How Does the Cell Divide?

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Cell division is an important life process. It results in the production of new cells. As organisms live, they are in a constant state of repair and disrepair. Their cells grow old or are damaged. And to survive, organisms must have a means to replace dying or injured cells.

Chromosomes and Cell Division All cells come from preexisting cells. The process that results in the formation of new cells is called cell division.


How Does the Cell Divide?
The nucleus divides first, followed by the division of the cytoplasm, thus, resulting first in the formation of two daughter nuclei, and later in the formation of two daughter cells. Since the nucleus contains the chromosomes of the cell, division also involves the equal


namely.Cell Types Based on Function and Chromosome Number There are two kinds of cells in multicellular organisms based on function. a. somatic or body cells. reproductive cells. 7/28/12 . and b. vegetative.

Such processes may  Involved in the production of offspring.  Reproductivekinds  Vegetative or there are two Cells of reproductive Somatic Cells cells. In plants. In animals. the 7/28/12 . like in mosses. ferns and flowering plants. namely. of which there two kinds. They form the body of the organism. sperm and egg. They are mainly concerned with the maintenance of the life processes of the whole organism. roots and stems of a flowering plant. the reproductive cells are called gametes. like the cells of the stomach and the legs of an animal or the cells of the leaves.

In terms of chromosome number…  Diploid  Vegetative Cells Haploid Reproductive Cells 7/28/12 .

This number of chromosomes which  Onion – 16 is established at the time of the formation of the zygote or fertilized egg is often referred to as the chromosome number of the species. Each kind of plant 46 Human Species – and 7/28/12 .Chromosome Number animal has a definite number of  Fruitfly – 8chromosomes found in each of its body cells.

One set is contributed by the sperm cell or is of paternal origin.Since the zygote is the result of the union of the egg cell and the sperm cell. and the other set is contributed by the egg cell or is of maternal origin. it may be said that the zygote consists of two sets of chromosomes. 7/28/12 .

symbolized as 2N. then it is said to have the haploid number of chromosomes. 7/28/12 . has two sets of chromosomes. has only a single set of chromosomes. the cell is said to have the diploid number of chromosomes. like the sperm cell or egg cell. like the zygote. If a cell.  If a cell.

the chromosome number of the species.  The zygote of all the vegetative or somatic cells that resulted from the cell division of the zygote are diploid or have 2N chromosome number. whereas the sperm cell and the egg cell has only 23 chromosomes and is said to be haploid (N). In man. the zygote has 46 chromosomes and is said to be diploid (2N). 7/28/12 . in general. also refers to the diploid number (2N). Thus.

 Through breeding techniques or through freaks of nature. tetraploid (4N). or three haploid (N) number of chromosomes. Hence the terms triploid (3N). 7/28/12 . originally 2N. quadrupled (8N). Or it may be doubled (4N). this chromosomal condition is generally called polyploidy and the chromosome number of the somatic or vegetative cells is called polyploid. may be 3N. the chromosome number of the somatic or vegetative cells. etc. etc.

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7/28/12 . At present. they are fairly common in the plant kingdom.Although polyploid organisms are rare in the animal kingdom. polyploidy can be and has been induced in both plants and animals for economic purposes.

For example. They produce larger flowers and/or larger fruits. hence bigger since food is allocated to growth of the body rather than to development of reproductive cells. 7/28/12 . many of the commercial roses and strawberries are polyploid plants. Triploid animals are sexually sterile.

each chromosome in a cell is double-stranded. 7/28/12 . they are also sometimes referred to as sister chromatids. Each strand is called chromatid.Chromosome Structure  Prior to division. They are joined together by a centromere. Since the two chromatids of a chromosome contain identical genes or genetic information.

 Thus. or loci (singular. The genes that control the inheritance and expression of a particular characteristics have specific positions. along the length of the chromosomes. there may very well be several hundreds to around one thousand genes that are linearly arranged along the entire length of every chromosome. with around 35. 7/28/12 . locus).000 genes in a human cell. The location of the centromere is specific for each kind of chromosome found in the nucleus of a cell.

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Each pair of chromosomes is referred to as homologous chromosomes. 7/28/12 . each kind of chromosome is represented by a pair.Homologous Chromosomes  In a diploid cell.

Homologous chromosomes are structurally alike. Their centromeres are similarly positioned so that the so-called arms of the homologous chromosomes are of the same length. 7/28/12 . They are of the same size or length.

where 2N is equal to 16 chromosomes.  In humans. In onion. of which 22 pairs are somatic or body chromosomes and the last pair are sex chromosomes. consisting of the larger X chromosome and the smaller 7/28/12 . The 23rd pair consists of two X chromosomes. there are 8 pairs of homologous chromosomes.  In males. where 2N is equal to 46. Thus. there are 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. females have diploid chrosome number (2N) equal to 46. there are 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes and one pair of chromosomes that are not strictly homologous since they are of different sizes. These are the sex chromosomes.

7/28/12 .

Cell Division Click to edit Master subtitle style 7/28/12 .

There are two common types of cell division that cells say undergo. with the division of cytoplasm referred to as cytokinesis. Mitosis and meiosis are types of nuclear division. However. the term mitosis and meiosis are often used and understood in the broad sense as including not only nuclear division but also cytoplasmic division. namely. mitosis and meiosis. 7/28/12 .

So how did you reach the size you now have? Did you also know that 28 days from now. It is but one-tenth of a millimeter. every single layer of skin that covers your body will all be gone replaced by a set of completely new ones? 7/28/12 .Mitosis: Growth. Repair and Asexual Reproduction Did you know that you began as a single cell called zygote? The zygote is the product of the union of your father’s sperm cell and your mother’s egg cell.

7/28/12 . growth and repair of damaged body parts.Cell Division for…  Multicellular organisms. cell division is a form of increase in cell number. cell division causes Unicellular organisms. can lead to anasexual reproduction that produces new individuals.

The type of cell division involved in growth. repair and asexual reproduction is called mitosis. 7/28/12 .

The Cell Cycle Cells go through a cycle of alternating stages of division and rest from division. 7/28/12 .

When cells divide. The division of the nucleus is called mitosis and the division of cytoplasm is called cytokinesis. which is devoted largely to cell growth. two parts may be involved. is called interphase. Most actively dividing cells spend some 90% of their time at this stage.The nondividing stage. the nucleus and the cytoplasm.  7/28/12 .

Mitosis type of nuclear division that produces two ‘daughter’ nuclei. namely: -prophase -metaphase -anaphase -telophase A 7/28/12 . each containing exactly the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.  Includes four stages.

it happens simultaneously with the last stage of nuclear division. it must ensure that a complete and faithful copy of genetic information found in the DNA (packaged into chromosomes) is passed on to the daughter cells. Every time a cell divides. 7/28/12 .When cytokinesis occurs.

Every part of the body. bone or blood. every cell of the skin.Mitosis ensures that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes. originated from one cell and hence contains identical sets of chromosomes and copies of genetic information. 7/28/12 .

7/28/12 .How Often Do Cells Divide?  Some cells complete the cycle of interphase and mitosis within 24 hours. while others may take years before they go through the process of cell division.

What Changes Occur in Each Stage of the Cell Cycle? 7/28/12 .

is the stage between two successive cell divisions. Includes three phases. as follows: -Gap 1 (G1) phase -Synthesis (S) phase -Gap 2 (G2) phase  Interphase 7/28/12 .

Gap 1 (G1) Phase  The period when the cell increases in size in preparation for cell division. RNA and proteins including enzymes needed for making DNA are synthesized. 7/28/12 .

Synthesis (S) Phase
 The

period during which DNA is synthesized and chromosomes are replicated. Each strand of the double stranded produced is called a sister chromatid.


Gap 2 (G2) Phase
 The

period when the cell continues to synthesize RNA and proteins and increase in size.


 Although

DNA synthesis is confined at the S phase, the synthesis of organelles occurs throughout interphase. Before division, the cells grow to their characteristic adult size. After division, the cells may go through G1 to prepare for the next division.  Or they may go through into an arrested, quiescent stage known as G0 state differentiate.  Some cells, such as nerve cells and blood cells, remain in G0 all their lives.


Mitosis involves the following stages:
 Prophase

is when chromosomes coil up into rod-shaped structures, nucleoli and nuclear membrane disappear and spindle fibers are formed.


 Metaphase involves the alignment double-stranded chromosomes at the equatorial plate. 7/28/12 . with the kinetochores attaching the chromosomes to the spindle fibers.

 Anaphase begins with the division of the centromeres and ends with the migration of singlestranded chromosomes to the poles. 7/28/12 .

 Telophase is also known as ‘reverse prophase’ since it involves the uncoiling of chromosomes. and disappearance of the spindle fibers. reappearance of the nucleoli and nuclear membrane. 7/28/12 .

7/28/12 .Cytokinesis in Plant Cells  Involves the formation of a cell plate that eventually develops into the cell wall and the middle lamella.

with the formation of a cleavage 7/28/12 .Cytoplasmic Division in Animal Cells  Occurs furrow.

The cells of 7/28/12 . nuclear division is not followed by cytoplasmic division and a cell with two nuclei. called a binucleated cell. Sometimes. is formed. is formed. called a multinucleated cell. Many cells of the human liver are binucleated. If there are repeated nuclear divisions without cytoplasmic division taking place. then a cell with many nuclei.

resulting develop into cancerous growth. Some cells may divide too not repaired soon enough. wounds it take a while to heal. fast. When all. and damage nerve cells are not replaced. they mayin memory loss. 7/28/12 .  When cells divide faster than they should.When Cell Division Goes Wrong  Cell division may not always go on as would When cells divide too slowly. damaged tissues are normally should. while others may divide too slowly or  not at cells cease to divide as in the brain.

so do we.Old cells eventually suffer from complete failure of division. 7/28/12 . As our cells grow old and die.

7/28/12 .When Cells Stop Dividing  Scientists may not be very far from unlocking the mysteries of youth and aging. The secret is believed to be in that part of the chromosome called telomere and in that enzyme known as telomerase. immortality and death.

What are telomeres and telomerase? 7/28/12 .

Each cell contains a nucleus. which contains chromosomes that are made up of linearly arranged cells. the telomere becomes so short that the cell stops dividing. This means the cell has become ‘old’ and may malfunction 7/28/12 and die . These chromosomes are distributed equally to the daughter cells. Each chromosome has a special protective cap called a telomere. In order to grow. the cells in our body must undergo division (mitosis). The human body is made up of over 100 trillion cells. With each cell division. Before diving. our cells make duplicate copies of chromosomes. the telomere gets shorter. After about 50 divisions.

Is there a way to keep the telomere from shortening? 7/28/12 .

We may become immortal if our cells could go on dividing forever.  7/28/12 . To prevent premature aging and death. an enzyme that elongates telomeres. cells naturally produce telomerase. Telomerase delays cell aging and death by ensuring that telomeres do not become critically short.

Meiosis: Preparing for Sexual Reproduction 7/28/12 .

The sex cells are produced through a type of nuclear division that reduces chromosome number to half of that of the parent cell. This reduction-division is called meiosis. 7/28/12 .

Meiosis involves two consecitive divisions  Meiosis I A cell that divides by meiosis produces four  new daughter cells. Meiosis II 7/28/12 .

7/28/12 .

This is called synapsis.  Metaphase 1 – each pair of homologous chromosomes attach to a single spindle fiber.  Anaphase 1 – one double-stranded chromosome in the pair moves to one pole. At this time. while the other double-stranded chromosome in the pair moves to the opposite pole 7/28/12 .Meiosis 1  Prophase 1 – homologous chromosomes pair up. exchange of genetic material may occur through a process referred to as crossingover.

 Telophase 1 – two nuclei are produced. 7/28/12 . each containing only half the chromosome number of the original parent cell.

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7/28/12 .  At the end of the cell division. its centromere splits into two. and the two strands of the chromosome migrate to opposite poles. four haploid (N) daughter cells are produced.Meiosis II  Similar to mitosis.  Each double stranded chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber.

the chromosome number of the zygote or offspring remains the same as the diploid chromosome number of the parents. 7/28/12 .What is the significance of the reduction of chromosome number during meiosis?  Allows the formation of haploid gametes  Ensures that.  Makes possible the maintenance of constant chromosome number in the species generation after generation. even after fusion of gametes.

Chromosomal Abnormalities Click to edit Master subtitle style 7/28/12 .

Understanding what chromosomes are may make it easier to understand the wide range of problems chromosomal abnormalities can cause. Some chromosomal abnormalities result in miscarriage or stillbirth. About 1 in 150 babies in the United States is born with a chromosomal abnormality. These abnormalities are caused by errors in the number or structure of chromosomes. Many children with a chromosomal abnormality have mental and/or physical birth defects.  7/28/12 .

As far as we know.What are the causes of chromosomal abnormalities?  Chromosomal abnormalities usually result from an error that occurs when an egg or sperm cell develops.  7/28/12 . It is not known why these errors occur. nothing that a parent does or doesn’t do before or during pregnancy can cause a chromosomal abnormality in his or her child.

When they join together. they form a fertilized egg with 46 chromosomes. resulting in an egg or sperm cell with too many or too few chromosomes. But sometimes something goes wrong before fertilization. Egg and sperm cells each contain 23 chromosomes. An egg or sperm cell may divide incorrectly.  7/28/12 .

A common type of chromosomal abnormality is called a trisomy. individuals with Down syndrome generally have three copies of chromosome 21 (though a small number of cases are caused by chromosomal rearrangements). 7/28/12 . the resulting embryo has a chromosomal abnormality. This means that an individual has three copies of a specific chromosome. For example. When this cell with the wrong number of chromosomes joins with a normal egg or sperm cell. instead of two.

What are some common chromosomal abnormalities? 7/28/12 .

often.Down Syndrome  This is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities. Individuals with down syndrome have varying degrees of intellectual disability.  7/28/12 . affecting about 1 in 800 babies. characteristic facial features and. heart defects and other problems.

300 at age 25 1 in 1.outlook for children with Down syndrome is far brighter than it once was.000 at age 30 1 in 400 at age 35 7/28/12  The .   The risk of Down syndrome and other trisomies increases with the mother’s age. many learn to read and write and participate in diverse childhood activities. Most have intellectual disabilities in the mild to moderate range. The risk of having a baby with Down syndrome is about: 1 in 1. With early intervention and special education.

About 1 in 16. Babies with trisomies 13 or 18 generally have severe intellectual disabilities and many physical birth defects.000 with trisomy 18 (also called Edwards syndrome).Trisomies 13 and 18  These trisomies usually are more severe than Down syndrome.  7/28/12 . and about 1 in 5.000 babies is born with trisomy 13 (also called Patau syndrome). Most affected babies die before their first birthday. but fortunately less common.

and. However. Sex chromosome abnormalities may cause infertility. growth abnormalities. in some cases.Common Sex Chromosome Abnormalities  The last pair of chromosomes are the sex chromosomes. behavioral and learning problems. 7/28/12 . most affected individuals live fairly normal lives. and males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. females have two X chromosomes. . called X and Y Generally.

Girls with Turner syndrome have one X chromosome and are missing all or part of the other X chromosome. Affected girls are short. Some have other health problems. though some have learning difficulties. Girls with Turner syndrome generally have normal intelligence. including heart and kidney defects.  7/28/12 . though treatment with growth hormone can help increase height. particularly with mathematics and spatial concepts.500 girls. They usually are infertile and do not undergo normal puberty changes unless they are treated with sex hormones.Turner Syndrome  This abnormality affects about 1 in 2.

though many have learning problems. They usually have no physical birth defects. Affected girls tend to be tall. Affected girls usually have normal intelligence.  7/28/12 . experience normal puberty and are fertile. Some parents may learn that their daughter has this abnormality if they have prenatal testing (with amniocentesis or CVS). Because these girls are healthy and have a normal appearance.Triple X   About 1 in 1. their parents often don’t know they have a chromosomal abnormality.000 females has an extra X chromosome.

X chromosomes along with their Y chromosome.000 boys.  7/28/12 . though many have learning problems. As adults. or occasionally more.Klinefelter Syndrome  This abnormality affects about 1 in 500 to 1. they produce lower-than-normal amounts of the male hormone testosterone (and often are treated with this hormone) and are infertile. Affected boys usually have normal intelligence. Boys with Klinefelter syndrome have two.

XYY  About 1 in 1. though some have learning. As with triple X females.  7/28/12 . many affected males and their families don’t know they have a chromosomal abnormality unless it is diagnosed with prenatal testing. Most have normal intelligence. have normal sexual development and are fertile. behavioral and speech/language problems. Affected males are sometimes taller than average.000 males is born with one or more extra Y chromosomes.

Less Common Chromosomal Abnormalities 7/28/12 .

7/28/12 .Deletions A small section of a chromosome is missing.

Microdeletions  An extremely small amount of a chromosome is missing. possibly only a single gene. 7/28/12 .

7/28/12 . and the new ends join together to form a ring. Ring chromosome: Material is deleted at both ends of a chromosome.Translocations: A section of a chromosome is attached to another chromosome. Inversions: A section of chromosome is snipped out and reinserted upside down. Duplications: A section of a chromosome is duplicated. so there is extra genetic material.

Some uncommon disorders can be caused by small chromosomal deletions 7/28/12 .

Cri-du-chat (cat cry) syndrome (deletion on chromosome 5)a cat-like. high  Affected children have pitched cry during infancy. 7/28/12 . About 1 in 20.000 to 50. intellectual disabilities and physical abnormalities.000 babies is born with this disorder.

7/28/12 .000 to 25. behavioral problems and short stature.000 babies is affected. They also may develop extreme obesity. About 1 in 10.Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion on chromosome 15)   Affected children usually have intellectual disabilities or learning disabilities.

cleft lip/palate. These deletions cause a variety of problems that can include heart defects. characteristic facial features and learning disabilities. Certain combinations of these features are sometimes called DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome.000 babies is born with  About deletions in a specific region of chromosome 22.22q11 deletion syndrome (deletion on chromosome 22) 1 in 4. immune system abnormalities. Individuals with this disorder have a 50-percent chance of passing the chromosomal abnormality on to their offspring with each pregnancy. 7/28/12 .

It affects about 1 in 50.000 babies.Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (deletion on chromosome 4) disorder is characterized by intellectual  This disabilities. poor muscle tone. 7/28/12 . heart defects. seizures and other problems.

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