You are on page 1of 34

Research was made in order to understand the value orientations of Filipinos and to identify what values Filipino workers

have that helps enhance or hamper productivity. Three studies were conducted to find out how Filipinos assimilated the corporate values used by corporations run by people trained in the tradition of high performing western organizations.

1st study Randomized Sample 2nd study 6 Banks ( 3 Private & 3 Public) 3rd study 3 Family Owned Corporations 7 Research Sites: Manila, Tacloban, Naga, Legaspi, Cebu, Butuan, and Davao

Power Distance subordinate superior relationship.

The higher the power distance index, the more

accepting the subordinate is of unequal influence or power in the organization.

Uncertainty Avoidance related to anxiety, need for security, and dependence on experts.
The higher the Uncertainty Avoidance means

more reliance on rule orientation and less risk taking.

Individualism describes the relationship between the individual and the collectivity.
It is closely related to need for achievement,

individual initiative and drive for excellence.

Masculinity related to work vs social orientation.

Masculine respondents tended to be more

assertive. Feminine respondents tended to be more nurturing.

Filipinos have very high power distance.

Employees from private banks have higher

power distance than those working for publicly owned banks. Individualism is higher for those with higher education, those belonging to higher social classes.

There are two ways people can work;

Individual/Alone you are your own boss. Collective/Group everybody works together,

can count on one another and has a say in the decision making process.

Individualism encourages individual freedom and responsibility. However, we do not want to degenerate into self centeredness (maka sarili or kanya kanya) or forced compromise ( we are very good at passive aggressive resistance) so we must Encourage individuals to work for consensus in the interests of the group. We need to avoid conformism and slow decision making so we must. Give clear objectives that need individual initiatives and accountability to succeed.

Filipinos are collectivists by nature. Our sense of self is tied into our relationship

with other people. Filipinos only become individualist as we are educated and socialized through western ladders of education. Individual achievement
merit increases commissions

Open to Suggestions Concern for Customer Recognize job well done Treat sub as professional Task Oriented Encourages employees to do best Considerate Sensitive to the needs of sub Aware of employees morale Supportive Professional Attitude

MakaDios Professionalism Excellence Innovativeness Customer Orientation Teamwork

Maserbisyo sa Customer Maaasahan Mapagkakatiwalaan Masipag May Pagkakaisa Serioso sa trabaho Marunong Makisama May Pagmamalasakit

Predominant culture

Implies importance of personalized relationships Implies large power distance Implies the importance of non-material rewards Importance of recognition and appreciation of a job well done.

Downside of Family Culture

Turfism Politics Unhealthy Competition Complacency Unprofessionalism

Divided loyalties are uncomfortable Management by subjectives rather than by

objectives works better Universalism is weak Motivated more by praise than by money

Encouraging Motivating Supportive Inspiring Trusting Allowing employees to work independently Respecting freedom of choice Mentoring Gives allowance for self-discovery and improvement Handles people well - The higher the position, the more individualistic and the higher the need for achievement.

Value Orientation across the 7 research sites

Butuan Highest Power Distance Naga Highest Uncertainty Avoidance, most

Rule Oriented Davao Lowest Masculinity, most Socially Oriented Manila Highest on Masculinity/Work Orientation, Manila & Legaspi Lowest Uncertainty Avoidance, less Rule Oriented.

Intermingling of work and play seems to be part of the Filipino philosophy and depends on the Filipinos world view which is non-dualistic (a philosophy of harmonizing opposites). Westerners world view may be called horizontal Duty before pleasure leisure is separate from work making human activity linear in a progression of becauses. Filipinos world view on the other hand may be called vertical blending or work and leisure. Working is more personalistic with leisure being a part of it.


He marries because he


wants to propagate. He goes to school because he wants to find a place in society. He works because he wants to earn money to buy his needs. He works harder to get a promotion.

Planting and harvesting

while singing, drinking & eating. Fishermen roasting their catch and drinking tuba on the seashore. Market vendors gossiping and listening to the radio. Office worker stress not pure work but the pleasure of camaraderie.

Only after retirement is the person expected to fully enjoy life and pursue leisure.

Combining pleasure with work.

To work hard in the hot Philippine climate is not healthy Jose Rizal ( 1861-1896) On the Indolence of the Filipinos People in colder climates work harder than those in mild climates Aristotle (384-320B.C.) The type of climate a nation has dictates its peoples housing, clothes, agriculture and industry.
People in temperate countries plan ahead because

nothing grows during their winter season unlike the Philippines where there is no winter and it is green the entire year. Regional differences can also be attributed to geographical and climate differences.

Philippine Society is highly stratified and hierarchic. There is a huge gap between the Big People and the Small People even during the pre-colonial times.

Datu (ruling class) Maharlika (The nobility) Timagua (The common class or freemen) Alipin (The service, dependent class)

The philosophy of work and leisure should be in the context of harmony between the Big and Small People.

Filipino and Chinese style are very different. Filipinos as considered worldly and impatient because instead of starting small and working diligently to prosper, Filipinos tend to start big and spend more money because he wants to enjoy the present and let tomorrow take care of itself.

Pusong Tales are intended primarily for entertainment but it is not just purely for jokes because these folklores mirrors a peoples philosophy.
Huwan Pusung Juan Tamad/Sadut

Pusong does not consider work seriously just for the sake of work. Leisure must always be included if work is to be done.

Two of the most notable findings of the study conducted about Human Resource Management:
1. There are indications that HR Departments

participation in the strategic decision-making of their firms are increasing 2. Human Resource Management is increasingly recognized as somewhat of a profession with a body of specialized knowledge, a service objective, a code of ethics and an organized professional society or association.

Globalization Growth of Multicultural Corporations Improved Technologies downsizing, demographics, work attitudes, changing work ethics, environmental considerations, education and competency needs, and available resources

Key HR Activities: Strong Involvement

Low to Moderate Involvement

Traditional Personnel Management Safety Programs US & Canada (High),

Philippines (Implemented by Operations Units) Work Teams Suggestion System Time and Motion Studies Quality Circles Child Care Private Firms (Low) , Government Sector (High)

Key HR Activities Recruiting Record Keeping of personnel files HR planning Selection Hiring Job Evaluation Forms Contracts with HR Consultants Job Description Compensation: Application Compensation: Design Employee Recognition Performance Appraisal Leave Privileges Job Analysis Hr Research Exit Interview Incentive/Merit Pay Management Training Basic Job Training Employee Insurance

Percent 93.42 93.42 90.78 84.21 82.89 78.95 77.63 75.00 75.00 73.68 72.37 72.37 72.37 69.74 69.74 69.74 69.73 68.42 67.11 67.01

Key HR Activities Grievance Procedure Promotions Involuntary Separation Fitness Programs Organization Reviews Control Descipline Job Design Changes Transfer Pension Career Counseling Bonus Plans Job Enrichment Job Enlargement Co-Sponsored Education Voluntary Separation Contract Negotiation Suggestion System Safety Programs Quality Circles Work Teams Time and Motion Study Child Care Program

Percent 64.47 63.16 63.16 63.15 61.84 59.21 55.26 52.63 52.63 52.63 51.32 51.32 50 50 47.37 46.06 36.84 34.21 31.58 31.58 21.06 5.27

Majority of insiders and outsiders view the personnel office as aid. Half felt that insider and outsiders believe that personnel people provided leadership in hiring and promoting the most qualified candidates Majority believed that personnel office speaks a generally understood language. Large majority look at personnel programs as having respect and confidence of employees in the organization. Majority disagreed that people inside the organization felt that HRD exist primarily for Management.

HRM is recognized by the public as a profession Has service objective Has a body of specialized knowledge There is a collegiality among practitioners It has a code of ethics It has an organized professional society or association.

If HR Departments are to assert their importance in the organization, a more strategic role must be assumed. Link of HR functions and activities with strategic goals of the organization.
Rewards system must match w/ the organizations

strategies Performance appraisal needs to be adjusted to reinforce behaviors that will help accomplish goals. Training and development must be tied to the overall strategic objectives of the organization. Human resource planning must take into account the organizations business strategy.

3 HR Activities most successfully implemented

1. Training and Development 2. Recruitment 3. Compensation

HR Department is characterized as Medium when it comes to perception of prestige as an organization compared to other departments. HRM function is best measured by
Benefit plans they coordinate Cost effectiveness of activities Training programs carried out

Although most of the organizations surveyed have performance appraisal, it is still one of the least successful activities of HR departments because it is considered ineffective. Because of a network linking HR departments information sharing is possible. 2 Significant Change in the past years

1. Change from procedural and reactive to

strategic and employee-oriented 2. Professionalism

Although most of the organizations surveyed have performance appraisal, it is still one of the least successful activities of HR departments because it is considered ineffective. Because of a network linking HR departments information sharing is possible. 2 Significant Change in the past years

1. Change from procedural and reactive to

strategic and employee-oriented 2. Professionalism

1. Employee Empowerment 2. Outsourcing HR Functions 3. Changing Work Designs, Styles, and

Environment due to information technology and computerization.

Renewed efforts on both employers and government policy makers to emphasize HR Development. There is a need to reorient ways and means by which HRM is carried out. Management must look closely into the needs of its workers by involving them as partners. ( HR - strategic partner of management) Shift towards professionalizing HR function as the preparation for the strategic role of HR Departments strategic role in the organization.

Filipinos agree with everything you say Start things without finishing them

Ningas Cogon a vivid metaphor for a flash

of enthusiasm which quickly fades away

Have no sense of public responsibility

Bayanihan working together does not

extend beyond those who are personally acquainted.

Pre-occupied with politics