You are on page 1of 48

CHAPTER 25

ORIGIN OF SPECIES

Prepared by
Brenda Leady, University of Toledo

1 reprod
Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for
 Species
A group of organisms that maintains a
distinctive set of attributes in nature
 Macroevolution
 Evolutionarychanges that create new species
and groups of species
 Occurs by accumulation of microevolutionary
changes (changes in a single gene)

2
 Known number of species about 1.4
million
 Estimates of unidentified species range
from 2 to 100 million
 Difficulty in identifying a “species”
A single species may exist in 2 distinct
populations that are in the slow process of
evolving into 2 or more different species

3
 Amount of separation time for 2
populations
 Short time – likely to be similar and
considered the same species
 Long time – more likely to show unequivocal
differences
 May find situations where some
differences are apparent but difficult to
decide if the 2 populations are truly
different species
 Sometimes use subspecies classification

4
Species concepts
 Phylogenetic
 Biological
 Evolutionary
 Ecological

5
Phylogenetic species concept
 Species are identified by having a unique
combination of traits
 Historically used physical traits
 Now can use DNA sequences
 Advantage
 Can be applied to all organisms
 Drawbacks
 How many traits to consider, traits that vary in
a continuous way, choose degree of
dissimilarity to use, and members of the same
species can look very different while members
of a different species can look very similar 6
7
Biological species concept
 A species is a group of individuals whose
members have the potential to interbreed
with one another in nature to produce
viable, fertile offspring but cannot
successfully interbreed with members of
other species
 Reproductive isolation prevents breeding
with other species

8
 3 problems
 May be difficult to determine if 2 populations
reproductively isolated
 There are cases where 2 species can
interbreed but do not
 Cannot be applied to asexual species

9
Evolutionary species concept
 A species is derived from a single lineage
that is distinct from other lineages and has
its own evolutionary tendencies and
historical fate
 Lineage
 Genetic relationship between an individual or
group of individuals and its ancestors
 Drawback – no easy way to identify a
unique species because lineages difficult
to examine and quantitate
10
Ecological species concept
 Each species occupies an ecological niche
 Unique set of habitat resources that a species
requires, as well as its influence on the environment
and other species
 Within their own niche, members of a given
species compete with each other for survival
 If two organisms are very similar, their needs will
overlap, which results in competition
 Such competing individuals are likely to be of the
same species
 Useful for bacterial species
11
Reproductive isolating mechanisms

 Consequence of genetic changes as


species adapts to its environment
 Prezygotic barriers
 Prevent formation of zygote
 Postzygotic barriers
 Block development of viable, fertile individuals
 Interspecies hybrid- when 2 species do
produce offspring
12
13
Prezygotic barriers
 Habitat isolation
 Geographic barrier prevents contact
 Temporal isolation
 Reproduce at different times of the day or
year

14
 Behavioral
isolation
 Behaviors
important in mate
choice
 Changes in song

15
 Mechanical isolation
Size or incompatible genitalia prevents
mating
 Gametic isolation
Gametes fail to unite successfully
Important in species that release
gametes into the water or air

16
Postzygotic barriers
 Less common in nature because they are
more costly in terms of energy and
resources used
 Hybrid inviability – fertilized egg cannot
progress past an early embryo
 Hybrid sterility – interspecies hybrid viable
but sterile
 Mule example
 Hybrid breakdown – hybrids viable and
fertile but subsequent generations have
genetic abnormalities
17
18
Mechanisms in speciation
 Underlying cause of speciation is the
accumulation of genetic changes that
ultimately promote enough differences so
that we judge a population to constitute a
unique species

19
Patterns of speciation
 Anagenesis
 Single
species transformed into a different
species over the course of many generations
 Cladogenesis
 Division of a species into 2 or more species

20
21
Allopatric speciation
 Most prevalent method for cladogenesis
 Occurs when some members of a species
become geographically separated

22
23
 Can also occur when small population
moves to a new location that is
geographically separated founder effect
 Genetic drift and natural selection may quickly
lead to differences
 Adaptive radiation – single species evolves
into array of descendents that differ greatly in
habitat, form or behavior

24
25
Podos Found That an Adaptation to Feeding Also
May Have Promoted Reproductive Isolation
in Finches
 Darwin’s finches have different beak sizes
and shapes as adaptations to different
feeding strategies
 Podos analyzed songs to see if beak
morphology birds with larger beaks had
more narrow frequency range and/or trill
rate
 Could have played a role in reproductive
isolation
Hybridization
 Prior to complete reproductive isolation,
the zones where two populations can
interbreed are known as hybrid zones
 As the two populations accumulate
different genetic changes, this may
decrease the ability of individuals from
different populations to mate with each
other in the hybrid zone
 Once gene flow through the hybrid zone is
greatly diminished, the two populations
are reproductively isolated 28
29
Sympatric speciation
 Occurs when members of a species that
initially occupy the same habitat within the
same range diverge into two or more
different species
 Tends to involve abrupt genetic changes
that quickly lead to the reproductive
isolation of a group of individuals
 Changes in chromosome number

30
31
Pace of speciation
 Gradualism
 each new species evolves continuously over long
spans of time
 large phenotypic differences that produce new
species are due to the accumulation of many small
genetic changes
 Punctuated equilibrium
 Tempo more sporadic
 Species in equilibrium for long periods and then short
rapid bursts of changes

32
33
Evo-Devo
 Evolutionary developmental biology
 Compares the development of different
organisms in an attempt to understand
ancestral relationships between organisms
and the developmental mechanisms that
bring about evolutionary change
 Involves the discovery of genes that
control development

34
Developmental genes are key
players in evolution
 Changes in developmental genes affect
traits that can be acted on by natural
selection
 Compare chicken and duck foot
 Dueto differences in expression of 2 cell-
signaling proteins
 BMP4 – causes cells to undergo apoptosis and die
 Gremlin – inhibits the function of BMP4 and allows

cell to survive
35
36
 Mutations on the expression of BMP4 and
gremlin provided variation
 In terrestrial settings, nonwebbed feet are
an advantage
 Natural selection maintains nonwebbed feet
 In aquatic environments, webbed feet are
an advantage
 Natural selection would have favored webbed
feet
 Speciation may have been promoted by
geographical isolation of habitats
37
Hox genes
 Found in all animals
 Genetic variation may have been critical
event in the formation of new body plans
 Number and arrangement of Hox genes
varies among different types of animals
 Increases in the number of Hox genes
may have led to greater complexity in
body structure
38
39
 Three lines of evidence support the idea
that Hox gene complexity has been
instrumental in the evolution and
speciation of animals with different body
patterns
 Hox genes are known to control body
development
 General trend for simpler animals to have
fewer Hox genes and Hox gene clusters
 Comparison of Hox gene evolution and
animal evolution bear striking parallels

40
Developmental genes that affect
growth rate
 Allometric growth – different parts of the
body grow at different rates with respect to
each other
 Compare growth of head between human
and chimpanzee

41
42
 Changes in growth rates can also affect
the developmental stage at which one
species reproduces compared to that of
another species
 Reproduction in the adult is observed at
an earlier stage in one species than
another
 Paedomorphosis – retention of juvenile
traits in an adult organism

43
44
The Study of the Pax6 Gene Indicates That Different
Types of Eyes Evolved from a Simpler Form

 Explaining how a complex organ comes into


existence is a major challenge
 Researchers have discovered many different
types of eyes
 Thought that eyes may have independently
arisen many different times during evolution
 Pax6 is a master control gene that controls
the expression of many other genes and
influences eye development
 Eyes of Drosophila and mammals are
evolutionarily derived from a modification of
an eye that arose once during evolution
 If Drosophila and mammalian eyes had
arisen independently, the Pax6 gene from
mice would not be expected to induce the
formation of eyes in Drosophila
 Hypothesized that the eyes from many
different species all evolved from a common
ancestral form consisting of, as proposed by
Darwin, one photoreceptor cell and one
pigment cell