1. Explain the microscopic process for elastic behavior (modulus). 2. Explain the microscopic process for plastic deformation 3. Explain the difference between engineering and true stress and strain. 4. Convert between engineering and true stress or strain 5. Know the modulus of selected representative engineering materials

___________of bonds

Elastic Deformation

Will be almost the same in tension as in compression.

Plastic Deformation
Experiment: Mg Crystal

Deformed Single Crystal

Magnesium Single Crystal

Sliding Mechanism
One closed packed plane slides past neighbor

Estimate Stress
At Saddle

Stress for Slip
Hooke’s Law:

 =G
For Mg; G = 17.2 GPa



= 8.6 x 10^3 MPa

Actual Sy = 0.7 MPa Estimated

y = 8.6 x 10 ^3 Pa

Error > 10,000 times!!

When your model produces erroneous predictions – it is wrong.

Actual Process Dislocation ____ or _____

Crystal Deformation Due to Slip

The “Carpet-Ruck” Analogy of an Edge Dislocation:

Slip Happens on “Slip Systems”
Close Packed Planes Close Packed Directions


Elastic Deformation is due to ______. Volume is not constant.

Plastic deformation is due to ______. Volume will be constant. (m = 0.5)

Symmetry of Properties

Modulus is bond stretching/compression – should be same in compression and tension. Yield behavior is caused by shear stress – which only changes direction with switch from compression to tension.

Symmetry in the elastic & plastic deformation mechanisms Materials should have same stress-strain behavior in compression and tension.

But: It is not so !

Actual Stress-Strain Behavior

Problem: Changing Area During Test

Stresses based on

Ao are inaccurate.

Remaining Problem Is In Strain Definition:

For Another Increment of 10% Strain:


Corrected Tensile Curve

Stress-Strain Conversions
Convert between true and engineering quantities:

  s (1  e)   ln(1  e)

Stress-Strain Curves are measures of _____storage and dissipation.

This applies for non-linear curves as well.

Ductile vs. Brittle

Callister, Materials Science and Engineering


Reduction of Area

Analogous to strain to failure Will give ultimate value when strain measurement doesn’t go to failure.

ROA  (

A0  Af A0

) 100

• Resistance to permanently indenting the surface. • Large hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in compression. --better wear properties.
apply known force 10 mm sphere measure size of indent after removing load


most plastics brasses Al alloys

easy to machine steels file hard

Smaller indents mean larger hardness.
cutting tools nitrided steels


increasing hardness

Hardness: Measurement

• No major sample damage • Each scale runs to 130 but only useful in range 20-100. • Minor load 10 kg • Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg

A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond

HB = Brinell Hardness
• TS (psia) = 500 x HB • TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB

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