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INTRODUCTION •Magnetorheological fluids are a new class of materials whose rheological properties may be rapidly varied by applying a magnetic field. • This change is in proportion to the magnitude of the magnetic field applied and is immediately reversible •The MR fluid which is essentially a free flowing liquid in the absence of magnetic field •Under a strong magnetic field it exhibits solid-like characteristics with yield stress upto 100kPa •The viscosity change occurs in a very short time (milliseconds) .
•Unlike ER fluids MR fluids require lower voltage for activation. •Beginning of 1960’s ER fluids were much experimented on and interest on MR fluids was less. •Resurgence of interest in MR fluids emerged in response to limitations in ER fluids and advancements in MR fluid materials. . sensitivity to contaminants etc .HISTORY •Was discovered by Jacob Rabinow in 1940’s. and are less sensitive to contaminants. low yield stress. posses higher yield strength. •First patent was applied by him in 1947. •ER fluids faced a lot of practical difficulties like need for high voltage supply.
When exposed to magnetic field. These particles are suspended a carrier liquid. suspended particles polarize to form a structure aligned with the magnetic field that resists flow This change in the material results in increased viscosity and the fluid turns into a semisolid state The viscosity change is controlled by the strength of the of magnetic field This phenomenon is reversible and the free flowing state is recovered immediately when the field is removed .CHARACTERISTICS MR fluids consists of micron sized . magnetically polarizable particles.
nickel alloys . oMost commonly used is iron carbonyl powder as they have a spherical shape and fine particle size (1-10µm). oThe iron particle volume fraction (20%-40%) should be carefully chosen based on requirements of yield strength in on state and fluid viscosity in off state. oSilicone oils though inferior but have a wide temperature range and are used in situations where hydrocarbon oils are not suitable oWater offers higher yield strength in on state and lower viscosity in off state of MR Fluid but are suitable only where evaporation is negligible . magnetic stainless steels and ferrites can be used. 2. durability.COMPOSITION •A typical MR fluid consists of 20% to 40% by volume of pure iron particles suspended in a carrier liquid with additives to discourage gravitational settling. Silicone oils and water are also used for special applications oHydrocarbon oils are the carrier of choice because of their good lubricity.cobalt.Carrier liquid oThe most commonly used carrier fluids are hydrocarbon oils.Magnetically polarizable particles oPowdered iron. promote particle suspension increase lubricity and inhibit wear •Thus the composition of MR fluids can be broken down into 3 parts 1. and availability of a wide range of additives.
•Under the influence of a magnetic field the behavior can be described by a Bingham plastic model •A Bingham plastic is a non-Newtonian fluid whose yield stress must be exceeded before flow can begin. Thereafter. Additives o Additives are used to discourage sedimentation prevent agglomeration. •In the absence of an applied field. prevent oxidation. PROPERTIES •The most important property is the magnetic field dependent yield strength •The yield strength ranges from 25kPa to a maximum of 100kPa depending on the volume fraction of iron particles and the magnetic field. enhance lubricity. shear stress curve is linear. the rate-of-shear vs.COMPOSITION 3. MR fluids are reasonably well approximated as Newtonian liquids. and inhibit wear o Sedimentation is typically controlled by the use of organic or inorganic thixotropic agents and surfactants oSome of the additives used are stearate and thiosulphate. . modify viscosity.
dampers. shear mode (clutch mode) and squeeze mode (compression mode) or any combination of these three. shock absorbers and actuators etc. FLOW MODE •MR fluid flows through the annular space and a magnetic field is applied transverse to the flow direction •Valve mode operation is most commonly found in MR fluid devices such as servo valves.MODES OF OPERATION The modes of operation for MR fluid devices are flow mode (fixed plate mode. valve mode). .
chucking and locking devices .MODES OF OPERATION SHEAR MODE •In the shear mode. the MR fluid is located between surfaces moving (sliding or rotating) in relation to each other with the magnetic field flowing perpendicularly to the direction of motion of these shear surfaces •Examples of the shear mode include clutches. brakes.
•The squeeze mode has been used in some small-amplitude vibration dampers.MODES OF OPERATION SQUEEZE MODE • In the squeeze mode. . •In this mode relatively high forces can be achieved • this mode is especially suitable for the damping of vibrations with low amplitudes (up to a few millimeters) and high dynamic forces. the distance between the parallel pole plates changes. which causes a squeeze flow.
it is useful in applications where variable performance is desired Coupled with electronic devices real time control is possible with use of MR systems 1. o When compared to traditional systems. ride quality and overall vehicle performance.APPLICATIONS Because the state of MR materials can be controlled by the strength of an applied magnetic field. . Semi active automobile suspensions o Magneto-Rheological controllable shock absorbers (MR Suspensions) improve vehicle performance by reacting and adapting to terrain and other conditions thousands of times per second. o MR Suspensions are suitable for a wide range of applications from lightweight vehicles to heavy trucks and combat vehicles. MR Suspensions provide improved dynamic stability.
APPLICATIONS 2. Heavy duty vehicle seat suspensions .
Brakes and clutches •Another commercial use for MR fluids is rotary brakes which can be used for exercise equipment. steer-by-wire systems. •This device offers high controllability.APPLICATIONS 3. fast response time (10 to 30 milliseconds) and requires very low power. . and other similar Applications •One application is in aerobic exercise machine. efficient torque transfer in clutch devices. Here MR brake is used in conjunction with velocity feedback where the torque is controlled in real time such that the user is forced to maintain a desired target speed profile. •MR fluid is used provide smooth. pneumatic actuators.
•Coupled with a combination of sensors and controllers. ranging from uphill and downhill motion to stairs. Dampers for gait control in prosthetic device •The device with MR fluid dampers dramatically improves the mobility of leg amputees by mimicking a natural gait.APPLICATIONS 4. and even bicycling . the device can adapt to varying movements.
APPLICATIONS 5. Vibration dampers in civil structures The Dong Ting Lake Bridge in China is equipped with Magnetorheological motion dampers to counteract gusts of wind MR dampers in building to absorb earthquake vibrations .
MR dampers have an operating temperature range of -40° C to 130° C. semi-active MR dampers fail-safe to a passive damping mode Limitations: Higher cost of equipment Settling of particles and agglomeration if not used for long time .provides real time control by continuously optimizing rheology of the fluid to meet requirements High dynamic range Wide temperature range-. Continual optimization.ADVANTAGES High dissipative force at low velocity-damping force is not entirely dependant on velocity which enables superior damping even at low velocities. with no significant variation in performance Mechanical simplicity-MR damper valves have no moving parts. reducing maintenance concerns and potential expense Fast response-time-Because MR damper valves have no moving parts. their response time is significantly faster than that of variable-orifice dampers Small device size Inherent stability and failure-safety-Unlike active dampers that require large power sources.
CONCLUSIONS In contrast to conventional electro-mechanical solutions. which can fail- safe to passive damping mode) Inherent system stability (no active forces generated) In contrast to electro-rheological (ER) fluids. MR fluids: Are 20-50 times stronger Are significantly less sensitive to contaminants and extremes in temperature Can be operated directly from low voltage power supply. MR technology offers: Quick response time (less than 10 milliseconds) Real-time. MR technology can provide flexible control capabilities in designs that are far less complicated and more reliable than those based on ER technology. fail-safe to battery backup. . 1 Amp max current. continuously variable control of damping Simple design (few or no moving parts) Consistent efficacy across extreme temperature variations High dissipative force independent of velocity Greater energy density Minimal power usage (typically 12V.
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