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Reinforced Concrete Design

ACI Code 318-08


Course Outline
1. Properties of Reinforced Concrete
2. Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams
3. Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams
4. Development Length of Reinforcing Bars
5. Shear and Diagonal Tension
6. Torsion
7. Axially Loaded Columns
8. Members in Compression and Bending
9. Slender Columns
10. One-way Slabs
11. Two-ways Slabs
12. Stairs
13. Footings


Chapter 1
Properties of Reinforced Concrete

1. Properties of Reinforced Concrete

1.1 Factor affecting the strength of concrete
1.2 Compressive strength
1.3 Tensile strength of concrete
1.4 Flexural strength (Modulus of rupture) of concrete
1.5 Shear strength
1.6 Modulus of elasticity of concrete
1.7 Steel reinforcement



1.1 Factor affecting the strength of concrete
Water-cement ratio: for complete hydration
W/C = 0.25 is needed.
Properties and proportions of concrete
constituents: An increase in cement content in the
mix and use well-graded aggregate increase the
strength of concrete. Special admixtures are
usually added to the mix to produce the desired
quality and strength of concrete.

1. Properties of Reinforced Concrete

1.1 Factor affecting the strength of concrete
Method of mixing and curing: concrete mixer,
proper time of mixing, vibrator, curing (moisture
and temperature). The longer period of moist
storage, the greater the strength.
Age of the concrete:

1. Properties of Reinforced Concrete

,28
( )
4 0.85
c c
t
f t f
t
' '
=
+
Age 7
days
14
days
28
days
3
months
6
months
1
year
2
years
3
years
Strength
Ratio
0.67 0.86 1 1.17 1.23 1.27 1.31 1.35
1.1 Factor affecting the strength of concrete
Loading condition: the compressive strength of
concrete (f
c
) is usually obtained from static
loading test, not including dynamic and creep
effects.
Shape and dimension of tested specimen:
1. Properties of Reinforced Concrete

( )
, , ,
0.85 to 0.8 1.1
c cyl c cube c prism
f f f
' ' '
= =
Relative strength for various size of cylinders
1. Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Size of cylinder (mm) Relative compressive
strength
50 x 100 1.09
75 x 150 1.06
150 x 300 1.00
200 x 400 0.96
300 x 600 0.91
450 x 900 0.86
600 x 1200 0.84
900 x 1800 0.82

1. Properties of Reinforced Concrete

1.1 Factor affecting the strength of concrete
1.2 Compressive strength
1.3 Tensile strength of concrete
1.4 Flexural strength (Modulus of rupture) of concrete
1.5 Shear strength
1.6 Modulus of elasticity of concrete
1.7 Steel reinforcement



1.2 Compressive strength

1.2 Compressive strength

1. Properties of Reinforced Concrete

1.1 Factor affecting the strength of concrete
1.2 Compressive strength
1.3 Tensile strength of concrete
1.4 Flexural strength (Modulus of rupture) of concrete
1.5 Shear strength
1.6 Modulus of elasticity of concrete
1.7 Steel reinforcement



1.3 Tensile strength of concrete








Where P compressive load, D and L are diameter and
length of cylinder

Generally,
2
sp
P
f
LD t
'
=
10%
sp c
f f
' '
~
1.4 Flexural strength (Modulus of rupture) of
concrete

0.62 (MPa)
r c
f f
'
=
( )
1.25 1.50 (MPa)
r sp
f to f
'
=

1.5 Shear strength




Where: is a modification factor for type of
concrete (ACI 8.6.1)
= 1.0 Normal-weight concrete
= 0.85 Sand-lightweight concrete
= 0.75 for all-lightweight concrete
0.17 (MPa)
t c
f f
'
=
1.6 Modulus of elasticity of concrete


1.6 Modulus of elasticity of concrete



In practice, secant modulus at 50% of f
c
is used.


Or

c
E
o
c
=
| |
1.5 3
0.043 (MPa), = /
c c
E w f w kg m
'
=
=4780 (MPa)
c c
E f
'
1.7 Steel reinforcement


(

)
Diameter Number of Bars
(mm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15
6 0.28 0.57 0.85 1.13 1.41 1.70 1.98 2.26 2.54 2.83 3.39 3.68 3.96 4.24
8 0.50 1.01 1.51 2.01 2.51 3.02 3.52 4.02 4.52 5.03 6.03 6.53 7.04 7.54
10 0.79 1.57 2.36 3.14 3.93 4.71 5.50 6.28 7.07 7.85 9.42 10.21 11.00 11.78
12 1.13 2.26 3.39 4.52 5.65 6.79 7.92 9.05 10.18 11.31 13.57 14.70 15.83 16.96
14 1.54 3.08 4.62 6.16 7.70 9.24 10.78 12.32 13.85 15.39 18.47 20.01 21.55 23.09
16 2.01 4.02 6.03 8.04 10.05 12.06 14.07 16.08 18.10 20.11 24.13 26.14 28.15 30.16
18 2.54 5.09 7.63 10.18 12.72 15.27 17.81 20.36 22.90 25.45 30.54 33.08 35.63 38.17
20 3.14 6.28 9.42 12.57 15.71 18.85 21.99 25.13 28.27 31.42 37.70 40.84 43.98 47.12
22 3.80 7.60 11.40 15.21 19.01 22.81 26.61 30.41 34.21 38.01 45.62 49.42 53.22 57.02
25 4.91 9.82 14.73 19.63 24.54 29.45 34.36 39.27 44.18 49.09 58.90 63.81 68.72 73.63
30 7.07 14.14 21.21 28.27 35.34 42.41 49.48 56.55 63.62 70.69 84.82 91.89 98.96 106.03
32 8.04 16.08 24.13 32.17 40.21 48.25 56.30 64.34 72.38 80.42 96.51 104.55 112.59 120.64
38 11.34 22.68 34.02 45.36 56.71 68.05 79.39 90.73 102.07 113.41 136.09 147.43 158.78 170.12

Chapter 2


Flexural Analysis
of
Reinforced Concrete Beams

1. Introduction
The analysis and design of a structural
member may be regarded as the process of
selecting the proper materials and determining
the member dimensions such that the design
strength is equal or greater than the required
strength.

M M
V V
T
P P
n u
n u
n u
n u
T
|
|
|
|
>
>
>
>




Gravity load path in a floor slab a) one-way system;
b) two-way system


2. Design Assumptions
1. Strain in concrete is the same as in reinforcing bars at
the same level, provided that the bond between the steel
and concrete is adequate.
2. Strain in concrete is linearly proportional to the distance
from the neutral axis (Fig 2.1).
3. The modulus of elasticity of all grades of steel is



4. Plane cross-sections continue to be plane after bending

5
200000 2 10
s
E MPa MPa = =
Fig 2.1 Strain diagram
2. Design Assumptions
5. Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in axial
and flexural calculations of reinforced concrete.
6.

2. Design Assumptions
7. Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression
fiber shall be assumed equal to
u
= 0.003.
2. Design Assumptions
3. Stress in reinforcement f
s
below the yield strength f
y

shall be taken as E
s
times the steel strain
s
. For strains
greater than f
y
/E
s
, stress in reinforcement shall be
considered independent of strain and equal to f
y
.

when
s

y
(yield strain):
f
s
= E
s

s


when
s

y
:
f
s
= E
s

y
= f
y


3. Behavior of a simply supported reinforced
concrete beam loaded to failure




Failure conditions at the positive
sections in a continuous
reinforced concrete beam
Failure conditions at the
negative-moment sections in a
continuous reinforced concrete
beam

4. Type of flexural failure
Three types of flexural failure of a structural member
can be expected depending on the percentage of steel
used in the section.

1. Tension-control section: c
c
= 0.003 & c
s
> 0.005
4. Type of flexural failure
2. Balance-control section:
4. Type of flexural failure
2. Compression-control section:
5. Strain Limits


Strain Limits
Section Condition Concrete Strain Steel Strain Notes (f
y
= 400MPa)
Compression-controlled 0.003 c
t
s f
y
/E
s
c
t
s 0.002
Tension-controlled 0.003 c
t
> 0.005 c
t
> 0.005
Transition region 0.003 f
y
/E
s
< c
t
< 0.005 0.002

< c
t
< 0.005
Balanced strain 0.003 c
s
= f
y
/E
s
c
s
= 0.002
Transition region (flexure) 0.003 0.004

< c
t
< 0.005 0.004

< c
t
< 0.005
6. Load Factors