile, concrete filler block or steel forms, the floor system is called a ribbed slab.

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Clay tile fillers are generally 12” x 12” in plan with depths of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 in. The usual practice is to place the tiles 16” o.c., thus making the web 4” wide. The layer of concrete placed on top of the tile is generally 2 or 2-1/2 in. thick. Reinforcement for this type of construction may consist of two bars placed in the lower part of the web, one bent and one straight, or of straight bars placed in the top and bottom parts of the web.

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Metal tile fillers are frequently used for ribbed floors. This is commonly known as tin-pan construction. The metal forms are usually 36” long, with 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 in. depths. They are placed on centers in such a manner as to make the web 4 to 7 in. wide at the lowest point. Form widths are generally 20 or 30 in.; a common condition is a form 20 in. wide, placed 25 in. on centers, to make a web 5” wide at the bottom. The metal forms may be removed or left in place after supporting formwork has been taken down. To provide a greater web area near the supports, where the shearing stresses may exceed the allowable, special metal cores with the sides tapered in plan are used. The degree of tapering generally is such that the web is increased 4” in width. As in the case of clay-tile fillers, a 2, 2-1/2, or 3 in. slab is placed over the metal tile forms, the slab and web forming a Tsection.

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Gypsum-tile fillers have the advantage of providing a relatively lightweight ribbed with a flush ceiling. Although they are made in various sizes, a common width is 19”, placed 24” o.c., with webs 5” wide. When block 12” wide are used, they are placed 16” o.c., thus forming 4” – wide webs.

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3. TWO-WAY SLABS
When a floor panel is square or nearly so, having beams or walls on four sides, it is generally economical to use two sets of reinforcing bars placed at right angles to each other. These bars in two directions transfer the loads to the four supporting beams or walls. Slabs thus reinforced are known as two way slabs or slabs supported on four sides. For square panels, with supports of equal rigidity, the live and dead loads are distributed equally in both directions and the reinforcements are the same each way. When the panel is oblong or rectangular, the greater part of the load is transmitted by the transverse or short reinforcement. If the length of the slab exceeds 1.5 times its width, the entire load is usually assumed to be carried by the short reinforcement, and the long reinforcement used for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement only; hence the slab would become a one-way slab.

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In determining the reinforcement of two-way slabs two strips of floor are considered. One is middle strip, one half of the panel in width, symmetrical about the panel center line, and extending through the length of the panel. The other is the column strip, one half of the panel in width and occupying the two quarter-panel areas outside the middle strip. In placing the reinforcement it is advantageous to place the bars in the short direction, carrying the greater load, under the longer bars. Bars are bent up at fifth points and extend over the supports of the quarter points of the adjoining slabs as is done for one-way slabs.

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4. TWO WAY WAFFLE SLAB
A waffle slab is a two way concrete slab reinforced by ribs in two directions. Waffle slabs are able to carry heavier loads and span longer distances than flat slabs.

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5. TWO WAY FLAT PLATE.
A flat plate is a concrete slab of uniform thickness reinforced in two or more directions and supported directly by columns without beams or girders. Simplicity of forming, lower floor-to-floor heights, and some flexibility in column placement make flat plates practical for apartment and hotel construction.

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6. TWO WAY FLAT SLABS.
A flat-slab is a flat plate thickened at its column supports to increase its shear strength and moment-resisting capacity. The slab is commonly reinforced with bars running in two directions. This area of increased thickness is called a drop panel or drop. The columns are generally square in cross section, but rectangular or circular cross sections are also used.

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Flat-slab floors are economical in use of material and provide a rigid type of construction. These floors are particularly suitable for industrial buildings having large live loads and for buildings in which the columns capitals are not objectionable. Among the advantages claimed for flat-slab floor are the simplified formwork, better lighting due to the absence of beams and girders, a saving in height for given clear story heights, a uniform surface for suspending sprinkler systems, piping and shafting, and, because of the absence of sharp corners, better resistance to fire. The ratio of length to width of flat-slab panels should not exceed 1.33:1. Thickness of slab without drop panels or through drop panel, if any, shall not be less than L/36; thickness of slab with drop panels at points beyond the drop panel should not be less than L/40. The side of diameter of the drop panel shall be at least 0.33 times the span in the parallel direction. The diameter of the column capital measured at the bottom of the slab or drop panel (in feet) is generally taken between 0.20 and 0.25 L.
There are several methods of reinforcing flat-slabs and flat plates: 1. Two-way system. This system is the most commonly used and consists of two sets of bars extending directly from column to column in both directions. Slabs are square or rectangular. 2. Three-way system. The reinforcement extends from column to column, the columns being placed at the corners of equilateral triangles; hence slabs are triangular in shape. 3. Four-way system. The reinforcement extends both directly and diagonally between columns in both directions. The slabs are square or rectangular.

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3.4.2 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS
A beam may be defined as a structural member, resting on supports usually at its ends, which supports transverse loads. The loads that act on the beam, as well as the weight of the beam itself, tend to bend rather than lengthen or shorten it. A girder is a term applied to a beam that supports one or more smaller beams, as concentrated loads.

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Beams may be classified as:

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a. Simple beams. These are beams having a single span with a support at each end, there being no restraint at the supports. b. Cantilever beams. These are beams that are supported at one end only, or they may be that portion of beams projecting beyond one of its supports. c. Continuous beams. These are beams resting on more than two supports. The term “semi-continuous” is also frequently used in reinforced-concrete. It refers to a beam having two spans with little or no restraint at the two extreme ends of the beam. The end span of a continuous beam, where little or restraint is provided at the end support, is referred to as a semi-continuous beam.

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When a beam is subjected to a given load, the beam is bent downwards at the middle, the lower part of the beam being elongated while the upper part is compressed. The lower part of the beam is said to be in tension, while the upper part is in compression. In reinforced-concrete design, it is assumed that the compressive stresses is resisted by the concrete and all tension resisted by the steel. Thus the reinforcement of a beam is placed near the bottom of the section.

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At the supports, however, the upper surface of the beam becomes concave downward; that is there is a reversal of stresses. The upper portion of the beam is now in tension ( or the bending moment is said to change from positive to negative). The section of a beam at which the bending moment changes from positive to negative is called the point of inflection. The exact position of inflection points depends upon the position and magnitudes of the loads as well as the end conditions of the beams. For continuous beams having equal spans and uniformly distributed loads, the inflection point is considered to be one-fifth the clear span between faces of support. At this point some of the reinforcing bars are bent up at an angle of from 30 to 45 degrees and extend over the supports into the adjacent spans. The bent up bars serve to resist the tensile stresses over the supports. Thus for continuous beams with uniformly distributed loads the bars would be bent up at one-fifth the clear span from the face of the supports and extend to the quarter points of the adjacent span. Not more than half of the bears should be bent up; the rest of the reinforcement extends straight through the center of the supports.

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Another method is to use separate straight bars in both the bottoms and tops of the beams in place of bent bars. The slight cost in excess weight in this arrangement over the combination of straight and bent bars is probably balanced by the ease of preparing design and shop drawings, bill of materials, and fabrication and placing of reinforcement. Bars not fabricated according to drawings, or those lost and mislaid, are more easily replaced if no bending is involved.

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In addition to the tensile and compressive stresses in a beam subjected to bending, there are also inclined tensile stresses. If a concrete beam is reinforced with longitudinal steel only, these diagonal stresses tend o produce cracks which are vertical at the center of the span and become more inclined as they approach the support where they slope towards the center at an angle of about 45. The stresses that cause these cracks are known as diagonal tension. To prevent failure due to diagonal tension additional reinforcing bars are used. Sloping bars placed at right angles to the direction of these cracks would be one method of reinforcing for diagonal tension, but, although this is sometimes done, it is not the most economical method. The usual procedure is to add #3 or #4 bars, bent in the shape of the letter U, in vertical positions at those places in the beam at which the diagonal tension stresses require their use. When the stresses are sufficiently large. W-shaped bars are used. These bent reinforcing bars are called stirrups. They should always have hooks at the ends to provide anchorage to resist the tensile stresses.

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Reinforcement used to resist shearing stresses is known as web reinforcement. Ties are frequently used for web reinforcement in place of stirrups. A tie is generally made of #3 bars, but it completely encircles the longitudinal tensile steel instead of being U-shaped with hooks.
Although it is occasionally necessary to put in two or more layers of steel, particularly in large girders carrying heavy loads, it is usually more economical to slightly widen a beam, thereby permitting all of the main tensile reinforcement to lie in the same plane. Minimum clear distance between bars should not be less than the nominal diameters of the bars, not less than 1” (25 mm), nor less than 1-1/3 times the maximum size of the coarse aggregate. If more than one layer is used the clear vertical distance between layers shall not be less than 1” (25 mm), and the bars in the upper layer shall be placed directly above those in the bottom layer.

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The following table is useful in selecting the proper width of beam given number of reinforcing bars:

Heavy Reinforced Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0 Steel Construction Foundations Systems Foundation Walls, Basement Construction, Cisterns NUMBER OF BARS IN BEAMS Maximum number of bars for beams of various widths Width 6” 8” 14” 2- #5 2 - #11 2 - #11 3 - #6 5 - #9 6 - #7 6 - #4 7 - #4

10” 3 - #11 3 - #9 4 - #6 4- #11

12”

4 - #9 5 - #6

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An allowance of 1-1/2” (38 mm) for fireproofing is made outside the reinforcement on each side of the beam, and there is also allowance for #3 stirrups. It should be noted that this Table gives the maximum size of bars. Thus, for instance, the Table indicates that 4 - #9 bars may be used in a beam 12” in width. Obviously, four smaller bars, e.g., 4-#7, may also be used for the same beam width.

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Fireproofing for beams and walls is 1-1/2” (40 mm).

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3.4.3 TYPES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

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1. Rectangular beams 2. T – beams. When a reinforced concrete floor slab and its supporting beam (or girder) are built at the same time and thoroughly tied together, a part of the slab may be considered to act with upper part of the beam in compression. This form of a beam is called a T- beam. 3. Beam with Compression Reinforcement. These are beams with reinforcement in the compression as well as the tension side of the beam, hence they are also called double reinforced beams. In this type of beam no bent up bars are required. Beams with compression reinforcement are used when the cross-sectional dimensions of the beam are limited by architectural or structural conditions so that there is an insufficient concrete area for the compressive stresses.

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4. Cantilever Beams. The tensile reinforcement is located at top of the beam and inverted U-stirrups are provided.

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5. Hollow box girders. These are double reinforced beams used for long spans. In order to reduce the dead load (the weight of the beam) it is hollowed in the center of the section. Diaphragms are provided at intervals throughout the length of the beam.

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6. Beam Brackets or Corbels. Short beam extensions from columns used to support rafters or trusses.

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3.5 ROOF DECKS
Reinforced concrete roof slabs (roof decks) are formed and sitecast in the same manner as concrete floor systems. Roof decks are normally covered with a type of membrane roofing for insulation and waterproofing.

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3.6 WALLS AND STRUCTURAL WALLS
3.6.1 TYPES OF WALLS

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1. Bearing wall. A wall on which either floor or roof construction rests. 2. Curtain wall. The enclosing wall of an iron or steel framework or the non-bearing portion of an enclosing wall between piers. 3. Foundation wall. That portion of an enclosing wall below the first tier of joists. 4. Retaining wall. A subsurface wall built to resist the lateral pressure of internal loads. 5. Spandrel wall. The space between any arch and the beam over the same; or an exterior non-bearing wall in skeleton construction built between columns or piers and wholly supported at each story.

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3.6.2 CURTAIN WALLS
1. Panel walls are exterior non-load bearing walls whose outer surface may or may not form the exterior facing of the building and whose interior surface may or may not form the interior finish. It may rest on the building structure or may be hung from the structure. Masonry panel walls are exterior non-load bearing walls whose outer surface may form exterior building face or it may be used back of panel curtain wall as back-up.

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The two types of masonry panel walls are: the stone masonry panel and the pre-cast masonry panel wall units.

a. Stone masonry panels are natural or artificial stone slabs which are anchored to the building structure by masonry anchors.

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b. Pre-cast masonry panel wall units are ordinary reinforced or prestressed concrete wall units which may span one floor or several floors.

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2.

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Panel curtain walls are exterior non-load bearing walls made up of panels attached directly to the building structure with an adjustable attachment or mounted on supports (sub-frame), which in turn, are attached to the building structure by adjustable attachments. Exterior face of panels form the face of the building; interior face may or may not form the interior finish. The panels which protect the building from the weather, may be one of the following types:

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a. Window type panel. Transparent glass and frame incorporated in panel curtain wall. b. Skin type panel. Panel made up of one material. c. Sandwich type panel. Panel made up of assembly of several materials. 1. Open Sandwich type. Sandwich panel with top and bottom edges closed. 2. Closed Sandwich type. Sandwich panel in which all edges of panel are closed except for weep holes and vents. d. Wall Units. Preassembly of several panels of any type. Units may be one or several stories high.

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Panel curtain walls may be classified into the following types: Stick type. Refers to the method of installation where the mullions and horizontal rails (gutter section and window sill section) are installed first before installation of the window and wall panels.

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b. Unit and Mullion type. Supports (mullions) are clearly expressed. Vertical lines dominant. Mullions are generally 4’ – 4” max.; height, 8’ – 0” maximum.

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c. Grid type (or Unit type). Supports (vertical and horizontal members) clearly expressed. Vertical and horizontal lines equally dominant. Area between support members, 32 sq. ft. maximum. Width of panels, 4’ – 4” max.; height, 8’ – 0” max.

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d. Panel type (or sheathed type). Supports not expressed. Nonlineal pattern. Joints vertical and horizontal usually without trim. Individual panel size: max. width, 3’ – 10”; max. height, 8’ – 0”.

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e. Spandrel type (column cover and spandrel system). Supports are not a primary element of expression in this type of wall. Horizontal lines are dominant and the length of spandrel unlimited. Width of interlocking panels is 4’ – 4” maximum; height is 8’ – 0” maximum.

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f. Sheathed type (Industrial). Supports not expressed. Non-lineal pattern. Joints vertical. Panel size: width, approx. 4’; height, 60’ max. Assembly methods of panel curtain walls may be by: 1. Individual panels. 2. Wall units. Width, 6’ max.; height, one several stories.

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3.6.3 PRESSURE EQUALIZED DESIGN FOR CURTAIN WALLS.
Pressure differential between the outside atmosphere and an interior environment can cause rainwater to migrate through even the smallest openings in wall joints. Pressure-equalized design can significantly reduce this cause of water leakage in wall construction by employing the rain-screen principle.

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3.6.4 RETAINING WALLS, BREAST WALLS, AND VAULT WALLS.
A retaining wall is a wall whose purpose is to resist the thrust of a bank of earth or other material. It is differentiated from breast walls which is similar to the retaining wall, in that in the retaining the earth or other filling is deposited behind it after it is built, while the breast wall (or face wall) is built to prevent the fall of earth which is in its undisturbed, natural position, but from which part has been excavated, leaving a vertical or inclined face. Retaining walls are of three types: a. Gravity wall. This is a type of wall which is constructed of such proportions that its weight alone resists the thrust of the earth. Low walls are invariably gravity walls constructed of brick, stone masonry or concrete. Cantilever wall. The cantilever wall is constructed of reinforced concrete and makes use of the weight of the earth in resisting the tendency to overturn at the outer edge. The vertical wall, supported on a horizontal base, serves as a cantilever beam in resisting the earth pressure. Walls of intermediate height are generally of the cantilever type.

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b.

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C. Counterfort wall. It is similar to the cantilever wall with the exception that the vertical wall is tied to the base at regular intervals with triangularshaped walls called counterforts ( a counterfort is similar to a buttress, but where a buttress is placed on the side of the wall opposite the pressure acting on it, a counterfort is placed on the same side of the wall ). It is usually more economical to use the counterfort wall for heights of 20 ft. or over. In large cities it is customary to utilize the space under the sidewalks for storage or other purposes. This necessitates a wall at the curb line to hold back the earth and the street pressures and also the weight of the sidewalk. These are called vault walls.

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3.7 PRESTRESS CONCRETE
The concrete in the conventional reinforced-concrete beam is not used economically. With respect to bending stresses, only the concrete above the neutral surface resists compressive stresses. All the concrete in the tension area, below the neutral axis, is disregarded in designing because concrete is inherently weak in tension. Therefore, only about one-third of the concrete resists compressive stresses, the maximum stress being at the top of the beam, with the stresses decreasing in magnitude to a zero stress at the neutral surface. Since in the usual reinforced-concrete beam the concrete cannot be used efficiently, certain forces may be applied to beams that result in a member in which all the concrete resists bending stresses. This is known as pre-stressed concrete. A pre-stressed concrete beam is a member so designed and constructed that all of the stresses in the concrete resulting from bending are compressive, none is tensile. The name is derived from the fact that the stresses are applied before the beam is loaded.

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There are two methods of prestressed concrete, namely: a. Pre-tensioning or bonded prestressing. In this method the reinforcing steel is first prestressed and then the concrete is poured. When the concrete has developed strength, the stress in the steel is released. The steel when stretched out becomes smaller in crosssection than when unstressed, and the concrete hardens around them while they are still small. When their artificial tension is released after the concrete hardens, they expand, reverting to their original shape, grip the surrounding concrete. The bond between the concrete and steel is sufficient to create compression in the concrete.

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b. Post-tensioning or unbonded pre-stressing. In this method, tubes, conduits, or channels are inserted in the concrete where reinforcing steel is required. After the concrete is adequately cured, steel reinforcement is inserted in the tubes or channels, stretched to the proper tension, and anchored at the ends to put a squeeze on the beam. Tensioning is done with hydraulic jacks.

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The reinforcing for pre-stressed concrete is usually wire, strand, bar or rope made of heat-treated steel. Concrete must meet strengths usually greater than AA-type concrete which has a strength of 3750 psi in 28 days.

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The advantages of pre-stressed concrete are:
1. It is economical of materials due to the use of higher steel and concrete stresses. 2. It eliminates cracks because the concrete is always in compression. 3. It has remarkable elastic properties. For example, tests were made on a floor slab only 1-5/s8” thick reinforced with not more than 1% steel. Although the span was only 10 ft. the slab deflected 3” under a load of 1070lb. at its center. When the load was removed it returned to its original level, undamaged. 4. Beams do not have to be cast at the side in one form, but may be cast in small sections or blocks at the factory with reinforcing wires threaded through them. When the wires are stressed, the small units are brought together like one large beam.

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5. It develops remarkable resistance to shear stresses. Pre-stressed concrete is used where spans and loads cannot be adequately designed in reinforced-concrete, and for deckings, beams, girders and other prefabricated units where greater spans and loads with thinner, stronger, and in some cases, lighter members are required. The designing of pre-stressed concrete for structures is highly technical and the architect should always work with a structural engineer, even when using prefabricated pre-stressed concrete units.

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3.8 PRE-CAST CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS

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Precast concrete slabs, beams and structural tees are one-way spanning units that may be supported by site cast concrete, precast concrete, or masonry bearing walls, or by steel, sitecast concrete, or precast concrete frames. The precast units are manufactured with normal-density or structural lightweight concrete and prestressed for greater structural efficiency, which results in less depth, reduced weight, and longer spans. The units are cast and steam-cured in a plant off-site, transported to the construction site, and set in place as rigid components with cranes. The size and proportion of the units may be limited by the means of transportation. Fabrication in a factory environment enables the unit to have a consistent quality of strength, durability, and finish, and eliminates the need for on-site formwork. The modular nature3 of the standard-sized units may not be suitable for irregular building shapes.

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3.8.1 Types of Precast Concrete Floor Units

1. Solid Flat Slabs 2. Hollow Core Slabs 3. Single Tees 4. Double Tees 5. Rectangular, LShaped and Inverted Tee Beams 6. AASHTO Girders

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3.9 BUILDING PROTECTION SYSTEMS
3.9.1 CATEGORIES OF BUILDING PROTECTION SYSTEMS 1. Waterproofing – a method of making building surfaces impervious to water. 2. Damp-proofing – applying a water-impervious material or a vapor barrier to a surface, usually slab-on-fill, to prevent the penetration of moisture, from the ground or the exterior or to prevent the penetration of condensate to the surface material. Example is BARRAFILM vapor barrier, one layer at six mils (0.006) thick, with 300 mm overlapping. 3. Water repelling or water sealing – applying, by brush or lowpressure spray, a clear silicon water repellent or sealant to porous surface material such as cement plaster and bricks to prevent weathering or the growth of algae and moss. Example is THOMPSONS Water Seal. 4. Thermal insulation – method of installing thermal barriers in surfaces of structures to keep the heat or cold away from the interior spaces.
Vapor Barrier or Vapor Retarder – 1. A membrane covering the outer surface of an insulated cold water pipe that is used to prevent moisture from penetrating the insulation and reaching the pipe. 2. A layer of material or laminate used to reduce appreciably the flow of water vapor into a roofing system. Weathering – 1. Changes in color, texture, strength, chemical composition, or other properties of a natural or artificial material due to the action of the weather. 2. The cover applied to a part of a structure to enable it to shed rainwater.

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5. Termite (anay) proofing – •Soil poisoning – treating the soil surrounding the structure in touch with the ground (footing bed and slab on fill) with a chemical. Example is LENTREK TC Termicide Concentrate; dilution rating: 1 part LENTREK TC to 50 parts water. •Factory-applied wood preservative – factory pressure-applied wood preservatives; such as boliden salts, WOLMAN preservative or SOLIGNUM preservative of MATIMCO Wood (Manila Timber Company). •Site-applied wood preservative – application of a chemical liquid on the wood surface (Solignum) to protect it against pest intrusion, such as termites and powder post beetles (bukbok), and decay-causing fungi, such as sap stain and rot.

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Powder Post – A condition of wood which has decayed to powder, or has been eaten by worms which leave holes full of powder. Rot – Decomposition in wood by fungi and other microorganisms; reduces its strength, density and hardness.

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•Termite shields – installing a shield of non-corroding metal or inorganic material, used as protection against the infiltration of termites in a building; so placed as to prevent their passage, usually as a projecting shield on a masonry foundation or pier (or under a wood sill or beam which it supports), or around pipes which enter the building. 6. Rat proofing – a method of protecting rooms against the intrusion of rats and other small destructive animals from gnawing the wooden parts of the house and habitating the under-ceilings and under-floors of houses and buildings. 7. Fire proofing – application of cover materials to structural steel components or systems to provide increased fire resistance. Also called sprayed fireproofing. Example is FLAMESHIELD FIREPROOFING, Filipino invented, non-asbestos fiber mix on non-organic binder; 1” thk for 2-hour fire rating, 2” thk for 3 hour fire rating and 3”thk for 4-hour fire rating. Another example is, MONOKOTE MK-6, a gypsum-based, cementitious spray applied fireproofing product, from Grace Construction Products.

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8. Floor protection – a method of protecting finish floor surfaces from wear and tear or from chemical abrasions due to heavy use. 9. Rust proofing – a method of protecting the steel and other ferrous materials from corrosion. 10. Descalers, paint and chemical strippers – a method of removing old paint by the use of a paint remover; and stains, rust, algae or even cement build-up on forms or equipment, by the use of a chemical stripper or descaler.

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Paint remover – A liquid which is applied to a dry paint or varnish to cause it to soften or lose adhesion so that it may be removed easily. Stripper – A liquid designed to remove coatings by chemical and/or solvent action. Descaler – A liquid designed to remove scale that forms on the inside of hot water heaters, boilers, etc.

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3.9.2

WATERPROOFING

1. Application Locations: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Top of roof decks Top of concrete terraces, balconies, ledges and canopies Under-sheathing for wood shingle and tile roofing Interior surfaces of water tanks Exterior surfaces of concrete roof gutters Inside surfaces of plantboxes Kitchen floor Toilets Basement floor and walls Elevator pits Swimming pools and fish ponds Machine, mechanical and pump rooms Refrigeration and cold storage rooms

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2. Four Types of Waterproofing • Integral type – powder form waterproofing compound mixed with the cement-aggregate mixture. For example one bag of integral waterproofing compound, such as SAHARA or SAKURA is added to 98 kilos off Portland cement. Membrane type – a hot or cold membrane applied to the surface; for example asphalt paper laid with hot asphalt or self sealing asphalt paper. Examples from WR Grace Co. are BITUTHENE CP for toilet slabs and BITUTHENE 3000 for roof decks; and ICE AND WATER SHIELD self-sealing and self-adhering rubberized membrane for main entrance canopies made of metal. Fluid type – a fluid applied elastomeric coating formulated to waterproof and preserve the substrate of concrete, wood, and steel. The wide temperature range, withstands extreme thermal movement, settling and cracking; resists puncture and tearing; and can be applied by roller, brush, spray or squeegee. Examples of exposed type liquid membrane waterproofing from WR Grace are NEWFLEX and NEWFLEX R100 for ledges. Cementitious type – powder form waterproofing compound mixed with water and applied by brush to the surface to be waterproofed. Examples from WR Grace are MORTASEAL and HYDRATITE for concrete gutters, ledges

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FOUNDATION AND SUB-STRUCTURE WATER PROOFING

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GROUND BEAM WATER PROOFING

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BASE SLAB - PIPE PENETRATION WATER PROOFING

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“THROUGH WALL” PENETRATION WATER PROOFING

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FLAT DECK WATER PROOFING

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UPSTAND DETAIL-SHEAR MEMBER

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TYPICAL DRAIN DETAIL

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TYPICAL PIPE DETAIL THROUGH ROOF SLAB (LIQUID MEMBRANE DETAIL)

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TYPICAL PIPE DETAIL THROUGH ROOF SLAB (SHEET MEMBRANE DETAIL)

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EXPANSION JOINT COVER DECK OR WALL JUNCTION

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3.9.3 THERMAL INSULATION
1. Application Locations of heat insulators:
• • • Top or bottom of roof decks Below roofing sheets Above suspended ceiling

2.
• • • •

Types of Thermal Insulators
Loose Fill – fibrous type and granular type Blanket Insulation – is made from fibrous materials such as mineral wool, wood fiber, cotton fiber or animal hair and made into batt[1] or boards. Example is PARSEC Thermo Brite II for underneath metal roofing insulation. Block or Rigid Slab Insulation – stiff and inelastic such as foamed plastic, cellular glass, foamed concrete, etc. Example is STYROFOAM ROOFMATE SL extruded polysterene board as manufactured by DOW Chemicals, for inaccessible roof decks. Foamed-in Place Insulation – a polyurethane product made by combining a polyisocyanate and a polyester resin. This type of insulation can be applied either by pouring or by spraying. The basic ingredients for both are drawn from their containers, measured and mixed by machine. Sprayed-on Insulation – materials used are polyurethane foam asbestos fiber mixed with inorganic binders; vermiculite aggregate with a binder such as Portland cement or gypsum and perlite aggregate using gypsum as a binder. Machines are used for blowing these insulations into place and as a result, the shape and irregularity of the surface being insulated is of little consequence. Example is MBA SPRAYED-ON POLYURETHANE INSULATION; 25 mm thick x 1.5 pcf density for accessible roof decks.

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Batt Insulation – A flexible blanket- type thermal insulation, commonly used as insulation between studs or joints in frame construction; also used as an acoustical material or a component in sound-insulating construction. Usually made from rock, slag, or glass fibers. Sometimes has a vapor barrier on one side or is entirely enclosed in paper with a vapor barrier on one side.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 3

END

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