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Homeosta Control of Excretion

Communicat sis water


ion system content
In animals
and plants
Kidney
Blood
Glucose Pancreas
Endocrine Concentratio
Gland n

Neurones Synapses

Absisic
Auxins
acid Giberellins
Communication System in
Animals and Plants
The roles are:
4.To regulate the levels of some substance within
the organism, such as control of blood sugar levels
in mammals
5.To change the activity of some part of the
organism in response to some external stimulus,
such as moving away from unpleasant stimulus

Chemical Messenger
In animals and plants: hormones
In plants: plant growth regulators
Homeostasis
Meaning: a vital function of control systems in
mammals
Role: to maintain a stable conditions inside the body,
in which cells function

Most control mechanisms in living organisms use a


Receptor
negative feedback control
Parameter loop.
senses Parameter
rises too changes in falls too low
high parameter

Effector acts to Effector acts


increase to decrease
parameter Effector parameter
receives
information
from receptor
Excretion
Meaning: the removal of the unwanted products of metabolism

Big two excretory products:


Carbondioxide
• produced continuously by aerobic respiration
• mechanism:
respiring cells -> transported to lungs -> diffuses from
blood to alveoli ->
excreted in the air we breath
Urea
• produced in liver from excess amino acids
• mechanism:
liver -> transported to kidneys -> removed from the blood
-> excreted ->
dissolved in water as urine
The Structures of
Kidney
Urine Production Process in
Kidneys
3.Filtration
takes place : glomerulus
product : primary urine

7.Reabsorbtion
takes place : renal tubule
product : secondary urine

11.Augmentation
takes place : distal convoluted tubule
product : urine
Control of Water Content
Na+ is transported from
proximal convoluted
Low blood water content tubule to blood
capillaries

Secretion of ADH
Blood
osmotic
pressure
Permeability of distal
rises
convoluted tubule rises

Reabsorbtion in Reabsorbtion in
distal covoluted proximal
tubule convoluted tubule
High blood
water
content
ADH Normal
secretion blood water
slows down content
Endocrine Gland
•Place for hormones production
• Contain secretory cells which pass their secretions
directly into the blood
• Secrete hormones into blood capillaries inside the
gland
1.Hypothalamus
2.Pituitary Gland
3.Thyroid Gland
4.Heart
5.Adrenal Gland
6.Pancreas
7.Ovary
8.Testis
Blood Glucose Concentration Control
Neurones
Meaning : the cells which carry the
signals of a faster, more precise,
and ivolves the transmission of
electrical signals or impulses along
precisely constructed pathways
method

Neurons:
6.Motor neurones
7.Sensory neurones
Motor Neurones
Role : transmit messages from the brain or spinal cord to
a muscle or gland
Sensory Neurones
Role : bring impulses from receptors to the brain or spinal cord
Synapses
Meaning : a very small gap between two neurones when they
meet, about 20 nm wide
Role: slow down the rate of transmission of a nerve impulse

Why have synapses?


• Synapses ensure one-way transmission
• Synapses increase the possible range of actions in response
to a stimulus
• Synapses are involved in memory and learning
Pancreas
Role : dual-function gland, having features of both
endocrine and exocrine glands
Products : insulin and glucagon

Less insulin:
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Auxins
•IAA : indole 3-acetic acid
•Synthesised in the growing tips of roots ad
shoots, where the cells are dividing
• Involved in determining whether a plant
grows upwards or whether it branches
sideways
Giberellins
•Plant growth regulators that are synthesised in
most parts of plants
• Present in especially high concentrations in young
leaves and in seeds, and are also found in stems
• Role : determining the plants growth
Absisic Acid
• Found in a very wide variety of plants, including ferns and
mosses as well as flowering plants
• synthesised in almost all cells that pocess chloroplasts or
amyloplasts
• involved in leaf or fruit fall