Spirituality and its discourses among the Muslim youth, looking from the lens of an insider and observer

Prof Dato Yusuf Morales

Understanding and research forms an essential part of knowledge building and knowledge generation in the human sciences. Human sciences such as sociology, antropology and education are sciences that focus on understanind of human dynamics and how humans interact with each other.


Is there a relation or marked difference between spirituality and religiosity among Muslim youth

Every aspect of human endeavour to Muslims is an act of worship Devotional = Ibadah Transactional Muamalat

Secular definitions of the sacred and religiousity appear to have clear cut definitions that may appear not significant to Muslims unless the young Muslim has been brought up in either a purely secular environment or educated in a secular educational institution.

One must understand that even Urf (customs) and Addat (traditions) are considered extensions of his religion persona

A Muslim's worldview

there is no separation between the secular and the religious. pervades both the religious, spiritual, secular and material plane, this in varying degrees according to a Muslim's depth of understanding.

Where does a Muslim take his worldview from?

A worldview is taken from ones understanding and processing of knowledge that is made available to him.

Sources of knowledge

I. The foundational Sources : Quran and the Sunnah II.Ijma al-Ulama (concensus of the Learned) III.Qiyas (analogy) IV.Secondary sources (scholars works) V.Other sources of knowledge

two types of knowledge that primarilly shapes his understanding of life
I.Uloom Ilahiyah (divine or revealed sciences) II.Uloom Naqliyah (textual or intellectual sciences)
all fields of knowledge and understanding are considered part of islam, cultural norms commonly known in Moro culture as "addat " (customary law) becomes informally becomepart of the Islamic corpus of beliefs

Khilafatul Ard (God's Vicegerent on Earth) : Part of His covenant with Mankind

Manifestation of spirituality

Salafism : Gharbzadeghi / Black and white isolationism Nurcu Movements (Risale Noor and Gullen movements) : Integration and adaptation Shii Movements : Integration and adaptation

Young Muslims..

Modernity, secularism as the excuse for new beliefs they get from the environment, specifically things that may run counter to established mores and beliefs which are considered contrary to Islamic teachings.

There is a sense of appreciation that this beliefs that may seemingly run counter to what they perceive as Islamic , as "calls of listless youthfullness" that would eventually be tempered with time. And that in their youth, they have a sense of "pause status" with things that they seem to find totally against tenets and eventually develop a sense of being on a "status quo" until they are ready to "let go" of these beliefs or practices.

There is no clear dividing line between the sacred and violable
Dharurat Islamiyah values) 1. Religion 2. Life 3. Lineage 4.Honor 5. Property (Islamic immutable

Does “new religious movements,” “newage movements,” “megachurch phenomenon,” and the like influence the understanding of sacred in young Muslims? Though this may be the trend in the west, Islam faces a different reality in this issue

Islam comes from a tradition of reform (Islah)

Islam basically came as a reform movement in order to bring people right on track. Islah (renovation/reform) is a continous process in the Islamic tradition

REVIVALISTS and their Movements
i.Imam Ghazzali : Ihya ulumuddin ii.Imam Sirhindi : Naqshabandi Mujadidi movement iii.Bediuzzaman Said: Nursi Resale Noor movement iv.Fethullah Gullen : Gullen Movement v.Imam Khomeini and Ali Shariati : Islamic Revolution

Islamic ethos possesses what is described as khidmat (service) better known in its turkish equivalent as Hizmet Islami (Service in the welfare of Islam), this is best reflected in service to both the community and humanity.

Risalatul Huqooq (treatise on rights)
1. Towards God 2. towards oneself 3. towards others (family, neighbors, associates and even strangers) 4. material possessions and the environment 5. society and the state 6. other aspects of human endeavour

Social and spiritual life is inseparable

Traditional Muslim scholarship shows that the terminologies of Imam, Ameer (commander) and Khalifa (caliph) has been interchanged in referrence to both spiritual and temporal leadership.

”Hizmet ve Khoda ast Hizmet Insani”
Reflective examples can be seen in 1. Nurcu movement (Risale noor) which has shown its service to Community (cemaat islami) and to Humanity 2. Khairul Barriyah Movement, which conducts community outreach programs as the servants of Imam Mahdi (atfs).
Both organizations regularly serve the community believing that serving the community is an extension of their service to Islam

Every year

These groups based in the Philippines hold summer youth camps, whose focus in on spiritual enrichment and inculcation of the consciousness of serving the community.

At the end of these youth camps, young Muslims are required to prepare projcts that are both within the ambit of their personal capacity and understanding. Among the projects some of the these youths proposed were seen as a manifestation of their community spirit such as “support your masjid programs”, “ Community Garage sale” , “donate your spare books and hijabs” among others.

Muslim youths may be probably raised in a secular environment living with youths of other religions but they (muslims) come from a tradition of an integrationist persepective viewing all parts of human endeavour as part of spirituality.

: 1. Strong community spirit which is reflective of the jamaat islami (Islamic community) charachter 2. Strong bonding with other members of their religious organization manifesting the ashabiyah (brotherhood) 3. Strong desire to have this spirituality shared with other members of the Muslim community 4. The perception that ibadi wa ammali (worship and human transactions) are part of ones divine duties towards God and as such all actions and transactions (in relation to God, man and society) .

As such
notions of the sacred, spirituality and religiousity show no clear dividing line for Muslims as each of these terms are strongly intertwined with each other and that daily life,spirituality and practice are but garments worn by a Muslim in varying degrees and that each for an integral and inseparable part of each other.

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