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Determinant of job performance:

to perform

Capacity to Opportunity to
perform perform

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Three distinct components:

• Level:
• amount of effort of person put forth
• Direction:
• what the person chooses when
presented with a number of possible
• Persistence:
• how long a person stick with a given

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The starting point: Individu
• The diversity results in different
behavioral patterns that are some
manner related to needs and goals.

– Needs: deficiencies an individual

experiences at a particular time.

– Goals/outcome: that employee seeks are

viewed as forces that attract the person.

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The Motivational Process:
Need deficiencies Search for ways
reassessed by to
the employee satisfy needs

The employee

Rewards or Goal directed

punishments behavior

(evaluation of
goal accomplishment)
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Managerial Perspective
of content and process theories
of motivation
• Content: factors within the person that
energize, direct, sustain, and stop behavior.
These factors can only be inferred.

• Process: describes, explains, and analysed

how behavior is energized, directed,
sustained, and stopped.
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Content Theory
• Maslow; five level need hierarchy
– Higher order needs:
• Self actualisation
• Esteem

– Lower order needs:

• Social
• Safety
• physiological
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• Alderfer’s ERG theory:
– Existence:
• Desires for physiological and material well being

– Relatedness:
• Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships

– Growth:
• desire for continued personal growth and

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• McClelland acquired needs theory:
– Need for achievement:
• Desire to do something better, solve problem or
master complex tasks

– Need for affiliation:

• Desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm
reactions with others

– Need for power:

• Desire to control others, influence their behavior
and responsible for them
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• Herzberg; two major factors called hygiene
and motivators
– hygiene factors (associated with the job
context- factors related to a person’s work
• Are dissatisfiers that are associated with aspects of a
person’s work setting
Policies, procedures
Working conditions
Interpersonal relationship
Quality of supervision
Base salary

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• motivators: related to the job content- factors related
to what people actually do in their work)
– are satisfier that are associated with what people actually
do in their work

• Measurement scales:
– Satisfaction no satisfaction
– Dissatisfaction no dissatisfaction

• Effective managers have to achieve:

– Maximise satisfaction through improving job content
– Minimise job dissatisfaction by improving job context

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• What managers must do to create a work
environment that satisfies positively to
individual needs:
– Understand how individual differ in what they
need from their work
– Know what can be offered to these individuals
in response to their needs
– Know how to create work settings that give
people opportunity to satisfy their needs by
contributing to the task performance of the
work unit and the organisation

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Process Theory
• Adams; equity theory based on
comparisons that individual make. Feeling
inequity is motivating state of mind
– Felt negative inequity: exists when individuals
feel they have receive relatively less than others
have in proportion to work inputs
– Felt positive inequity: exists when individuals
feel they have receive relatively more than
others have
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• Vroom; an expectancy theory of choices
– Argues that work motivation is determined by
individual beliefs regarding effort-performance
relationship and the desirabilities of various work
outcomes associated with different performance levels

• Three key terms:

– Expectancy;
• The probability assigned by an individual that work effort will
be followed by a given level achieved task performance
– Instrumentality;
• The probability assigned by the individual that a given level
achieved task performance will lead to various outcomes
– Valence;
• Represent the values attached by the individual to various
work outcomes

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– Modification:
• Extrinsic rewards:
– Positively valued work outcomes that are given to the
individual by some other person in the work setting
• Intrinsic rewards
– Positively valued work outcomes that are received by the
individual directly as a result of task performance

• Locke; goal setting theory that conscious

goals and intentions are the determinants of

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