Brand Management

What is a Brand?
• A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.


What is a Brand?
• • • • • • • A slogan? A typeface? A sound? An image? A logo? A personality? A jingle?

What is a Brand? • A brand is a promise. • It is the art and science of creating “mind space” and shelf space. • It is both functional and emotional. .

etc. • It can be an object. .What is a product? • A product is any offering by a company to a market that serves to satisfy customer needs and wants. service. idea.

as it can have dimensions that differentiate it in some way from other products designed to satisfy the same need. .• A brand is therefore more than a product.

" Walter."Our brand is a mark of trust.of Cardinal Health . Chairman and CEO.

Brand Decisions • A brand communicates the following six levels of meanings – Attributes – Benefits – Values – Culture – Personality – User .

Brand Elements Choice Criteria: General Considerations Memorable Easily Recognized Easily Recalled Meaningful Credible & Suggestive Rich Visual & Verbal Imagery Appealing Fun & Interesting Aesthetics 9 .

Brand Elements Choice Criteria: General Considerations (continue)  Adaptable  Flexible & Updateable  Protectable  Legally  Competitively  Transferable  Within & Across Product Categories  Across Geographical Boundaries & Cultures 10 .

Risk reducer Search cost reducer Symbolic device Signal of quality Promise or bond with product or maker 11 .Why do brand matter? To consumers Identification of sources of product Assignment of responsibility to product maker.

Why do brand matter? To Manufacturer Means of identification to simplifying handling and tracing. Signal of quality Means of endowing products with unique associations. Sources of competitive advantage Sources of financial returns. Means of legally protecting unique feature. 12 .

Branding Challenges & Opportunities • • • • • Knowledgeable consumers. Brand Proliferation Media Fragmentation Increased competition Increased costs of introducing new product or supporting existing product. • Greater accountability 13 .

Can anything be branded? • • • • • • • • • • Physical goods Services Retailers On-line product On-line service People Organization Sports. Entertainment Geographic location Ideas 14 . Arts.

favorable.Brand Elements • A variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherently enhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation of strong. and unique brand associations: – – – – – – Brand Name Logo Symbol Character Packaging Slogan 15 .

In markets where competition is fierce and where customers may select from among many competitive products. The most well-known company to brand components is Intel with its now famous "Intel Inside" slogan. It is particularly important in helping position the product While consumer products companies have long recognized the value of branding. creating an identity through branding is essential.Branding • Branding involves decisions that establish an identity for a product with the goal of distinguishing it from competitors’ offerings. Intel’s success has led many other b-to-b companies and even non-profits to incorporate branding within their overall marketing strategy. it has only been within the last 10-15 years that organizations selling component products in the business-to-business market have begun to focus on brand building strategies. • .

Customers who are frequent and enthusiastic purchasers of a particular brand are likely to become Brand Loyal. Well-developed and promoted brands make product positioning efforts more effective. This “benefit = brand” association provides a significant advantage for the brand that the customer associates with the benefit sought. • • . Strong brands can lead to financial advantages through the concept of Brand Equity in which the brand itself becomes valuable. Firms that establish a successful brand can extend the brand by adding new products under the same “family” brand. Such branding may allow companies to introduce new products more easily since the brand is already recognized within the market.Advantages of Brands • • • • A strong brand offers many advantages for marketers including: Brands provide multiple sensory stimuli to enhance customer recognition.

Reducing the Risks in Product Decisions • Consumers may perceive many different types of risks in buying and consuming a product: • Functional risk—The product does not perform up to expectations. • Physical risk—The product poses a threat to the physical well-being or health of the user or others. • Social risk—The product results in embarrassment from others. • Time risk—The failure of the product results in an opportunity cost of finding another satisfactory product. • Financial risk—The product is not worth the price paid. .

• Even commodities can be branded: – Coffee (Nescafe). • The key to branding is that consumers perceive differences among brands in a product category.pickles and even water (Bisleri) . bath soap (Lux). salt (Tata).Can everything be branded? • Ultimately a brand is something that resides in the minds of consumers. flour (Ashirwad).

20 .An Example of Branding a Commodity • De Beers Group added the phrase “A Diamond Is Forever” 1.

arts. and entertainment Geographic locations Ideas and causes .What is branded? • • • • • • • • Physical goods Services Retailers and distributors Online products and services People and organizations Sports.

BRANDS ARE LIKE PEOPLE They have: • A name • A personality / human characteristics • A reputation • People can have feelings towards them .

Trust is to Business. as Trademark is to Brand •Brand Equity built on the foundation of a protected Trademark •Brand/Trademark can: (a) be disposed off separately from other company assets (Free-standing Institutions). and (b) give rights that can be legally protected .

term. or symbol (or combination) that identifies a business or organization and its products.A brand is a name. design. .

Ex: Mountain Dew. PT Cruiser. letters.Brands can include a number of elements: • Brand name – the word. or numbers representing a brand that can be spoken. SnackWells • Also called a product brand . group of words.

Dell.• Trade name – identifies the company or a division of a particular corporation – the legal name a company uses when it does business. . Xerox • Also called a corporate brand. Ex: Kellogg’s.

It usually is not spoken .• Brand mark – the part of the brand that is a symbol or brand name – it may include distinctive coloring or lettering.

Pillsbury Doughboy. Ex: Jolly Green Giant.• Trade character – a brand mark with human form or characteristics. Kellogg’s Tony the Tiger .

or a combination of these that is given legal protection by the federal government – Trademarks are followed by a registered trademark symbol .• Trademark – a brand name. trade character. trade name. brand mark.

Brand/Trademark •Trademark: Legal concept •Brand: Marketing concept •Registration of a trademark adds value as it protects its other inherent assets •Brand profile and positioning may vary over time. but trademark protection remains the same .

combination of colors. or any combination of signs. numerals. smells. 2D or 3D (shape) • Graphic representation . letters. figurative elements (logos). etc • Visually perceptible.WHAT IS A TRADEMARK? • Any sign. capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. • Words including personal names. shall be capable of constituting a trademark. sounds.

Numerals.Any Distinctive Words. Logotypes. Letters. Pictures. Labels In some countries: Sounds. Smells and Threedimensional marks • Examples: . Colors. Shapes.

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