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# Lecture on

## Transmission Lines Principles

What is a Transmission Line ?
Transmission Lines are means of
conveying signals or power from one point
to another specifically from a source to
Ex: Transmitter and an antenna
Transmitter
Different Types of Transmission lines
A: outer plastic sheath
B: copper screen
C: inner dielectric insulator
D: copper core
Coaxial cable
Twin-lead is a two-conductor cable of 300
ohms characteristic Impedance commonly
used as a transmission line for balanced
connection of television antennas to their
receiving antennas.
Open wire transmission line
Planar line
MicroStrip line
Remember fields are setup given
an applied forcing function.
(Source)
How does the signal move
The signal is really the wave
propagating between the
conductors
Electric field
Magnetic field
Ground return path
X
Y
Z (into the page)
Signal path
Electric field
Magnetic field
Ground return path
X
Y
Z (into the page)
Signal path
Strip line
Presence of Electric and Magnetic Fields
V
I
I
E
+
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
V + AV
I + AI
I + AI
V
I
H
I
H
V + AV
I + AI
I + AI
Diagram of EM Fields Around Wire Pair
Both Electric and Magnetic fields are
present in the transmission lines
These fields are perpendicular to each other and to the
direction of wave propagation for TEM mode waves, which
is the simplest mode, and assumed for most
simulators(except for microstrip lines which assume
quasi-TEM, which is an approximated equivalent for
transient response calculations).
Electric field is established by a potential
difference between two conductors.
Implies equivalent circuit model must contain capacitor.
Magnetic field induced by current flowing
on the line
Implies equivalent circuit model must contain inductor.

General Transmission-Line Equations
ordinary electric
network
discrete circuit elements
or lumped parameters
transmission line distributed-parameters
+
-
+
-
z GA z CA
z LA z RA
( ) z,t i ( ) z,t z i A +
( ) z,t z v A + ( ) z,t v
Equivalent circuit of a differential length of a 2-
conductor transmission line
z A
( ) ( )
( )
( )
t
z,t i
z,t i
z,t v z,t z v
c
c
+ =
A
A +
L R
z
( )
( )
( )
t
z,t i
z,t i
z
z,t v
c
c
+ =
c
c
L R
From KCL,

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
t
z,t z v
z,t z v z,t z i z,t i
c
A + c
A + A + A + A + = z C z G

( )
( )
( )
t
z,t v
z,t v
z
z,t i
c
c
+ =
c
c
C G
(3)
(4)
From KVL,
( ) ( )
( )
( ) z,t z v
t
z,t i
z,t i z,t v A + +
c
c
A + A = z L z R
From (3) and (4), we have
( )
( )V C j G
I
I L j R
V
e
e
+ =
+ =
dz
d
dz
d
(*)
For time harmonic case,
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ] [ Re t z, i
] [ Re t z, v
t j
t j
e z I
e z V
e
e
=
=
Time-harmonic transmission-line equations
Wave characteristics on an infinite transmission line :
V
dz
V d
2
2
2
=
and
I
dz
I d
2
2
2
=
Propagation constant:
( )( ) C j G L j R j e + e + = | + o =
( )
1
m

Solutions:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z
o
z
o
z
o
z
o
e I e I
z I z I z I
e V e V
z V z V z V

+
+
+
+
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
o : attenuation constant (Np/m)
From (*),
( ) ( )( )
z
o
z
o
z
o
z
o
e I e I L j R e V e V
+ +
+ e + = +
dz
d

e +
=
+
+
L j R
I
V
o
o

e +
=

L j R
I
V
o
o
&

For a semi-infinite line with the source at the left end,
there are no reflected waves. We have
( ) ( )
z
o
e V z V z V
+ +
= =
( ) ( )
z
o
e I z I z I
+ +
= =
( )
( ) z I
z V
Z
o
=
for an semi-infinite long line is called the
characteristic impedance of the line.
And
( )
( )
C j G
L j R
C j G
L j R
z I
z V
Z
o
e
e
e

e
+
+
=
+
=
+
=
=
Notes :
1. and Z
0
are characteristic properties of a transmission line
whether or not it is infinite long.
2. Z
0
depends on R, L, G, C and e only, not length of line
Special cases
A) Lossless line: R=0, G=0
0
1
0
0
0
0 0
=
=
= + =
= =
=
=
= + =
X
C
L
R
C
L
jX R Z
LC
u
LC
LC j j
o
p
|
e
e |
o
e | o
LC
C
L
G
L
C
R
C
G
L
R
j
LC j
C j
G
L j
R
LC j
C j
G
L j
R
LC j j
e |
o
e
e
e e
e
e e
e | o
~
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ + ~
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
2 1 2 1
B) Low-loss line:
At very high frequencies, R<<eL & G<< eC
LC
1
u
p
~
0
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
0
0
2 1 2 1
0 0
~
|
.
|

\
|
~
~
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ ~
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
C
G
L
R
C
L
X
C
L
R
C
G
L
R
j C
L
C j
G
L j
R
C
L
C j
G
L j
R
C
L
jX R Z
o
e
e
e e
e e
C) Distortionless line:
C
G
L
R
=
( )( )
( )
( )
LC
u
LC
L
C
R
L j R
L
C
C j
L
RC
L j R
C j G L j R
p
1
=
=
=
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+ + =
e |
o
e
e e
e e
Notes :
1. In general, the phase constant of a lossy line is not a linear
function of e, thus o and u
p
will depends on frequency. A
lossy line is dispersive.
2. Distortionless line with constant o and u
p
(independent of
frequency)
0
0
0
0 0
=
=
=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
= + =
X
C
L
R
C
L
C j
L
RC
L j R
jX R Z
o
e
e
2.3 attenuation constant from power relations:
For an infinitely long line,
( )
( )
( )
( )z j
o
o
z j
o
e
Z
V
z I
e V z V
| o
| o
+
+
=
=
( ) ( )( ) | | C j G L j R e e o + + = = Re Re
( ) ( ) ( )
z
o
o
z
o
o
o
z
o
o
o
o
o
z
o
o
o
av
Z
V
Z
V
Z
Z
V
Z
Z
V
Z
V
V
z I z V z P
o
o
o o
2
o
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
*
*
2
1
2
*
*
2
1
*
2
1
e R
2
] e [ Re
] e [ Re ] e [ Re
] [ Re

=
=
= =
=
From law of conservation of energy,
( )
( ) z P
z P
L
av
=
c
c

z
P
L
time-average power
loss/unit length
( )
( ) z P
e R
Z
V z P
av
z
o
o
o av
o
o
o
2
2
2
z
2
2
2
=
=
c
c

( ) ( ) z P z P 2
L av
= o
av
L
P 2
P
= o
(*)
( ) z P
av
( ) z z P
L
A
( ) z z P
av
A +
z z z A +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
= ~
C
L
G
L
C
R
GR
R
R
C L R Z
o
o
o o
2
1
2
1
o
b, For low-loss line,
For distortionless line,
L
C
R
C
L
R
G
L
C
R
C L R Z
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
= =
1
2
1
/
0 0
o
C
G
L
R
=
3 Wave characteristics on Finite Transmission Lines
In circuit theory, maximum power transfer occurs under
matched condition when the load impedance is the
complex conjugate of the source impedance.
In transmission line terminology, a line is matched when
the load impedance is equal to the characteristic
impedance of the line.
i.e. No reflected power.
g
Z
L
Z
+
-
i
V
i
Z
g
V
+ +
- -
) Z , (
o

+
-
V(z)
( ) z Z
( ) z I
L
I
z=l
z=0
z
z=0
z=l
i
I
L
V
As
( )
( )

=
+ =

+
+
z
o
o
z
o
o
z
o
z
o
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
z I
e V e V z V

(1)

=
+ =

+
+
l
o
o
l
o
o
L
l
o
l
o L
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
I
e V e V V

At z=l
( )
( )

=
+ =

+
l
o L L o
l
o L L o
e Z I V V
e Z I V V

2
1
2
1
or
( )
( )

=
+ =

+
l
o L
L
o
l
o L
L
o
e Z Z
I
V
e Z Z
I
V

2
2
or
) Z
I
V
(
L
L
L
=
(1) becomes
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
| |
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
| |

+ =
+ + =

z l
o L
z l
o L
o
L
z l
o L
z l
o L
L
e Z Z e Z Z
Z
I
z I
e Z Z e Z Z
I
z V

2
2
(2)
Let z=l-z, we have
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( ) | |

+ =
'
+ + =
'

' '
' '
2
2
z
o L
z
o L
o
L
z
o L
z
o L
L
e Z Z e Z Z
Z
I
z I
e Z Z e Z Z
I
z V

( ) ( )
( ) ( )

+ =
'
+ =
'
' cosh ' sinh
' sinh ' cosh
z Z z Z
Z
I
z I
z Z z Z I z V
o L
o
L
o L L

or
The impedance looking toward the load end of the line
at a distance z from the load is
( )
( )
( )
' tanh
' tanh
' cosh ' sinh
' sinh ' cosh
z Z Z
z Z Z
Z
z Z z Z
z Z z Z
Z
z I
z V
z Z
L o
o L
o
o L
o L
o

+
+
=
+
+
=
'
'
=
'
' sinh 2
' cosh 2
' '
' '
z e e
z e e
z z
z z

=
= +

(3)
( )
l Z Z
l Z Z
Z Z Z
L o
o L
o
l z
z
i

tanh
tanh
0
+
+
= =
= '
=
Conditions at the generator
g
Z
g
V
+ +
- -
i
I
i
V
i
Z
g
i g
i
i
V
Z Z
Z
V
+
=
,
i g
g
i
Z Z
V
I
+
=
Power delivered to the input terminals:
( ) | |
l z
z
i i
i
av
I V P
= '
=
=
0
*
Re
2
1
The input impedance :
( ) | |
L L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L L
z
l z
L L L av
R I
R
Z
V
Z
Z
Z
V V
I V P
2
2
*
*
0
*
2
1
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
=
=
(

=
=
= '
=
For lossless line,
( ) ( )
L
av
i
av
P P =
If , from (3), , then from (2),
o L
Z Z =
o i
Z Z =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

=
=

z
L
z
o L
e e I z I
e e Z I z V

l
l
as
( )
( )
l
l
0
0

e I I I
e Z I V V
L i
o L i
= =
= =
( )
( )

=
=

z
i
z
i
e I z I
e V z V

a wave travelling in
+z direction
When a finite transmission line is terminated with its own
characteristic impedance, the voltage and current
distributions on the line are exactly the same as though
the line had been extended to infinity.
3.1 Transmission Lines used as circuit elements
Ordinary lumped-circuit elements are difficult to make
at UHF, as stray fields become important.
L
Z
l
i
Z
For loss-less, =j|, Z
0
= R
0

( )
l jZ R
l jR Z
R Z
l j l j l
L o
o L
o i
|
|
| |
tan
tan
tan tanh tanh
+
+
=
= =

Special cases
1 Open-circuit termination

L
Z
l jR
l j
R
l j
Z
R
l
Z
R
j
R Z
o
o
L
o
L
o
o i
|
|
|
|
cot
tan
tan
tan 1
=
=
+
+
=
(purely reactive)
io i
jX Z =
when
l cot | =
o io
R X
l
io
X
4

4
3
4
5
2

inductive
capacitive
2 Short-circuit termination
l jR
jX Z
Z
o
is i
L
| tan
0
=
=
=
l
is
X
2

inductive
capacitive
(purely reactive)
Quarter-wave sections (Quarter-wave transformer)
=
=
=
l
l
l
|
t |

tan
2
4
L
2
o
i
Z
R
Z =
it transforms Z
L
to the input terminals as its inverse
multiplied by R
0
2
.
e.g. a short-circuit quarter wave line appears as an open
circuit.
4 Half-wave sections
L i
Z Z
l
l
l
=
=
=
=
0 tan
2
|
t |

Measurement of Z
0
and : (apply whether line is lossy or not)
Open-circuited line l coth =
o io
Z Z
Short-circuited line l tanh =
o is
Z Z
io
is
is io o
Z
Z
l
Z Z Z
1
tanh
1

=
=

## 3.2 Lines with arbitrary terminations

( )
( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
( )
( ) | |
' 2 '
' 2 '
' '
1
2
1
2
2
z z
o L
L
z
o L
o L
z
o L
L
z
o L
z
o L
L
z
o
z
o
e e Z Z
I
e
Z Z
Z Z
e Z Z
I
e Z Z e Z Z
I
e V e V z V

+
I + + =
(

+ + =
+ + =
+ =
voltage reflection coefficient:
I
I =
+

= = I
+

u j
o L
o L
o
o
e
Z Z
Z Z
V
V
Is the ratio of the complex amplitudes of the reflected
and incident voltage waves at the load (z=0)
( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )

'
+
'
=
'
'
+
'
=
'

I + =
'
I + + =
'

z
R
V
j z I z I
z R jI z V z V
e e Z Z
Z
I
z I
e e Z Z
I
z V
L
L
L L
z z
o L
o
L
z z
o L
L
| |
| |

sin cos
sin cos
1
2
1
2
0
0
' 2 '
' 2 '
Standing-wave ratio (SWR):
The ratio of the maximum to minimum voltage
along a finite terminated line.
I
I +
= =
1
1
V
V
S
min
max
(S-symbol of SWR)
1 S
1 S
+

= I
(4)
u u
u u
sin sinh
cos cosh
j j
j
=
=
For lossless line,
I=0 S=1 when Z
L
= Z
0
I=-1 S when Z
L
=0 (short circuit)
I=+1 S when Z
L
(open circuit)
S 20
10
log
min
max
min
max
V
V
I
I
S = =
a high SWR on a line is undesirable because it results in
a large power loss.
Note: 1. log. scale:
2. From (4) :
0
max min
0
min max
,
,
R
R
I I I I
R
R
V V V V
L
L L
L
L L
= =
= =
1 S
1 S
+

= I
t | u =
I
'
2
m
z
r
r
j
j
o o L
e 1
e 1
R
1
1
R Z
u
u
I
I +
=
I
I +
=
* the voltage minima of a standing wave are sharper than
the voltage maxima.
Z
L
=?
Z
m

( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
| |
I
I

I + + =
I + + =
'
= I = I
u |

u
|
' 2 '
' 2 '
1
2
1
2
,
z j z
o L
L
z z
o L
L
j
e e Z Z
I
e e Z Z
I
z V
j e
For Voltage minimum,
( )
t u |
u |
=
=
I

I
' 2
1
' 2
z
e
z j
2

Questions ?

Thank you

Smith Chart
The real part of r +jx
Constant r circles
Constant x circles
Superimposition of constant x and constant
r circles gives smith chart
Some examples using Smith chart
1 st Example
2
nd
example
3
rd
Example
4
th
example
5
th
example
Single-stub matching:
d
l
L
Z
B
y
i
y
s
y o
R
L
y
o
R
Requirement:
o i
Y Y =
or
o s B
Y Y Y = +
or 1 y y
s B
= +
For short-circuit stub,
B s
jb y =
B B
jb 1 y + = (b
B
is real)
Hence, we have to find d such that has a unity real part
and to find the length l of the stub required to cancel the
imaginary part.
B
y
N.B. short-circuited stub is preferred.
g=1 circle
SC
OC
L
y
L
z
B
jb
B
jb
B 1 B
jb 1 y + =
(2)
(5)
(4)
(3)
(1)
Short-circuited stub