T he 22 Immutable Laws of Ries and Jack Trout By Al Mar keting

 Immutable – (adjective) Unchanging or unable to change.  Law – (noun) A rule which cannot or should not be broken.

The Law of Leadership  It’s better to be first than it is to be better. most people know who flew across the Atlantic first. but not second.  E.g..  The basic issue in marketing is creating a category you can be first in.  Sometimes called: The First Mover Advantage ..

most people don’t know who flew across the Atlantic third.The Law of Category  If you can’t be first in a category.  Lexus was the first Japanese luxury car .. set up a new category you can be first in.g. but they know who the first woman to do that was.  E.

but Apple got first in the mind. The Law of the Mind  It’s better to be first in the mind than to be first in the marketplace..g. but now we associate software with… ..  IBM was the first software vendor.  E. Altair 8800 was the first PC.

 Is Honda better than Toyota? Is Toyota better than Honda?  Which would you rather have? Why? . it is a battle of perceptions.The Law of Perception  Marketing is not a battle of products.

The Law of Focus  The most powerful concept in marketing is owning a word in the prospect’s mind.g.  New ones: iPod & Blackberry .  Or when the brand become synonymous with the category  E.. and get me some Kleenex. Xerox this. FedEx that.

The Law of Exclusivity  Two companies cannot own the same word in the prospect’s mind.  What companies do you think of when I say “operating system” or “mustard” or “frozen pizza”? .

Avis is 2nd – we try harder.  Hardee’s is third or forth.  E.The Law of the Ladder  What strategy to use depends on which rung you occupy on the ladder. and they try even harder—and trying to find an unoccupied rung  Being closer to the top usually leads to risk aversion .g..

McDonalds and Burger King.The Law of Duality  In the long run. every market becomes a two horse race.  E. Coke v Pepsi..  Dell v HP/Compaq . Kodak v Fuji.g.

your strategy is determined by the leader..  E. Coke is an old soft drink.g. so Pepsi went successfully for the choice of a new generation. .The Law of the Opposite  If you’re shooting for second place.

. automobiles.g. coffee .  e.The Law of Division  Over time. a category will divide and become two or more categories. computers.

The Law of Perspective  Marketing effects take place over an extended period of time.  Don’t expect results to be instantaneous  A successful campaign can resonate for years .

The Law of Line Extension  There is an irresistible pressure to extend the equity of the brand.  Coming soon: Arm and Hammer Cat Food .

.g. FedEx sacrificed other air freight options for small packages overnight.  E.  For years Honda focused all its efforts on the Civic (cvcc) and dominated the subcompact market . and owned the word “overnight”.The Law of Sacrifice  You have to give up something in order to get something.

 PC is synonymous with business computing. Apple = creativity .The Law of Attributes  For every attribute. there is an opposite. Crest toothpaste fights cavities. but Close Up freshens breath. effective attribute.  E.g..

. the prospect will give you a positive.  E. but we love the truck . and they reward honesty  UPS’s brown trucks are ugly.g.The Law of Candour  When you admit a negative.  Prospects know what the truth is. the 1970 VW will stay ugly longer – implies reliability not good looks.

 Choose the move where you expect the least chance of “surprises”. this is called the line of least expectation.g.The Law of Singularity  In each situation. only one move will produce substantial results. . In a military sense.. the Allied invasion of Normandy.  E.

The Law of Unpredictability  Unless you write your competitors’ plans. you can’t predict the future. .  It is best to be flexible and ready to react to changes in the market.

and arrogance to failure.The Law of Success  Success often leads to arrogance. and all that time they assumed they knew what consumers wanted  In 1985 IBM assumed they owned the PC market .  GM was successful into the 70s but continued to lose share thru the 90s.

 Ford almost lost the company on the Edsel in the 50’s  Radio Shack and Apple marketed some disappointing computers in the 80’s .The Law of Failure  Failure is to be expected and accepted.

The Law of Hype  The situation is often the opposite of the way it appears in the press. Now it throws a lot of press conferences. When Ford was successful. “We have the best prices in town.  What do you think when a car dealer says. the company said very little.” .

they’re built on trends.The Law of Acceleration  Successful programs are not built on fads. . Ninja Turtles could have been the next Barbie dolls if the market hadn’t been flooded. and if the makers had tried to turn the fad into a trend.

the only product that sells is the one the consumer is aware of.The Law of Resources  Without adequate funding an idea won’t get off the ground. .  Regardless of how good a product is.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful