Tourism Planning and Development

Book reference:

Tourism Planning: Basics, Concepts and Cases
 By Clare A. Gunn with Turgut Var

Learning Objectives
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Explain the reasons & purposes for tourism planning. Identify the barriers to tourism planning. Describe the steps in the tourism planning process. Describe and differentiate among tourism position statements, vision statements, goals, strategies, and objectives. Explain the concept and principles of sustainable tourism development. Describe the main forms of tourism development. Discuss government and private-sector roles in tourism development. Describe the role and types of government incentives for tourism development and the criteria for government financial assistance. Describe the objectives and steps in completing a pre-feasibility study and an economic feasibility study. Identify the two main groups concerned with the results of economic feasibility studies and discuss the questions they typically want answered. Explain the purposes of preparing an environmental impact assessment.


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The destination area with and without tourism planning Barriers to tourism planning Purposes of tourism planning Tourism planning process Building a sustainable future for tourism The link between tourism planning and tourism development Government and private-sector participation in tourism development Analysis of individual project development opportunities

The destination area with tourism planning

Planning is a process of selection from among alternative courses of action. Five basic reasons for tourism planning:
 Tourism development has both positive and negative impacts; (destination life cycle)  More competitive situation;  More complicated phenomenon;  Tourism has damaged natural and cultural resources;  Community involved.

html .Butler’s Tourism Destination Lifecycle Model Source:

destinations have a product lifecycle. 3. Involvement Local investment in tourism and tourism advertising start. Exploration A destination begins as a relatively unknown and adventurous visitors initially come in small numbers restricted by lack of access. The amenities are increased and improved.Seven stages of destination life cycle Like most products. . Butler proposed a widely-accepted tourism destination lifecycle model which has 7 distinct stages: 1. 2. Development There is a rapid growth in visitor numbers as the destination becomes heavily advertised. and local knowledge. Visitors change to less adventurous. Visitor number begin to increase and government agencies start to develop the infrastructure. facilities.

Stagnation The peak numbers of visitors will have been reached. Decline Visitor number decrease.Seven stages of destination life cycle 4. 6. The area will have a well-established image but it will no longer be in fashion. Consolidation Growth in visitor numbers will decline. 7. although total numbers will still increase. . Capacity levels for many variables will have been reached or exceeded. Rejuvenation New attractions are developed or new natural resources are used to reverse the negative trends in visitor arrivals. There will be heavy reliance on repeat visitation and on conventions and similar forms of traffic. External investors begin to pull out. Tourism becomes “mass market” 5.

The destination area without tourism planning Consequences of unplanned development:      Physical Human Marketing Organizational Other .

Barriers to tourism planning       The objections to the principle of tourism planning. The diversity of tourism business (sector. The complexity (ownership) of tourism and the large number of government agencies involved. The seasonality The high ownership turnover in tourism businesses. Cost of this process is high. size). .

Creating the desirable. . Avoiding the undesirable. Adapting to the unexpected. Maintaining uniqueness.Purposes of tourism planning  Five basic purposes      Identifying alternative approaches.

and objective-setting 5. 4. strategy selection. Background analysis Detailed research and analysis Synthesis and visioning Goal-setting. Plan implementation and monitoring 7.Tourism planning process Seven steps 1. Plan development 6. 3. 2. Plan evaluation .

problems.Step 1: Background Analysis     Government policies. and programs Existing destination mix elements and components Existing tourism demand Tourism strengths. weaknesses. and issues . objectives. goals.

Step 2: Detailed Research and Analysis     Resource analysis Activity analysis Market analysis Competitive analysis .

. and support services and activities. and support services and activities. organization. organization.Step 3: Synthesis and Visioning Position statements  Describe the existing situations in tourism development. community awareness. marketing. community awareness. marketing. Vision statements  Reflect the desired future states in tourism development.

and Objective-Setting Goals  Results or outcomes that the destination area tries to achieve within three to five years. Objectives  Results or outcomes that the destination area tries to achieve within one to two years. Strategy Selection. . Strategies  Broad approaches selected to achieve tourism goals that help to translate existing conditions into desired future situations.Step 4: Goal-Setting.

activities. roles.Step 5: Plan Development   Description of programs. and funding Writing of tourism plan reports .

Plan evaluation: The performance on goals and objectives is measured and recommendations made for future tourism planning . Plan monitoring: As the plan is being implemented. the coordinating agency checks to ensure that progress is made as originally intended.Step 6: Plan Implementation and Monitoring    Plan implementation: The tourism plan is put into action by a governmental tourism agency.

.Step 7: Plan Evaluation   The performance on goals and objectives is measured. Recommendations are made for future tourism planning based on the results and outcomes of this plan.

W. (1993) .” Butler.Tourism Development Sustainable Tourism Development “Tourism which is developed and maintained in an area in such a manner and at such a scale that it remains viable over an indefinite period and does not degrade or alter the environment (human and physical) in which it exists to such a degree that it prohibits the successful development and well-being of other activities and processes. R.

(1995) . 3. & Pigram. 2. J. P.Principles of Sustainable Tourism Development 1. To improve the quality of life of the host community To provide a high quality experience for visitors To maintain the quality of the environment on which both the host community and the visitors depend Ding..

IMPORTANT GOAL OF TOURISM PLANNING To integrate all tourism development into the social and economic life of the community  The four goals: enhanced visitor satisfactions. sustainable resource use. better business. and community integration – should be the motivational forces for all stakeholders in tourism to plan and develop the needed objectives and strategies to carry them out.  .


restaurants. resorts.SITE SCALE  Individual property development for hotels. roads and attractions .

DESTINATION SCALE “Community – attraction complex”  Attraction clustering is beneficial  .

REGIONAL SCALE Integrated planning at the regional scale  More comprehensive than site or destination scales  Many resource areas are involved  A greater number of political jurisdictions are included  Time periods of accomplishments are much longer  .

Main Forms of Tourism Development      Low-impact to high-impact tourism Ecologically sustainable tourism development (ESTD) Alternative tourism Mass tourism Resort tourism .

tourism development that is characterized as small scale and slow progress  High-impact – refers to large scale and rapid development  .Low-impact to high-impact tourism development Low-impact.

Ecologically Sustainable Tourism Development From the concept ECOTOURISM  Eco-relations between living organisms and their environment  Nature oriented travel that promotes and finances conservation and resource protection and also adds to the local economy (Zipper 1989. 24)  .

and tourists.PRINCIPLES IN ECOTOURISM It should not degrade the resource and should be developed in an environmentally sensitive manner  It should provide first-hand. before-during.and after the trip)  . industry. government. participatory and enlightening experience  It should involve education among all parties (local communities. nongovernmental organizations.

which involves supply oriented management  It should promote understanding and involve partnerships between may players  .PRINCIPLES IN ECOTOURISM It should incorporate all arty recognition of core values related to intrinsic values of the resource  It should involve acceptance of the resource on its own terms. and in recognition of its limits.

PRINCIPLES IN ECOTOURISM It should promote moral and ethical responsibilities and behavior by all players  It should provide long-term benefits to the resource. and industry  . to the community.




Private-Sector Roles in Tourism Development     Idea generation Entrepreneurial role Specialized technical skills Financing .

Volunteer Sector Roles in Tourism Development     Operating attractions Creating and running events and special meals Providing travel information services Financing the development of community-oriented facilities .

Government Roles in Tourism Development      Stimulator or catalyst for development Developer Operator Social tourism provider Regulator of tourism developments .

Types of Government Incentives for Tourism Development FISCAL INCENTIVES    Tax holidays or deferrals Remission of tariffs Tax reductions .

Types of Government Incentives for Tourism Development DIRECT AND INDIRECT INCENTIVES       Nonrefundable grants Low-interest loans Interest rebates Forgivable loans Loan guarantees Working capital loans .

Types of Government Incentives for Tourism Development DIRECT AND INDIRECT INCENTIVES      Equity participation Training grants Infrastructure assistance Lease backs Land donations .

Criteria for Government Financial Assistance          Competitive impact Compliance with policies and plans Developer and operator capabilities Economic contributions Environmental impact Equity contributions Feasibility Social-cultural impact Tourism impact .

Objectives of Pre-Feasibility and Feasibility Studies   Pre-feasibility study: To determine whether a detailed economic feasibility study is justified and which topics the detailed study should address. Detailed economic feasibility study: To determine the economic feasibility of a tourism development project opportunity. .

Steps in Feasibility Studies  Pre-feasibility study Detailed economic feasibility study: Site analysis Market analysis Economic feasibility analysis Cost/benefit analysis      .

DEMAND-SUPPLY MATCH  Demand supply model .

DEMAND  The best product to manufacture is one that is appealing or preferred by the market .

Demand examination -MAJOR FACTORS The tourist must be motivated to travel  The tourist must have the financial ability to pay  The tourist must have the time and physical ability to travel  .

Qualitative Approaches in Forecasting Demand  TRADITIONAL APPROACHES –review of survey results to observe consistent trends and changes DELPHI METHOD – iterative type of research inquiry using opinion of knowledgeable experts  .

Qualitative Approaches in Forecasting Demand  JUDGMENT-AIDED MODEL (JAM) – uses a panel in face-to-face contact and debate to gain consensus on several scenarios of the future .

Quantitative Approaches in Forecasting Demand  TIME SERIES – statistical measures repeated year after year GRAVITY AND TRIP GENERATION MODELS – assume that the number of visits from each origin is influenced by factors infringing those origins ( distance and poulation)  .

population. international context.allow the use of many variables in predicting travel ( income. travel cost.Quantitative Approaches in Forecasting Demand  MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION MODELS . and other variables) .

GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION – is used to determine differences or similarities in travel preference due to traveler location  . such as age. income. occupation. family size/life cycle and educational level.MARKET SEGMENTATION  DEMOGRAHIC SEGMENTATION – refers to measurable characteristics.

attitudes. preferences. activities and personalities BEHAVIORISTIC SEGMENTATION dividing the travel market into groups that have similar buying habits ( travel habits. interests. purpose of travel. lifestyles. benefits sought)  .MARKET SEGMENTATION  PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION – grouping travel markets based on values.

SUPPLY  All the objects and services that are provided to meet the demand. .

management. To achieve environmentally sound proposals through research. and determine environmental acceptability. Ecologically Sustainable Development Working Group. and monitoring.Purposes of an Environmental Impact Assessment    To identify risks. (1991) . To manage conflict through the provision of a means for effective public participation. minimize adverse impacts.

Managing and Mitigating Tourism’s Negative Environmental Impacts .

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