 The ancient Egyptians enjoyed many natural

barriers. There were deserts to the east and west of the Nile River, and mountains to the south. This isolated the ancient Egyptians and allowed them to develop a truly distinctive culture.  The Nile is the world's longest river. It is over 4000 miles long! It is shaped like the lotus flower so often seen in ancient Egyptian art. Each spring, water would run off the mountains and the Nile would flood. As the flood waters receded, black rich fertile soil was left behind. The ancient Egyptian called this rich soil The Gift of the Nile.

 Egypt

 Early Dynastic Period of Egypt: 31st to 27th centuries BC  Old Kingdom of Egypt: 27th to 22nd centuries BC  First Intermediate Period: 22nd to 21st centuries BC  Middle Kingdom of Egypt: 21st to 17th centuries BC  Second Intermediate Period: ca. 1640 to 1570 BC  New Kingdom of Egypt: 1570 to 1070 BC  Third Intermediate Period and 1070 to 664 BC  Late Period of ancient Egypt
 Achaemenid Egypt: 525 to 402 BC and 343 to 332 BC

Old kingdom Many pyramids were built

 The middle kingdom

The middle kingdom was Egypt's Golden Age. Trade flourished, arts and literature flourished. Egypt built strong armies to defend herself against her neighbors. During the time period of the middle kingdom, pharaohs were expected to be good kings and wise rulers. Instead of building huge expensive pyramids, when pharaohs died, they were buried in hidden tombs. These tombs were all over ancient Egypt. Most probably, there are tombs yet to be discovered by modern archaeologists because they were hidden so well.

 New kingdom

The new kingdom was Egypt's expansion period. Egypt expanded her borders through military conquest and became a world power. During the time period of the new kingdom, pharaohs were all powerful, and pharaohs were all buried in the same geographic area called the Valley of the Kings.

The Egyptians invented a decimal system. They used 7 different symbols. 1 was represented by a single stroke. 10 was shown by drawing one hobble. 100 was shown with a drawing one coil of rope. 1,000 was represented by a drawing of one lotus plant. 10,000 was shown as one finger. 100,000 was represented by a drawing of one frog. (A hieroglyphic of six frogs in a row would mean 600,000) 1,000,000 was represented by the figure of a god

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