Objectives

1. 2.

Identify and describe the three primary metallic crystal structures. Explain the terms: Anisotropic, anisotropy Polycrystalline, polycrystallinity Polymorphic, polymorphism Allotropic, allotropy

Crystal Structures
Crystal:

Lattice Constants a,b,c – lattice vectors alpha, beta, gamma – interaxial angles

Why Crystals?

Atoms arrange themselves into crystals in order to _______ their free energy. Structures that deviate from the crystalline ideal will result in _________ energies in the atoms.

Bravais
Lattices

FCC: Face Centered Cubic

FCC: Face Centered Cubic
FCC Metals Al Cu Au Pb Ni Pt Ag

Face Centered Cubic

2 a

2 a

General Characteristics FCC Metals

Fairly soft Malleable (easily formed) and do not harden much as they deform Will deform a great deal before failure

BCC: Body Centered Cubic

BCC: Body Centered Cubic
BCC Metals Cr Fe Mo P Na Ta W V

Unit Cell:

APF:

Body Centered Cubic

3 a

Unit Cell:
APF:

2 a

General Characteristics BCC Metals

Generally harder than FCC metals Will not deform as much before failure Tend to get harder as they deform

Hexagonal Close Packed

Hexagonal Close Packed
HCP Metals Cd Zn Mg Co Zr
Unit Cell: APF:

General Characteristics HCP Metals

Tend to be______ Generally will harden rapidly as they deform Cannot usually deform a lot without failure

Anisotropic- “Not Isotropic”; properties depend on ______

Wood

Isotropy
Isotropic Particle Board: Properties are ________ of ___________

Polycrystalline – containing many crystals.

Polymorphic – having different ________________. (eg Iron is BCC  FCC BCC upon cooling from liquid to room temperature)

Polymorphic – having different crystal structures. Allotropic – same as polymorphic but an elemental solid (many alloys are polymorphic, only a few elements are)

Amorphous – no structure

Self-Test

What do BCC, FCC and HCP stand for? If a metal turns from BCC to HCP structure as it is heated, is it polymorphic or polycrystalline? If a metal turns from BCC to FCC, what happens to the volume of the metal?

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