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Frequency Modulation
Relationship between FM and PM
• We can generate FM signal by using PM modulator and vice versa.
• From the above block diagrams, it can be shown that the generation of
FM and PM signals are mutually related.
Differentiator
FM
Modulator
v
m
(t) v
PM
(t)
dt
d
PM
Modulator
v
m
(t) v
FM
(t)
Integrator
}
dt
Generation of FM
Generation of PM
)] ( cos[ ) ( t v k t E t v
m p c c PM
+ = e
( ) ( )


.

\

+ =
}
t
m f c c FM
dt t v k t E t v
0
cos e
• Demodulation process is used to get back the information signal.
• For FM demodulator in order to get back information signal from FM
signal : PM modulator is used and the signal is pass through
differentiator.
• In contrast for PM demodulator : FM demodulator is used and the
signal is pass through the integrator.
• This shows the close relationship between FM and PM.
• Hence we can discuss only either one technique in angle modulation.
Differentiator
dt
d
PM
Demodulator
v
m
(t)
v
FM
(t)
FM Demodulator
FM
Demodulator
v
m
(t)
v
PM
(t)
Integrator
}
dt
PM Demodulator
( ) ( )


.

\

+ =
}
t
m f c c FM
dt t v k t E t v
0
cos e
)] ( cos[ ) ( t v k t E t v
m p c c PM
+ = e
FM: Modulation Index
• Any modulation process produces sidebands.
• Side frequencies are the sum and difference of the
carrier and modulating frequency.
• The bandwidth of an FM signal is usually much
wider than that of an AM signal with the same
modulating signal. (infinite number of pairs of upper
and lower sidebands generate)
Modulation Index
– The ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating
frequency is known as the modulation index (m).
– In most communication systems using FM, maximum limits
are put on both the frequency deviation and the modulating
frequency.
) (
) (
Hz f
Hz f
m
m
A
=
m m
f
f
m
A
=
A
=
e
e
m c m c m c
nf f f f f f ± ± ± , 2 ,
e.g. for m = 5,
16 sidebands
(8 pairs).
Determining the Number of
Significant Sidebands
Bessel Functions
– A complex mathematical process to
determining the number of significant
sidebands
– The individual frequency components that
makeup the modulated wave are not obvious.
However, Bessel Function identities can be
applied for this.
Bessel Function
• Modulating wave is given by:
• By using Bessel Function, the anglemodulated wave
can be written as:
• J
n
(m) is the Bessel function of the first kind of nth order
with argument m.
( ) ( )
cos cos cos
2
n
n
n
m J m n
t
o  o 
·
=÷·
 
+ = + +

\ .
¿
)] cos( cos[ ) ( t m t V t m
m c c
e e + =
• Thus, m(t) can be rewritten as
• Expanding the equation, becomes
• Where
m = modulation index
Vc = peak amplitude of the unmodulated carrier
J
0
(m)= carrier component
J
1
(m)=first set of side frequencies displaced from the
carrier by ω
m
J
2
(m)=second set of side frequencies displaced from the
carrier by 2ω
m
J
n
(m)=nth set of side frequencies displaced from the
carrier by nω
m
¿
·
÷· =

.

\

+ + =
n
m c m c
n
t n t m J V t m
2
cos ) ( ) (
t
e e
)...} ( ....... ) cos( ) (
) 2 cos( ) ( ]
2
) cos[( ) (
]
2
) cos[( ) ( cos ) ( { ) (
2
2 1
1 0
m Jn t m J
t m J t m J
t m J t m J V t m
m c
m c m c
m c c c
+ ÷ +
+ + + ÷ ÷
+ + + =
e e
e e
t
e e
t
e e e
Magnitudes of sidebands includes upper and lower sidebands
are defined by J
1
(m), J
2
(m), and so on
• J can be defined as:
( ) ( ) ( )
120) 5 4 3 2 1 Means 5! (e.g.
index modulation m
frequency side the of number or J n
etc.) (1x2x3x4, factorial ! where
...
)! 1 ( ! 3
6 2 /
)! 2 ( ! 2
4 2 /
)! 1 ( ! 1
2 / 1
2
) (
2
= × × × ×
=
=
=
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
÷
+
+
+
÷ =
n
m
n
m
n
m
n
m
m J
Figure 58: Carrier and sideband amplitudes for different modulation indexes of FM
signals based on the Bessel functions.
Sidebands (Pairs)
Bessel Function Plot
Figure 59: Plot of the Bessel function data from Fig. 58.
Bessel Function Plot
Bessel Function Plot
Bandwidth
FM Signal Bandwidth
– The higher the modulation index in FM, the greater the
number of significant sidebands and the wider the
bandwidth of the signal.
– When spectrum conservation is necessary, the
bandwidth of an FM signal can be restricted by putting
an upper limit on the modulation index.
– E.g: In standard FM broadcasting, the maximum
permitted frequency deviation is 75 kHz and the
maximum permitted modulating frequency is 15 kHz
(modulation index : 5)
Determining the Number of
Significant Sidebands
m c
e e ÷
m c
e e +
c
e
m = 0.25
) (
1 ÷
rads e
BW
m c
e e 4 ÷
m c
e e 4 +
c
e
m = 2
) (
1 ÷
rads e
BW=2nf
m
=8f
m
m c
e e 8 ÷
m c
e e 8 +
c
e
m = 5
) (
1 ÷
rads e
BW=2nf
m
=16f
m
The number of sidebands depend on m value:
BW = 2fmN
Where N is the number of
significant* sidebands
*Significant
sidebands
are those
that have an
amplitude of
greater than
1% (.01) in
the Bessel
table.
Bandwidth
Example:
If the highest modulating frequency is 3 kHz and
the maximum deviation is 6 kHz, what is the
modulation index?
m = 6 kHz/3 kHz = 2
What is the bandwidth?
BW = 2fmN
Where N is the number of significant*
sidebands
BW = 2(3 kHz)(4) = 24 kHz
Solution:
Carlson’s Rule
• Take into consideration only the power in the most
significant sidebands whose amplitude are greater than
2 percent of the carrier (sidebands whose values are 0.02
or more)
• Therefore the BW needed for FM was :
( ) max max 2
m
f f BW + A =
For FM Modulator with frequency deviation of 10 kHz,
modulating frequency of 10 kHz, Carrier amplitude
voltage of 10V and Carrier frequency of 500 kHz,
determine the following:
(a) Minimum Bandwidth using Bessel table
(b) Minimum Bandwidth using Carson’s rule
(c) Amplitudes of the side frequencies and plot the
output frequency spectrum
EXAMPLE 2 :
Solution:
a)
From Bessel function table, m=1 yields three sets of
significant sidebands. Thus bandwidth is
b) Approx. minimum bandwidth is given by Carson’s rule.
So
1
kHz 10
kHz 10
= =
A
=
m
f
f
m
Hz 60 ) 10 3 ( 2 k kHz B = × =
Hz 40 ) 10 10 ( 2 k kHz kHz B = + =
c)
V J
V J
V J
V J
2 . 0 ) 10 ( 02 . 0
1 . 1 ) 10 ( 11 . 0
44 ) 10 ( 44 . 0
7 . 7 ) 10 ( 77 . 0
3
2
1
0
= =
= =
= =
= =
7.7V
44V
1.1V
0.2V
500 510 520 530 490 480 470
0.2V
44V
1.1V
• Frequency spectrum consists of carrier component at
f
c
and also sideband at f
c
±nf
m
where n is an integer (n
= 1,2,3,…)
• The number of sideband depends on index
modulation value, m.
• Magnitude of carrier signal decreases as m increases.
• Amplitude of the frequency spectrum depends on
value of J
n
(m).
• The bandwidth of modulated signal increases when
index modulation, m increases. BW > 2∆f
m
is expected.
Summary of FM spectrum:
Power in FM signal
• Power signal depends on the amplitudes and not on the
frequencies.
• The amplitude of the FM signal is constant and therefore
the power transmitted depends only on the amplitudes of
the signal. It does not depends on the modulation index.
• For AM signal the power transmitted depends on the
modulation index.
• It can be seen from the Bessel equation:
• In other word the total power of FM signal consists of the
power in carrier component and all the power in the
sidebands.
( )
¿
·
=
+ =
+ + + + + =
1
2
... 2
0
3 2 1 0
n
J J
J J J J J T
n
n
P P
P P P P P P
¿
·
=
= + = + + + + +
1
2 2
0
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
1 2 2 ... 2 2 2
n
n n
J J J J J J J
• FM equation is given by:
• And therefore the total power transmitted :
( )

.

\

+ =


.

\

+ + + + + =


.

\

+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =
¿
·
=1
2 2
0
2
2 2 2
3
2 2
2
2 2
1
2 2
0
2
2
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2
) (
) (
2
2
2
...
2 2 2
2
2
... 2
... 2
3 2 1 0
3 2 1 0
n
n
c
n c c c c c
rms J rms J rms J rms J rms J
J J J J J FM T
J J
R
E
R
J E
R
J E
R
J E
R
J E
R
J E
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
P P P P P P
n
n
]} ) cos( ) )[cos( ( ...
] ) 3 cos( ) 3 )[cos( (
] ) 2 cos( ) 2 )[cos( (
] ) cos( ) )[cos( ( ) cos( ) ( { ) (
3
2
1 0
t n t n J
t t J
t t J
t t J t J E t v
m c m c n
m c m c
m c m c
m c m c c c FM
e e e e 
e e e e 
e e e e 
e e e e  e 
+ + ÷ + +
+ + ÷ ÷
+ + ÷ +
+ + ÷ ÷ =
Power Calculation
• The average power of modulated wave is defined as :
P
c
= V
c
2
/ 2R
V
c
=peak unmodulated carrier voltage (V)
R = load resistance
The instantaneous power for angle modulation is defined as:
P
t
= m(t)
2
/ R W
or
P
t
= V
c
2
/ R [1/2 +½ cos(2ω
c
t + 2u(t)]
• Average power of the second term is zero. Thus
P
c
= V
c
2
/ 2R
Modulated carrier power
= power of carrier +
power of side frequency
components
average power of
modulated carrier =
average power of
unmodulated carrier.
Consists of an infinite
number of sinusoidal
side frequency
components
Power Calculation
• The total power for modulated wave is defined
as:
• P
0
= modulated carrier power
• P
1
= power in the first set of sidebands
• P
2
= power in the second set of sidebands
• P
n
= power in the nth set of sidebands
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
P
n c
t
2
) ( 2
...
2
) ( 2
2
) ( 2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
+ + + + =
n t
P P P P + + + = ...
2 1
Narrowband and Wideband FM
From the graph/table of Bessel functions it may be seen that for small , ( s 0.3)
there is only the carrier and 2 significant sidebands, i.e. BW = 2fm.
FM with  s 0.3 is referred to as narrowband FM (NBFM) (Note, the bandwidth is
the same as DSBAM).
For  > 0.3 there are more than 2 significant sidebands. As  increases the number of
sidebands increases. This is referred to as wideband FM (WBFM).
Narrowband FM NBFM
Wideband FM WBFM
• Large modulation index
m
c
f
f A
=  means that a large bandwidth is required – called
WBFM.
Narrow Band FM (NBFM)
• For FM signal with the small index modulation i.e m < 0.2, is
called Narrow Band FM (FM jalur sempit)
• For FM signal that we have studied previously also known as
WBFM and the equation is given by :
• Let :
• Hence, the equation yields:
• NBFM with m = small , therefore;
) sin( m ) ( t t
m
e 0 =
)] ( sin m [ sin ) sin( )] sin( m cos[ ) cos( ) ( t t E t t E t v
m c c m c c FM
e e e e ÷ =
)] ( [ sin ) sin( )] ( cos[ ) cos( ) ( t t E t t E t v
c c c c FM
0 e 0 e ÷ =
1 ) sin( m ) ( << = t t
m
e 0
] ) cos[(
2
m
] ) cos[(
2
m
) cos(
) sin( ) sin( m ) cos(
) sin( ) ( ) cos( ) (
t
E
t
E
t E
t t E t E
t t E t E t v
m c
c
m c
c
c c
c m c c c
c c c c FM
e e e e e
e e e
e 0 e
+ + ÷ ÷ =
÷ =
÷ ~
1 )] ( cos[ ~ t 0
) ( )] ( sin[ t t 0 0 ~ and
( ) ( )   ( )   t
mE
t
mE
t E t am
m c
c
m c
c
c c FC DSB
e e e e e + + ÷ + =
÷
cos
2
cos
2
cos ) (
• Therefore :
• Hence NBFM equation yields :
• Compared with am
DSBFC
signal:
• It is shown from both equations for NBFM and am
DSBFC
consist of
one carrier component and two sidebands components. But LSB
component for NBFM the phase shift is varies for 90° (quadrature).
1 ) sin( m ) ( << = t t
m
e 0
Differences between FM and AM
• Frequency spectrum
) (V Amplitud
) (
1 ÷
rads e
c
e
m c
e e +
m c
e e ÷
0
c
A
2
c
mA
2
c
mA
2 2
m c
A mA
=
Di mana
) (V Amplitud
) (
1 ÷
rads e
c
e
m c
e e +
m c
e e ÷
0
c
A
2

c
A
2

c
A
÷
AM
FM
Figure: Carrier and sideband amplitudes for different modulation indexes of FM
signals based on the Bessel functions.
Sidebands (Pairs)
Bessel Function Plot
Ex. 1 :
A carrier with a peak value of 2000 V is frequency modulated with a
message signal of 5 kHz. The modulation index obtained is 2. Calculate the
average power in:
(i) Highest sideband (ii) Lowest sideband . Given R = 50 Ω .
Solution : (β =m)
For β = 2 from Bessel table :
The highest sideband is : ( ) 58 . 0
1
=  J
The lowest sideband is : ( ) 01 . 0
5
=  J
( )
( ) 03 . 0 2
58 . 0 2
4
1
=
=
J
J
=>
R
E
P
C
1
2
58 . 0
2
1

.

\
 ×
=
(i)
kW 5 . 13
50
1
2
2000 58 . 0
2
= × 
.

\
 ×
=
50
1
2
2000 03 . 0
2
5

.

\
 ×
= P
W 4 =
(ii)
Ex. 2 :
(a) Determine the BW required to transmit FM signal when the modulating
frequency, f
m
= 10 kHz and maximum frequency deviation is 20 kHz.
From Bessel table the components obtained is J
0
, J
1
, J
2
, J
3
, J
4
and J
5
That means J
1
will be at ± 10 kHz, J
2
at ± 20 kHz, J
3
at ± 30 kHz etc.
Therefore BW = B
FM
= 2nf
m
= 2 x 5 x 10 = 100 kHz
2
10
20
= =
A
=
m
f
f

Amplitud
f
c
f
c
+f
m
f
c
+2f
m
J
0
J
1
J
5
f
c
f
m
f (kHz)
( )
( )
m
m
f f
f BW
+ A =
+ =
2
1 2 
Carson Rule
Solution :
(b) Repeat (a) with f
m
= 5 kHz
From Bessel table the highest component is J
7
Therefore BW = 2 x 7 x 5 = 70 kHz
4
5
20
= =
A
=
m
f
f

( )
( )
m
m
f f
f BW
+ A =
+ =
2
1 2 
Carson Rule
Solution :
Equation for NBFM:
( ) ( )


.

\

+ =
}
t
m f c c FM
dt t v k t E t v
0
cos e
Given, , ( ) t f E t v
m m m
t 2 sin =
kHz 10 =
f
k
V 100 =
c
E
kHz 5 dan V 1 , MHz 2 . 106 = = =
m m c
f E f
(i) frequecy deviation
(ii) BW by Carson rule
(iii) Total Power
(iv) Equation for NBFM
Penyelesaian :
( ) ( )
( )
( )   t f dt t v k E t f E v
R
E
P
f f BW
f
f
E k f
c m f c c c NBFM
c
FM
m
m
m f
t t t

2 sin 2 2 cos (iv)
1 R g Considerin ; kW 5
1 2
100
2
(iii)
kHz 30 5 10 2 2 2
5
10
(ii)
kHz 10 1 10 (i)
2 2
}
÷ =
O = = = =
= + = + A = ¬ = =
A
=
= × = = A
) sin( ) ( sin ) cos( ) ( t t E t E t v
c m c c c NBFM
e e  e ÷ =
Ex. 3 :
A FM signal, 2000 cos (2π x 10
8
t + 2 Sin π x 10
4
t) is transmitted using an antenna with
the resistance of 50 Ω. Determine
(i) Carrier frequency (ii) Modulation index (iii) Information signal
(iv) Power transmitted (v) Bandwidth (vi) Power in highest and lowest sidebands
Penyelesaian :
] sin [ cos ) ( t t E t v
m c c FM
e  e + =
(i) f
c
= 10
8
Hz = 100 MHz
(ii) β = 2
(iii) f
m
= 10
4
/ 2 = 5 kHz
i) (v) β = 2 => sideband 4
BW = B
FM
= 2nf
m
= 2 x 4 x 5 = 40 kHz
Carson  BW = 2(β + 1)f
m
= 2(2 + 1)5 = 30 kHz
i) (iv) E
c
= 2000 V => E
c(rms)
= 2000 / \2
P
T
= V
2
(rms)
/ R
= (2000 / \2)
2
/ 50
= 40 kW
(vi) lowest side band J
1
amplitude
for 1
st
side band = 0.58 x 2000
P = (0.58 x 2000/\2)
2
/ 50 Ω
= 13.27 kW lowest sideband
For double side band
= 2 x 13.27 kW = 26.54 kW
Band limit : f
c
± f
m
= 100 MHz ± 5 kHz
Highest sideband J
4
P = (0.03 x 2000/\2)
2
/ 50 Ω = 36 W
Relationship between FM and PM
vm(t)
Integrator
dt
Differentiator
PM Modulator
vFM(t)
t v FM t Ec cos c t k f v m t dt 0
Generation of FM FM Modulator
vm(t)
d dt
vPM(t)
v PM (t ) E c cos[ c t k p v m (t )]
Generation of PM
• •
We can generate FM signal by using PM modulator and vice versa. From the above block diagrams, it can be shown that the generation of FM and PM signals are mutually related.
vFM(t)
t v FM t Ec cos c t k f v m t dt 0
PM Demodulator
Differentiator
d dt
vm(t)
FM Demodulator FM Demodulator Integrator
vPM(t)
v PM (t ) E c cos[ c t k p v m (t )]
dt
vm(t)
PM Demodulator • • Demodulation process is used to get back the information signal. For FM demodulator in order to get back information signal from FM signal : PM modulator is used and the signal is pass through differentiator. In contrast for PM demodulator : FM demodulator is used and the signal is pass through the integrator. This shows the close relationship between FM and PM. Hence we can discuss only either one technique in angle modulation.
• • •
FM: Modulation Index • Any modulation process produces sidebands. (infinite number of pairs of upper and lower sidebands generate) . • Side frequencies are the sum and difference of the carrier and modulating frequency. • The bandwidth of an FM signal is usually much wider than that of an AM signal with the same modulating signal.
m m f fm f ( Hz ) m f m ( Hz ) – In most communication systems using FM. maximum limits are put on both the frequency deviation and the modulating frequency. f c f m . f c nf m . f c 2 f m .Modulation Index – The ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating frequency is known as the modulation index (m).
.e. 16 sidebands (8 pairs).g. for m = 5.
However.Determining the Number of Significant Sidebands Bessel Functions – A complex mathematical process to determining the number of significant sidebands – The individual frequency components that makeup the modulated wave are not obvious. . Bessel Function identities can be applied for this.
the anglemodulated wave can be written as: n cos m cos J n m cos n 2 n • Jn(m) is the Bessel function of the first kind of nth order with argument m.Bessel Function • Modulating wave is given by: m(t ) Vc cos[c t m cos(mt )] • By using Bessel Function. .
• Thus......} • Where m = modulation index Vc = peak amplitude of the unmodulated carrier J0(m)= carrier component J1(m)=first set of side frequencies displaced from the carrier by ωm J2(m)=second set of side frequencies displaced from the carrier by 2ωm Jn(m)=nth set of side frequencies displaced from the carrier by nωm .. becomes m(t ) Vc { J 0 ( m) cos c t J 1 ( m) cos[(c m )t J 1 ( m) cos[(c m )t 2 ] ] J 2 ( m) cos(c 2 m t ) 2 J 2 ( m) cos(c m t ) .. Jn( m).. m(t) can be rewritten as m(t ) Vc n n J m ( m) cos c t n m t 2 • Expanding the equation.
n 1! ( n 1)! 2! ( n 2)! 3! ( n 1)! w here! factorial (1x2x3x4.etc.Magnitudes of sidebands includes upper and lower sidebands are defined by J1(m). 5! Means 1 2 3 4 5 120) .. and so on • J can be defined as: 1 m / 2 2 m / 2 4 m / 2 6 . J2(m)..) m J (m) 2 n J or number of the side frequency m modulation index (e.g.
Bessel Function Plot Sidebands (Pairs) Figure 58: Carrier and sideband amplitudes for different modulation indexes of FM signals based on the Bessel functions. .
. 58.Bessel Function Plot Figure 59: Plot of the Bessel function data from Fig.
Bessel Function Plot .
the greater the number of significant sidebands and the wider the bandwidth of the signal.g: In standard FM broadcasting. the maximum permitted frequency deviation is 75 kHz and the maximum permitted modulating frequency is 15 kHz (modulation index : 5) . – E. – When spectrum conservation is necessary.Bandwidth FM Signal Bandwidth – The higher the modulation index in FM. the bandwidth of an FM signal can be restricted by putting an upper limit on the modulation index.
c m c c m m = 0.25 ( rads 1 ) m=2 BW c 4m c c 4m ( rads 1 ) m=5 BW=2nfm=8fm c 8 m c c 8 m ( rads 1 ) BW=2nfm=16fm .01) in the Bessel table.Determining the Number of Significant Sidebands The number of sidebands depend on m value: BW = 2fmN Where N is the number of significant* sidebands *Significant sidebands are those that have an amplitude of greater than 1% (.
Bandwidth Example: If the highest modulating frequency is 3 kHz and the maximum deviation is 6 kHz. what is the modulation index? .
Solution: m = 6 kHz/3 kHz = 2 What is the bandwidth? BW = 2fmN Where N is the number of significant* sidebands BW = 2(3 kHz)(4) = 24 kHz .
Carlson’s Rule • Take into consideration only the power in the most significant sidebands whose amplitude are greater than 2 percent of the carrier (sidebands whose values are 0.02 or more) • Therefore the BW needed for FM was : BW 2f max f m max .
Carrier amplitude voltage of 10V and Carrier frequency of 500 kHz. modulating frequency of 10 kHz. determine the following: (a) Minimum Bandwidth using Bessel table (b) Minimum Bandwidth using Carson’s rule (c) Amplitudes of the side frequencies and plot the output frequency spectrum .EXAMPLE 2 : For FM Modulator with frequency deviation of 10 kHz.
Solution: a) m f 10 kHz 1 fm 10 kHz From Bessel function table. So B 2(10kHz 10kHz) 40kHz . m=1 yields three sets of significant sidebands. minimum bandwidth is given by Carson’s rule. Thus bandwidth is B 2(3 10kHz) 60kHz b) Approx.
1V 0.c) J 0 0.7V J 1 0.2V 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 .2V 44V 1.44(10) 44V J 2 0.2V 7.11(10) 1.1V J 3 0.1V 0.02(10) 0.7V 44V 1.77(10) 7.
• Magnitude of carrier signal decreases as m increases. BW > 2∆fm is expected. . m. • The bandwidth of modulated signal increases when index modulation.2.Summary of FM spectrum: • Frequency spectrum consists of carrier component at fc and also sideband at fc±nfm where n is an integer (n = 1.…) • The number of sideband depends on index modulation value. m increases.3. • Amplitude of the frequency spectrum depends on value of Jn(m).
.Power in FM signal • Power signal depends on the amplitudes and not on the frequencies. • It can be seen from the Bessel equation: 2 2 2 J 02 2 J12 2 J 2 2 J 32 . 2 J n J 02 2 J n 1 n 1 • In other word the total power of FM signal consists of the power in carrier component and all the power in the sidebands. PJ T PJ 0 2 PJ n n 1 0 1 2 3 n . P PJ 2PJ PJ PJ .. • The amplitude of the FM signal is constant and therefore the power transmitted depends only on the amplitudes of the signal.. • For AM signal the power transmitted depends on the modulation index. It does not depends on the modulation index..
R R R R R 2 2 Ec2 J12 Ec2 J 2 Ec2 J 32 Ec2 J 02 Ec2 J n 2 2 R 2 R 2 R . PJ n VJ20 ( rms ) VJ2 ( rms ) VJ22 ( rms ) VJ23 ( rms) VJ2n ( rms ) 2 1 .• FM equation is given by: vFM (t ) Ec {J 0 ( ) cos( c t ) J1 ( )[cos( c m )t cos( c m )t ] J 2 ( )[cos( c 2 m )t cos( c 2 m )t ] J 3 ( )[cos( c 3 m )t cos( c 3 m )t ] ......... 2 R 2R Ec2 2 2 J 0 2 J n 2R n 1 . J n ( )[cos( c n m )t cos( c n m )t ]} • And therefore the total power transmitted : PT ( FM ) PJ 0 2 PJ1 PJ 2 PJ 3 .
Power Calculation • The average power of modulated wave is defined as : Pc = Vc2 / 2R Vc=peak unmodulated carrier voltage (V) R = load resistance average power of modulated carrier = average power of unmodulated carrier. The instantaneous power for angle modulation is defined as: Pt = m(t)2 / R W Modulated carrier power or = power of carrier + Pt = Vc2 / R [1/2 +½ cos(2ωct + 2(t)] power of side frequency components • Average power of the second term is zero. Thus Pc = Vc2 / 2R Consists of an infinite number of sinusoidal side frequency components .
... 2R 2R 2R 2R • • • • P0= modulated carrier power P1= power in the first set of sidebands P2= power in the second set of sidebands Pn= power in the nth set of sidebands 2 ..Power Calculation • The total power for modulated wave is defined as: Pt P P2 . Pn 1 Vc 2(Vn ) 2 2(V1 ) 2 2(V2 ) 2 Pt .
i. f c means that a large bandwidth is required – called • Large modulation index fm WBFM.3 there are more than 2 significant sidebands.e.3 is referred to as narrowband FM (NBFM) (Note. BW = 2fm. the bandwidth is the same as DSBAM). .3) there is only the carrier and 2 significant sidebands. FM with 0. This is referred to as wideband FM (WBFM).Narrowband and Wideband FM Narrowband FM NBFM From the graph/table of Bessel functions it may be seen that for small . As increases the number of sidebands increases. Wideband FM WBFM For > 0. ( 0.
(t ) m sin(mt ) 1 .Narrow Band FM (NBFM) • For FM signal with the small index modulation i.e m < 0.2. is called Narrow Band FM (FM jalur sempit) • For FM signal that we have studied previously also known as WBFM and the equation is given by : vFM (t ) Ec cos(ct ) cos[m sin( mt )] Ec sin(ct ) sin [m sin (mt )] • Let : (t ) m sin(mt ) • Hence. therefore. the equation yields: vFM (t ) Ec cos( c t ) cos[ (t )] Ec sin( c t ) sin [ (t )] • NBFM with m = small .
. But LSB component for NBFM the phase shift is varies for 90° (quadrature).• Therefore : cos[ (t )] 1 (t ) m sin(mt ) 1 and sin[ (t )] (t ) • Hence NBFM equation yields : vFM (t ) Ec cos(ct ) Ec (t ) sin(ct ) Ec cos(ct ) Ec m sin(mt ) sin(ct ) Ec cos(ct ) mEc mEc cos[(c m )t ] cos[( c m )t ] 2 2 • Compared with amDSBFC signal: amDSB FC (t ) Ec cosc t mEc mEc cosc m t cosc m t 2 2 • It is shown from both equations for NBFM and amDSBFC consist of one carrier component and two sidebands components.
Differences between FM and AM AM • Frequency spectrum Amplitud(V ) Ac FM Amplitud(V ) mAc 2 mAc 2 Ac Ac 2 0 c m c c m mAc A m 2 2 ( rads 1 ) 0 c m Ac 2 c c m ( rads 1 ) Di mana .
.Bessel Function Plot Sidebands (Pairs) Figure: Carrier and sideband amplitudes for different modulation indexes of FM signals based on the Bessel functions.
58 2000 1 13.58 J 5 0.Ex. Calculate the average power in: (i) Highest sideband (ii) Lowest sideband .58 EC 1 P1 2 R 2 (ii) 0. Given R = 50 Ω .03 (i) 0. Solution : (β =m) For β = 2 from Bessel table : The highest sideband is : The lowest sideband is : J 1 0.5 kW 2 50 2 4W .01 J1 2 0. 1 : A carrier with a peak value of 2000 V is frequency modulated with a message signal of 5 kHz. The modulation index obtained is 2.58 => J 4 2 0.03 2000 1 P5 2 50 2 0.
Therefore BW = BFM = 2nfm = 2 x 5 x 10 = 100 kHz Amplitud J1 BW 2 1 f m 2f f m J5 Carson Rule J0 fcfm fc fc+fm fc+2fm f (kHz) . J3 at 30 kHz etc. J1 .Ex. fm = 10 kHz and maximum frequency deviation is 20 kHz. J3 . J4 and J5 That means J1 will be at 10 kHz. 2 : (a) Determine the BW required to transmit FM signal when the modulating frequency. J2 . Solution : f 20 2 fm 10 From Bessel table the components obtained is J0 . J2 at 20 kHz.
(b) Repeat (a) with fm = 5 kHz Solution : f 20 4 fm 5 From Bessel table the highest component is J7 Therefore BW = 2 x 7 x 5 = 70 kHz BW 2 1 f m 2f f m Carson Rule .
2 MHz .m t Ec 100 V k f 10 kHz Given.Equation for NBFM: t c t k f vm t dt vFM t Ec cos 0 v m t E m sin 2f. Em 1 V dan f m 5 kHz (i) frequecy deviation (ii) BW by Carson rule (iii) Total Power (iv) Equation for NBFM . f c 106 .
Penyelesaian : (i) (ii) (iii) f k f E m 10 1 10 kHz f 10 2 BW 2f f m 210 5 30 kHz fm 5 PFM Ec2 100 2 5 kW . Considering R 1 2R 21 (iv) v NBFM Ec cos 2f c t Ec 2k f v m t dt sin 2f c t vNBFM (t ) Ec cos( c t ) Ec sin ( mt ) sin( c t ) .
3 : A FM signal.BW = 2(β + 1)fm = 2(2 + 1)5 = 30 kHz .27 kW lowest sideband For double side band = 2 x 13. 2000 cos (2π x 108 t + 2 Sin π x 104t) is transmitted using an antenna with the resistance of 50 Ω.54 kW Band limit : fc fm = 100 MHz 5 kHz Highest sideband J4 P = (0. Determine (i) Carrier frequency (ii) Modulation index (iii) Information signal (iv) Power transmitted (v) Bandwidth (vi) Power in highest and lowest sidebands Penyelesaian : vFM (t ) Ec cos [ c t sin mt ] (i) fc = 108 Hz = 100 MHz (vi) lowest side band J 1 amplitude for 1st side band = 0.27 kW = 26.58 x 2000 P = (0.Ex.03 x 2000/2)2 / 50 Ω = 36 W (ii) β = 2 (iii) fm = 104 / 2 = 5 kHz i) (iv) Ec = 2000 V => Ec(rms) = 2000 / 2 PT = V2 (rms) / R = (2000 / 2)2 / 50 = 40 kW i) (v) β = 2 => sideband 4 BW = BFM = 2nfm = 2 x 4 x 5 = 40 kHz Carson .58 x 2000/2)2 / 50 Ω = 13.