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Prepared by
Brenda Leady, University of Toledo

1 reprod
Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for

 Fungi are closely related to animals
 Both heterotrophic – cannot produce their own
 Both use absorptive nutrition – secrete
enzymes and absorb resulting small organic
 Both store surplus food as the carbohydrate



Unique cell-wall chemistry
 Fungal cells enclosed by tough cell walls
composed of chitin
 Cannot engulf food by phagotrophy due to
rigid cell walls
 Cell wall also restricts mobility of
nonflagellate cells


Unique body form  Most have mycelia composed of hyphae  Most of the mycelium is diffused and inconspicuous  Fruiting bodies are the visible reproductive structures  Mushrooms are one type  Produce spores  Rhizomorphs are fungal mycelia with the shape of roots to transport water 5 .

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Distinctive growth processes  Mycelia can grow quickly when food is plentiful  Grow at the edges  Narrow dimensions and extensive branching provides high surface area for absorption  Osmosis important in growth.entry of water produces force for tip extension 9 .

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Cross walls dividing cells of mycelium  Each cell has 1 or 2 nuclei  Nuclear division followed by cross-wall formation  Aseptate fungi  Not partitioned into smaller cells  Multinucleate  Nuclei divide without cytokinesis 11 . Septate fungi  Septa .

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 Intranuclear spindle distinguishes fungal nuclear division from plants and animals  Spindleforms inside nucleus and nuclear envelope does not break down  Natural mycelium may be irregular in shape  Inliquid culture it is spherical  On agar it is more 2 dimensional 13 .

Sexual reproduction  Involves mating of gametes. zygote formation and meiosis  Most gametes inconspicuous fungal branches  Fuse with compatible mating type 14 .

after plasmogamy. Most sexual organisms have plasmogamy (fusion of gametes’ cytoplasm) followed by karyogamy (fusion of gametes’ nuclei)  In fungi. nuclei may remain separate for a long time  Gamete nuclei divide at each cell division producing dikaryotic mycelium or heterokaryon  Functionally diploid 15 .

Fruiting bodies  Heterokaryotic mycelium may produce a fleshy fruiting body  All cells of the fruiting body are dikaryotic  When mature. the 2 nuclei in cells will fuse  Produces zygotes (only diploid stage)  Undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores 16 .

rain or animals. Structure of fruiting bodies varies in ways that reflect adaptations for spore dispersal by wind. 17 .

 Many fungi produce substances in the fruiting body to deter consumption  Toxins can cause liver failure requiring a transplant  Hallucinogenic or psychoactive substances 18 .

Asexual reproduction  Many fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually  Some reproduce primarily or exclusively asexually  Most reproduce asexually by generating chains of spores at the hyphae tips  Many use conidia 19 .

Fungal ecology  Decomposer fungi are essential component’s of the Earth’s ecosystems  Work with bacteria  Release minerals to the soil and water 20 .

 Some fungi are predators trapping tiny soil nematodes 21 .

Fungal pathogens  5000 species cause serious crop diseases  Rust spores can be spread on the wind or by other means  Several human diseases  Dermatophytes - athlete’s foot. ringworm  Pneomocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS 22 .

Mutualistic fungi  Associations that benefit both partners  Mycorhizzal fungi  Endophytes  Lichens 23 .

Mycorhizzal fungi  Association between the hyphae of certain fungi and the roots of most seed plants  More than 80% of terrestrial plants have mycorrhizae  Plants receive increased supply of water and mineral nutrients  Fungi get organic food molecules from the plants  2 most common types are ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae 24 .

 Ectomycorrhizae  Coat root surface and grow between cells of roots 25 .

 Endomycorrhizae  Grow into root cell walls and plasma membranes  Arbuscular mycorrhizae form highly branched structures with high surface area 26 .

and microbial pathogens  Plants with endophytes often grow better than plants of the same species without endophytic fungi 27 .Fungal endophytes  Fungi live within the tissues of various types of plants  Endophytes obtain organic food molecules from plants  In turn contribute toxins or antibiotics that deter foraging animals. insect pests.

water. fruticose  Photosynthetic partner provides organic food molecules and oxygen  Fungal partner provides carbon dioxide. and minerals 28 . but these did not all descend from a common ancestor  At least five separate fungal lineages  3 major forms – crustose. and sometimes both  25.000 lichen species.Lichens  Partnerships of particular fungi and certain photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria. foliose.

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 Lichens reproduce  Sexually with fungal partner producing fruiting bodies and sexual spores  1/3 can only reproduce asexually using soredia  Small hyphal clumps surrounding a few algal cells  Clones 30 .

Piercey-Normore and DePriest Discovered That Some Lichens Readily Change Partners  Coevolution occurs when symbiotic partners influence each other’s evolution  Unclear whether this happened in lichens  Asked if pattern of speciation for fungal partner matched algal partner  Analyzed DNA from 33 lichens  Phylogenies do not match = no coevolution  Lichens often switch partners .


glycerol. and antibiotics  Distinctive flavor of blue cheese  Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread.Biotechnology applications  Fungi convert inexpensive organic compounds into citric acid. beer and wine  Replace chemical procedures that generate harmful waste products  Wood pulp bleaching 33 .

5 fungal kingdoms  Chytridiomycota  Zygomycota  Glomeromycota  Ascomycota  Basidiomycota 34 .

spherical cells that may produce hyphae  Others are branched. some parasites 35 . aseptate hyphae  Only fungi to produce flagellate cells – for spore or gamete dispersal  Live in water or moist soil  Most decomposers.Chytridiomycota  Simplest fungi  Earliest fungal phylum  Some are single.

Zygomycota  Mycelium mostly aseptate hyphae  Produces asexual spores in sporangia  Named for zygospore produced sexually  Zygospore undergoes meiosis to produce haploid spores  Most are saprobes in soil  Some are parasites  Not monophyletic 36 .

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Glomeromycota  Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi  Only recently defined as a group  Aseptate hyphae  Only asexual reproduction using unusually large multinucleate spores  Ability of early plants to live on land may have depended on help from fungal associations 38 .

Ascomycota  Unique sporangia called asci  Produce sexual spores called ascospores  Asci produced on fruiting bodies called ascocarps  Occur in terrestrial and aquatic habitats 39 .

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apple scab  Truffles. Dutch elm disease. morels  Common lichen partner  Most yeasts including baking and brewing yeast and Candida albicans 41 . Many decomposers and parasites  Chestnut blight.

and Metabolomics  Saccharomyces cerevisiae long served as model system  Genome completely sequenced  6.Yeast Is Used as a Model System in Genomics.000 genes on 16 chromosomes  2 more genomes of close relatives  Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Ashbya gossypii  Comparative studies to examine evolution of entire genomes  Metabolomics – study of all the small molecules produced in an organism . Proteomics.

rusts and smuts as fruiting bodies  Named for basidia that produce sexual spores called basidiospores  Fruiting bodies called basidiocarps  Clamp connections help distribute nuclei during cell division  Reproduce asexually by various types of spores 43 . shelf fungi. puffballs. stinkhorns.Basidiomycota  Most recently evolved group of fungi  Important decomposers and mycorrhizal partners  Produce mushrooms.

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