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The structure of an Atom
An atom consists of a nucleus which made of protons and neutrons. It also has electrons orbiting the nucleus.
2. Protons and neutrons are called nucleons.
Particle Proton(p) Neutron(n)
Value of charge / C +1.6 x 10-19 0 -1.6 x 10-19
Relative mass 1 1 1/1840
1.67 x 10-27 1.67 x 10-27 9.11x 10-31
Rutherford Atomic Model
1. Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden carried out an experiment proposed by Ernest Rutherford.
The result of the experiment shows that: i) Most of the alpha particle passed through the gold foil in their original position. ii) A very small number of alpha particles were deflected by the gold foil.
iii) A very small number of alpha particles were bounced back by the gold foil.
3. The conclusion of the experiment: i) The atomic mass is placed at the center of the atom and is positively charged. ii) The atom has a lot of empty space. The electrons orbiting the nucleus make up most of the atomic v
Proton number and nucleon number
1. The atoms of different elements are given different symbols. 2. 2. The nuclide notation of an atom gives the symbol of the element: 3. a) The proton number (atomic number), Z. For a neutral atom, the number of protons equals the number of electrons. 4. b) The nucleon number, A is a total number of protons and neutrons.
3. The number of neutrons, N = Nucleon number, A - atomi number, Z
Symb ol Number of Nucle Proto fundamental on n particles Numb numb proto neutr electr er, A er, Z n on on
14 1 9 16 4
5.2 Analysing Radioactive Decay.
1. Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration (decay) of a unstable nucleus into a more stable nucleus with the emission of a radioactive rays or energetic particles photons. The decay occurs randomly. 2. The process is said to be spontaneous because it is not influenced by any physical factors such as temperature, time and pressure. It happens on its own, cannot be controlled and not affected by its chemical position. 3. A nucleus is unstable if it is too big. All nuclei with Z > 83 or A > 209 are unstable .4. The emission of radioactive rays is random means that
RADIOACTIVE DECAY VIDEO
. There are three types of radioactive emissions : a) alpha ons energetic particles phot e rays or emission of a radioactiv α particlesb) beta particles -β Unstable c) gamma rays nucleus γ
5. Example of stable and unstable isotopes
Elemen t Carbon Oxygen Lead Stable isotopes
19 15 16 14 12 214 210 208 206 8 6 82
Pb, Pb, O,
12 C 6
210 214 82 Pb 82
Characteristics of alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays
Absorption of Radiation
A) Alpha Decay
A X Z Parent nucleus
A-4 → Y Z -2 daughter nucleus
4 + He 2 particle (alpha)
In alpha decay, the proton number is reduced by 2 w the nucleon number is reduced by 4.
A X → Y + Z Z +1 Parent daughter nucleus nucleus 0 e -1 particle (beta)
cay, the proton number is increased by 1 because the n on formed but the nucleon number is unchanged beca of 1 neutron.
C) Gamma Decay
A X → A Y Z daughter nucleus 206 Pb 82 + γ particle (gamma 4 + 2 He Z Parent nucleus Example : 210 Po 84 → + γ
There is no change in the proton number and nucleon number for a nuclide that emits a gamma ray photon.
Write the types of radiation
1. Radioactive decay is a random and spontaneous process. This means that all the unstable nuclei do not decay at the same time, some decay earlier while others will decay at a much later time. 2. As the time progresses the number of atoms undecayed or remaining decreases while the number of atoms decayed or disintegrated increases. 3. The half-life, T1/2 of a radioactive sample is the time taken for the number of radioactive atoms in the sample to be reduced to half of its original number.
Half-life Number of undecayed atoms. % atoms undecayed Mass Activity(s-1)
7 1 8
(½)1 N = (½)2N = ¼ ½N N 50 % 25 %
(½)3= N N= N–
64 g 120 s-1
32 g 60 s-1
16 g 30 s-1
8g 15 s-1
Number of N – N = 0 N–½N =½ N–¼N = ¾ N atoms N N decayed Mass have decayed % atoms decayed 0g 0% 32 g 50 % 48 g 75 % 56 g 87.5 %
Decrease in mass = initial mass – fina = 80 g -2.5 g = 77.5 g
Usage of Half-life
Usage of Half-life
• Half-Life in Archeology Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5600 years. 1. Humans, animal and plants absorb Carbon-14 through carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. A small amount of carbon in CO2 exist as Carbon-14. 2. Living animals and vegetables have a constant amount of Carbon-14 because the C-14 decayed will always be replaced. However, for dead beings the amount of C-14 in it will decrease because new C-14 will not be absorbed causing its reactivity to
Example 1 : An old human skull is found buried in the sand. The skull produces radioactive ray with reactivity of 30 pulses per second. A new skull produces reactivity of 100 pulses per second. If the background pulse is 20 pulses per second and the half-life of C-14 is 5700 years, how old is the skull? Original reactivity = 100 – 20 = 80 Reactivity of old skull = 30 – 20 = 10 Decay process : T1/2 T1/2 T1/2 1. → 40 → 20 → 10 Decay has passed through 3 half-lives ( 3T1/2 ) The age of the old skull = 3 x 5700 = 17100 years.
1. Most method of detecting nuclear radiation are based on these two properties (a) The ionizing effect of the radiation. When a radioactive ray is emitted into the air, the air molecules around it will turn into ions. (charged molecules). The alpha particle has the highest ionization power, followed by beta and gamma ray. (b) The ability of the radiation to blacken a photographic-plate or film.
1. Photographic plate or film.
1.A photographic plate works on the principle that radioactive radiation can cause a chemical change on the plate and produce a dark trace. 2. The photographic plate can detectα, β andϒ . 3. It can be used as a special badge or tag to record the dosage of radiation a person
2. Scintillation detector
1. A scintillation detector is used to detect gamma radiation. 2. 2. The detector has sodium iodide which flashes when it is gamma. hit by
3. 3. The light flash (scintillation) causes photoelectron to be ejected from the photocathode. 4. These electrons are pulled towards anode, X ( photomultiplier) causing more electrons to be emitted. The electrons emoted are pulled to other anode Y, Z etc which multiply the number of electrons emitted successively. 5. A pulse is therefore produced and will be measured by an electronic counter.
3. Gold Leaf Electroscope
1. The electroscope is positively charged. The gold leaf is deflected because same charges repel. 2. When the charged plate of the electroscope is exposed to the source of alpha particles, the gold leaf will collapse. 3. This due to the ionizing effect of alpha particles, both positive and negative ions are produced in the air. 4. negative ions are attracted towards the positive ions on the surface
4. Spark Counter
1.A high voltage supply between the wire and the wire gauze is increase slowly until spark is observed. 2.The voltage is then reduced slowly until no spark is observed (∼ 4 kV). 3.A source of alpha particles is then brought closer to the wire gauze. 4.The air molecules in the counter is become ionized. 5.The positive ions and negative ions produced will be attracted to the wire gauze and thin wire respectively. 6.As the ions moves towards their respective terminals more collisions with air molecules occur causing secondary ionization. 7.The heat and light energies generated from these collisions produce the spark. 1.The intensity of the radiation gamma rays by the number of It cannot detect beta particles and is indicated
5. Geiger-Muller Tube (G-M Tube)
1.A Geiger-Muller (G-M) tube consist of an aluminium tube. It is filled with Argon gas at low pressure. 2.The central tungsten wire acts as anode(+ve electrode) and the aluminium wall of the tube acts as cathode ( -ve electrode). 1.G-M is connected to high voltage before being used. 2.When a radioactive particle enters the tube through mica window and the argon gas atoms are ionized. 3.The positively charged ions and electrons produced will accelerate towards the cathode and anode respectively. 1.As the ions accelerate, they collide with other atoms, hence producing more ions(secondary ions) 1.The anode will collect all these electrons to produce an electric pulse in the circuit. The strength of the pulse is increased by Actual reading = Reading recorded - Background reading. an amplifier and then transfer to a recorder. 1.The recorder are also record all readings when
6. Cloud Chamber
A cloud chamber is a detector which displays the tracks of charged particles. • The felt strip round the top is soaked with alcohol. This causes the air in chamber to be saturated. • The lower part is filled with solid Carbon dioxide, CO(dry ice). • Sponge is used to push CO towards the metal plate. As a result,the air space becomes supersaturated. • When the radioactive rays enter the upper part, the ionization of air will occur. Saturated alcohol vapour will move above the ions and condensed. Droplets of liquid alcohol on the ions will cause the formation of misty tracks. • Steps to ensure the clear tracks : the transparent perspex cover is rubbed with a soft cloth to produce charges which will remove all ions in the chamber before radioactive rays enter.The cloud chamber must be placed horizontally to ensure smooth flow particle in it. The light must shine on the area supersaturated with vapour and not the black base of the chamber in order to avoid heating it.
Characteristics and explanation.
- thick because have strongest ionizing power. A lot of alcohol droplets are formed along the ions produced along the track. - straight because not easily deflected by air molecules with its greater mass. - same length because each particle has equal amount of energy.
- thin because ionizing power is weak. - curvy because the particles are light and deflected by air molecules. - different length because each particle has different amount of energy. - thin, short and scattered because it has the lowest ionizing power.
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