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CHAPTER 2

CHEMICAL FORMULAS &


COMPOSITION
STOICHIOMETRY

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Chapter Goals
 Atoms and Molecules
 Chemical Formulas
 Ions and Ionic Compounds
 Names and Formulas of Some
Ionic Compounds
 Atomic Weights
 The Mole

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Chapter Goals
1. Formula Weights, Molecular Weights,
and Moles
2. Percent Composition and Formulas of
Compounds
3. Derivation of Formulas from Elemental
Composition
4. Determination of Molecular Formulas
5. Some Other Interpretations of
Chemical Formulas
6. Purity of Samples

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Atoms and Molecules
Dalton’s Atomic Theory - 1808
Five postulates
1. An element is composed of extremely small,
indivisible particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of a given element have identical
properties that differ from those of other
elements.
3. Atoms cannot be created, destroyed, or
transformed into atoms of another element.
4. Compounds are formed when atoms of
different elements combine with one another
in small whole-number ratios.
5. The relative numbers and kinds of atoms are
constant in a given compound. 4
Atoms and Molecules
A molecule is the smallest particle of an
element that can have a stable
independent existence.
 Usually have 2 or more atoms bonded
together
Examples of molecules
 H2
 O2
 S8
 H2O
 CH4
 C2H5OH
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Chemical Formulas
Chemical formula shows the chemical
composition of the substance.
 ratio of the elements present in the molecule
or compound
He, Au, Na – monatomic elements
O2, H2, Cl2 – diatomic elements
O3, S8, P4 - more complex elements
H2O, C12H22O11 – compounds
 Substance consists of two or more elements

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Chemical Formulas

Compound 1 Molecule
Contains
HCl 1 H atom & 1 Cl
atom
H 2O 2 H atoms & 1 O
atom
NH3 1 N atom & 3 H
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Ions and Ionic Compounds
Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that
possess an electric charge.
Two basic types of ions:
Positive ions or cations
 one or more electrons less than neutral
 Na+, Ca2+, Al3+
 NH4+ - polyatomic cation
Negative ions or anions
 one or more electrons more than neutral
 F-, O2-, N3-
 SO42-, PO43- - polyatomic anions
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Ions and Ionic Compounds
Sodium chloride
 table salt is an ionic compound

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Names and Formulas of
Some Ionic Compounds
Table 2-3 displays the formulas,
charges, and names of some
common ions
 You must know the names, formulas,
and charges of the common ions in
table 2-3.
Some examples are:
 Anions - Cl1-, OH1-, SO42-, PO43-
 Cations - Na1+, NH41+, Ca2+, Al3+
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Names and Formulas of
Some Ionic Compounds
Formulas of ionic compounds are
determined by the charges of the ions.
 Charge on the cations must equal the
charge on the anions.
 The compound must be neutral.
NaCl sodium chloride (Na1+ &
Cl1-)
KOH potassium hydroxide(K1+ &
OH1-)
CaSO4 calcium sulfate (Ca2+ &
SO42-)
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3+
Names and Formulas of
Some Ionic Compounds
Table 2-2 gives names of several
molecular compounds.
 You must know all of the molecular
compounds from Table 2-2.
Some examples are:
 H2SO4 - sulfuric acid
 FeBr2 - iron(II) bromide
 C2H5OH - ethanol

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Names and Formulas of
Some Ionic Compounds
You do it! (# 1)
What is the formula of nitric acid?
HNO3
What is the formula of sulfur
trioxide?
SO3
What is the name of FeBr3?
iron(III) bromide 13
Names and Formulas of
Some Ionic Compounds
You do it! (# 2)
What is the name of K2SO3?
potassium sulfite
What is charge on sulfite ion?
SO32- is sulfite ion
What is the formula of ammonium
sulfide?
(NH4)2S
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Names and Formulas of
Some Ionic Compounds
You do it!
What is charge on ammonium ion?
NH41+
What is the formula of aluminum
sulfate?
Al2(SO4)3
What is charge on both ions?
Al3+ and SO42-
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Atomic Weights
Weighted average of the
masses of the constituent
isotopes if an element.
 Tells us the atomic masses
of every known element.
 Lower number on periodic
chart.
How do we know what
the values of these
numbers are?
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The Mole
A number of atoms, ions, or
molecules that is large enough to
see and handle.
A mole = number of things
 Just like a dozen = 12 things
 One mole = 6.022 x 1023 things
Avogadro’s number = 6.022 x 1023
 Symbol for Avogadro’s number is NA.
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The Mole
How do we know when we have a mole?
 count it out
 weigh it out
Molar mass - mass in grams numerically
equal to the atomic weight of the
element in grams.
H has an atomic weight of 1.00794 g
 1.00794 g of H atoms = 6.022 x 1023 H
atoms
Mg has an atomic weight of 24.3050 g
 24.3050 g of Mg atoms = 6.022 x 1023 Mg
atoms 18
The Mole
Example 2-1: Calculate the mass of
a single Mg atom in grams to 3
significant figures.
? g Mg =

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The Mole
Example 2-1: Calculate the mass of
a single Mg atom in grams to 3
significant figures.
? g Mg = 1 Mg atom

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The Mole
Example 2-1: Calculate the mass of
a single Mg atom in grams to 3
significant figures.
 1 mol Mg atoms 
? g Mg = 1 Mg atom  ×
 6.022 ×10 Mg atoms 
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The Mole
Example 2-1: Calculate the mass of
a single Mg atom, in grams, to 3
significant figures.
 1 mol Mg atoms 
? g Mg = 1 Mg atom  ×
 6.022 ×10 Mg atoms 
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 24.30gMg 
  = 4.04 ×10 −23 g Mg
 1 mol Mg atoms 

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The Mole
Example 2-2: Calculate the number of
atoms in one-millionth of a gram of Mg
to 3 significant figures.
? Mg atoms =

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The Mole
Example 2-2: Calculate the number
of atoms in one-millionth of a gram
of Mg to 3 significant figures.
−6  1 mol Mg 
? Mg atoms = 1.00 × 10 g Mg 
 24.30 g Mg 

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The Mole
Example 2-2: Calculate the number
of atoms in one-millionth of a gram
of Mg to 3 significant figures.
−6  1 mol Mg 
? Mg atoms =1.00 ×10 g Mg
 24.30 g Mg 

 
 6.022 ×1023 Mg atoms 

 

 1 mol Mg atoms 

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The Mole
Example 2-2: Calculate the number
of atoms in one-millionth of a gram
of Mg to 3 significant figures.
−6  1 mol Mg 
? Mg atoms = 1.00 ×10 g Mg 
 24.30 g Mg 
 6.022 ×1023 Mg atoms 
  = 2.48 ×1016 Mg atoms
 1 mol Mg atoms 

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The Mole
Example 2-3. How many atoms are
contained in 1.67 moles of Mg?
? Mg atoms =

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The Mole
Example 2-3. How many atoms are
contained in 1.67 moles of Mg?
? Mg atoms = 1.67 mol Mg

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The Mole
Example 2-3. How many atoms are
contained in 1.67 moles of Mg?
 6.022 ×10 23 Mg atoms 
? Mg atoms = 1.67 mol Mg  
 1 mol Mg 

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The Mole
Example 2-3. How many atoms are
contained in 1.67 moles of Mg?
 6.022 ×10 23 Mg atoms 
? Mg atoms = 1.67 mol Mg  
 1 mol Mg 
= 1.00 ×10 Mg atoms
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The Mole
Example 2-3. How many atoms are
contained in 1.67 moles of Mg?
 6.022 × 1023 Mg atoms 
? Mg atoms = 1.67 mol Mg 
 1 mol Mg 
= 1.00 × 1024 Mg atoms

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The Mole
Example 2-4: How many moles of Mg
atoms are present in 73.4 g of Mg?
You do it!

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The Mole
Example 2-4: How many moles of Mg
atoms are present in 73.4 g of Mg?

? mol Mg = 73.4 g Mg

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The Mole
Example 2-4: How many moles of Mg
atoms are present in 73.4 g of Mg?

 1 mol Mg atoms 
? mol Mg = 73.4 g Mg  
 24.30 g Mg 

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The Mole
Example 2-4: How many moles of Mg
atoms are present in 73.4 g of Mg?

 1 mol Mg atoms 
? mol Mg = 73.4 g Mg  
 24.30 g Mg 
= 3.02 mol Mg
IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT YOU KNOW
HOW TO DO THESE PROBLEMS
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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
How do we calculate the molar
mass of a compound?
 add atomic weights of each atom
The molar mass of propane, C3H8,
is:3 × C = 3 × 12.01 amu = 36.03 amu
8 × H = 8 × 1.01 amu = 8.08 amu
Molar mass = 44.11 amu

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
The molar mass of calcium nitrate,
Ca(NO3)2 , is:
You do it!

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles

1× Ca = 1× 40.08 amu = 40.08 amu


2 × N = 2 ×14.01 amu = 28.02 amu
6 × O = 6 ×16.00 amu = 96.00 amu
Molar mass = 164.10 amu

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
One Mole of Contains
 Cl2 or 70.90g 6.022 x 1023 Cl2
molecules
2(6.022 x 1023 ) Cl atoms
 C3H8 You do it!

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
One Mole of Contains
 Cl2 or 70.90g 6.022 x 1023 Cl2
molecules
2(6.022 x 1023 ) Cl atoms
 C3H8 or 44.11 g 6.022 x 1023 C3H8
molecules
3 (6.022 x 1023 ) C atoms
8 (6.022 x 1023 ) H atoms

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
Example 2-5: Calculate the number
of C3H8 molecules in 74.6 g of
propane.
? C H molecules = 74.6 g C H ×
3 8 3 8

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
Example 2-5: Calculate the number
of C3H8 molecules in 74.6 g of
?propane.
C 3 H 8 molecules = 74.6 g C 3 H 8 ×
 1 mole C 3 H 8 

 44.11 g C H  
 3 8 

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
Example 2-5: Calculate the number
of C3H8 molecules in 74.6 g of
? C3 H8 molecules  74.6 g C3 H8 
propane.
 1 mole C3 H8   6.022  1023 C3 H8 molecules 
  
 44.11 g C3H8   1 mol C3 H8 

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
Example 2-5: Calculate the number
of C3H8 molecules in 74.6 g of
propane.
? C3H 8 molecules = 74.6 g C3 H 8 ×
 1 mole C3 H 8  6.022 ×10 23 C3H 8 molecules 
   =
 44.11 g C3H 8  44.11 g C3 H 8 
1.02 × 10 molecules
24

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
Example 2-8. Calculate the number
of O atoms in 26.5 g of Li2CO3.
You do it!

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
Example 2-8. Calculate the number
of O atoms in 26.5 g of Li2CO3.

1 mol Li 2 CO 3
? O atoms = 26.5 g Li 2 CO 3 × ×
73.8 g Li 2 CO 3
6.022 ×10 23 form.units Li 2 CO 3 3 O atoms
× =
1 mol Li 2 CO 3 1 formula unit Li 2 CO 3
6.49 ×10 O atoms
23

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
Occasionally, we will use
millimoles.
 Symbol - mmol
 1000 mmol = 1 mol
For example: oxalic acid (COOH)2
 1 mol = 90.04 g
 1 mmol = 0.09004 g or 90.04 mg

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
Example 2-9: Calculate the number
of mmol in 0.234 g of oxalic acid,
(COOH)2.
You do it!

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Molecular Weights, and
Moles
Example 2-9: Calculate the number
of mmol in 0.234 g of oxalic acid,
(COOH)2.

? mmol (COOH) 2 = 0.234 g (COOH) 2 ×


 1 mmol (COOH) 2 
  = 2.60 mmol (COOH) 2
 0.09004 g (COOH) 2 

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Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
% composition = mass of an
individual element in a compound
divided by the total mass of the
compound x 100%
Determine the percent
mass C
%C=
composition of C×in C3 H 8 .
100%
mass C 3 H 8
3 ×12.01 g
= ×100%
44.11 g
= 81.68% 50
Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
What is the percent composition of H in
C3H8?
You do it!

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Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
What is the percent composition of H in
C3H8? mass H
%H= ×100%
mass C3 H 8
8×H
= ×100%
C3H 8
8 ×1.01 g
= ×100% = 18.32%
44.11 g
or
18.32% = 100% − 81.68% 52
Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
Example 2-10: Calculate the
percent composition of Fe2(SO4)3 to
3 significant figures.
You do it!

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Percent Composition and
Formulas of Compounds
Example 2-10: Calculate the
percent composition of Fe2(SO4)3 to
2 × Fe 2 × 55.8 g
3 sig.
% Fe = fig. × 100% = × 100% = 27.9% Fe
Fe 2 (SO 4 )3 399.9 g
3× S 3 × 32.1 g
% S = × 100% = × 100% = 24.1% S
Fe 2 (SO 4 )3 399.9 g
12 × O 12 × 16.0 g
% O = × 100% = × 100% = 48.0% O
Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 399.9 g
Total = 100%
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from Elemental
Composition
Empirical Formula - smallest whole-number ratio
of atoms present in a compound
 CH2 is the empirical formula for alkenes
 No alkene exists that has 1 C and 2 H’s
Molecular Formula - actual numbers of atoms of
each element present in a molecule of the
compound
 Ethene – C2H4
 Pentene – C5H10
We determine the empirical and molecular
formulas of a compound from the percent
composition of the compound.
 percent composition is determined experimentally

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from Elemental
Composition
Example 2-11: A compound contains
24.74% K, 34.76% Mn, and 40.50% O by
mass. What is its empirical formula?
Make the simplifying assumption that
we have 100.0 g of compound.
In 100.0 g of compound there are:
 24.74 g of K
 34.76 g of Mn
 40.50 g of O

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from Elemental
Composition
1 mol K
? mol K  24.74 g K   0.6327 mol K
39.10 g K

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from Elemental
Composition
1 mol K
? mol K = 24.74 g K × = 0.6327 mol K
39.10 g K
1 mol Mn
? mol Mn = 34.76 g Mn × = 0.6327 mol Mn
54.94 g Mn

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from Elemental
Composition
1 mol K
? mol K  24.74 g K   0.6327 mol K
39.10 g K
1 mol Mn
? mol Mn  34.76 g Mn   0.6327 mol Mn
54.94 g Mn
1mol O
? mol O  40.50 g O   2.531 mol O
16.00 g O
obtain smallest whole number ratio

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from Elemental
Composition
1 mol K
? mol K = 24.74 g K × = 0.6327 mol K
39.10 g K
1 mol Mn
? mol Mn = 34.76 g Mn × = 0.6327 mol Mn
54.94 g Mn
1mol O
? mol O = 40.50 g O × = 2.531 mol O
16.00 g O
obtain smallest whole number ratio
0.6327 0.6327
for K ⇒ =1K for Mn ⇒ = 1 Mn
0.6327 0.6327

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from Elemental
Composition
1 mol K
? mol K  24.74 g K   0.6327 mol K
39.10 g K
1 mol Mn
? mol Mn  34.76 g Mn   0.6327 mol Mn
54.94 g Mn
1mol O
? mol O  40.50 g O   2.531 mol O
16.00 g O
obtain smallest whole number ratio
0.6327 0.6327
for K  1 K for Mn   1 Mn
0.6327 0.6327
2.531
for O  4 O
0.6327
thus the chemical formula is KMnO 4
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from Elemental
Composition
Example 2-12: A sample of a
compound contains 6.541g of Co
and 2.368g of O. What is empirical
formula for this compound?
You do it!

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from Elemental
Composition
Example 2-12: A sample of a
compound contains 6.541g of Co
and 2.368g of O. What is empirical
formula for this compound?
1 mol Co
? mol Co = 6.541 g Co × = 0.1110 mol Co
58.93 gCo
1mol O
? mol O = 2.368 g O × = 0.1480 mol O
16.00 g O
find smallest whole number ratio
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from Elemental
Composition
Example 2-12: A sample of a
compound contains 6.541g of Co
and 2.368g of O. What is empirical
formula for this compound?
0.1110 0.1480
for Co   1 Co for O   1.333 O
0.1110 0.1110
multipy both by 3 to turn fraction to whole number
1 Co  3  3 Co 1.333 O  3  4 O
Thus the compound's formula is:
Co3O 4
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Determination of
Molecular Formulas
Example 2-13: A compound is found to
contain 85.63% C and 14.37% H by
mass. In another experiment its molar
mass is found to be 56.1 g/mol. What is
its molecular formula?
 short cut method
1 mol contains 56.1 g
85.63% is C and 14.37% is H
56.1 g × 0.8563 = 48.0 g of C
56.1 g × 0.1437 = 8.10 g of H 65
Determination of
Molecular Formulas
convert masses to moles
1 mol C
48.0 g of C   4 mol C
12.0 g C
1 mol H
8.10 g of H   8 mol H
1.01 g H
Thus the formula is:
C 4 H8
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Interpretations of
Chemical Formulas
Example 2-16: What mass of
ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4,
would contain 15.0 g of N?

molar mass of (NH 4 )3 PO 4  149.0 g/mol


1 mol N
? mol N  15.0 g of N   1.07 mol N
14.0 g N

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Interpretations of
Chemical Formulas
Example 2-16: What mass of
ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4,
would contain 15.0 g of N?
molar mass of (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 = 149.0 g/mol
1 mol N
? mol N = 15.0 g of N × = 1.07 mol N
14.0 g N
1 mol (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4
1.07 mol N × = 0.357 mol (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4
3 mol N

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Interpretations of
Chemical Formulas
Example 2-16: What mass of
ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4,
would contain 15.0 g of N?
molar mass of (NH 4 )3 PO 4 = 149.0 g/mol
1 mol N
? mol N = 15.0 g of N × = 1.07 mol N
14.0 g N
1 mol (NH 4 )3 PO 4
1.07 mol N × = 0.357 mol (NH 4 )3 PO 4
3 mol N
149.0 g (NH 4 )3 PO 4
0.357 mol (NH 4 )3 PO 4 × = 53.2 g (NH 4 )3 PO 4
1 mol (NH 4 )3 PO 4
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Purity of Samples
The percent purity of a sample of a
substance is always represented
as mass of pure substance
% purity = ×100%
mass of sample
mass of sample includes impurities

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Purity of Samples
Example 2-18: A bottle of sodium
phosphate, Na3PO4, is 98.3% pure
Na3PO4. What are the masses of
Na3PO4 and impurities in 250.0 g of
this sample98.3
of Na 3PO
g Na 4?
PO 3 4
unit factor
100.0 g sample

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Purity of Samples
Example 2-18: A bottle of sodium
phosphate, Na3PO4, is 98.3% pure
Na3PO4. What are the masses of
Na3PO4 and impurities in 250.0 g of
this sample of Na3PO4?
98.3 g Na 3 PO 4
unit factor
100.0 g sample
98.3 g Na 3 PO 4
? g Na 3 PO 4 = 250.0 g sample ×
100.0 g sample
= 246 g Na 3 PO 4
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Purity of Samples
Example 2-18: A bottle of sodium
phosphate, Na3PO4, is 98.3% pure
Na3PO4. What are the masses of
Na3PO4 and impurities in 250.0 g of
this sample
unitof Na98.3
factor 3 PO ?
g Na
4
3 PO 4
100.0 g sample
98.3 g Na 3PO 4
? g Na 3PO 4  250.0 g sample 
100.0 g sample
=246 g Na 3 PO 4
? g impurities = 250.0 g sample - 246 g Na 3 PO 4
= 4.00 g impurities 73
Synthesis Problem
In 1986, Bednorz and Muller succeeded
in making the first of a series of
chemical compounds that were
superconducting at relatively high
temperatures. This first compound was
La2CuO4 which superconducts at 35K. In
their initial experiments, Bednorz and
Muller made only a few mg of this
material. How many La atoms are
present in 3.56 mg of La2CuO4?
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Synthesis Problem
molar mass of La 2 CuO 4 = 405.3 g/mol
 1g 
( 3.56 mg La 2CuO 4 ) 
 ×
 1000 mg 
 1 mol La 2 CuO 4 

 405.3 g La CuO   = 8 . 78 ×10 −6
mol La 2 CuO 4
 2 4 

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Synthesis Problem
molar mass of La 2 CuO 4 = 405.3 g/mol
 1g 
( 3.56 mg La 2 CuO 4 ) 
 ×
1000 mg 
 1 mol La 2 CuO 4 

 405.3 g La CuO   = 8 . 78 ×10 −6
mol La 2 CuO 4
 2 4 

 6.022 ×10 23 molecules La 2 CuO 4 


(8.78 ×10 −6
mol La 2 CuO 4 )
 
×
 1 mol La 2 CuO 4 
 2 La atoms 

 molecule La CuO 
 = 1. 06 ×1019
La atoms
 2 4 

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Group Activity
Within a year after Bednorz and
Muller’s initial discovery of high
temperature superconductors, Wu
and Chu had discovered a new
compound, YBa2Cu3O7, that began to
superconduct at 100 K. If we wished
to make 1.00 pound of YBa2Cu3O7,
how many grams of yttrium must we
buy?
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End of Chapter 2
The mole concept and basic
stoichiometry ideas introduced in
this chapter are essential
components for the remainder of
this course.

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