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CHAPTER 5

• The Structure of
Atoms

1
Chapter Outline

Subatomic Particles
2. Fundamental Particles
3. The Discovery of Electrons
4. Canal Rays and Protons
5. Rutherford and the Nuclear Atom
6. Atomic Number
7. Neutrons
8. Mass Number and Isotopes 2
Chapter Goals

1. The Atomic Weight Scale and Atomic


Weights
The Electronic Structures of Atoms
3. Electromagnetic radiation
4. The Photoelectric Effect
5. Atomic Spectra and the Bohr Atom
6. The Wave Nature of the Electron
3

7. The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the


Chapter Goals

1. Quantum Numbers
2. Atomic Orbitals
3. Electron Configurations
4. Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
5. The Periodic Table and Electron
Configurations
4
Fundamental Particles

• Three fundamental particles make up atoms.  The 
following table lists these particles together with 
their masses and their charges. 
Particle Mass (amu) Charge
-
Electron (e ) 0.00054858 -1

Proton (p,p+) 1.0073 +1


0
Neutron(n,n ) 1.0087 0
5
The Discovery of Electrons
• Humphrey Davy in the early 1800’s
passed electricity through compounds and
noted:
– that the compounds decomposed into
elements.
– Concluded that compounds are held together
by electrical forces.
• Michael Faraday in 1832-1833 realized
that the amount of reaction that occurs
during electrolysis is proportional to the
electrical current passed through the 6
The Discovery of Electrons
• Cathode Ray Tubes experiments performed in
the late 1800’s & early 1900’s.
– Consist of two electrodes sealed in a glass tube
containing a gas at very low pressure.
– When a voltage is applied to the cathodes a glow
discharge is emitted.

7
The Discovery of Electrons
• These “rays” are emitted from cathode (-
end) and travel to anode (+ end).
– Cathode Rays must be negatively charged!
• J.J. Thomson modified the cathode ray
tube experiments in 1897 by adding two
adjustable voltage electrodes.
– Studied the amount that the cathode ray
beam was deflected by additional electric
field.
8
The Discovery of Electrons
• Modifications to the basic cathode ray
tube experiment.

9
The Discovery of Electrons

• Thomson used his modification to


measure the charge to mass ratio of
electrons.
Charge to mass ratio
e/m = -1.75881 x 108 coulomb/g of e-
• Thomson named the cathode rays
electrons.
• Thomson is considered to be the 10
The Discovery of Electrons

• Robert A. Millikan won the 1st American


Nobel Prize in 1923 for his famous oil-drop
experiment.
• In 1909 Millikan determined the charge
and mass of the electron.

11
The Discovery of Electrons

• Millikan determined that the charge on a


single electron = -1.60218 x 10-19
coulomb.
• Using Thomson’s charge to mass ratio
we get that the mass of one electron is
9.11 x 10-28 g.
– e/m = -1.75881 x 108 coulomb
– e = -1.60218 x 10-19 coulomb 12
Canal Rays and Protons

• Eugene Goldstein noted streams of positively charged particles in


cathode rays in 1886.
– Particles move in opposite direction of cathode rays.
– Called “Canal Rays” because they passed through holes
(channels or canals) drilled through the negative electrode.
• Canal rays must be positive.
– Goldstein postulated the existence of a positive fundamental
particle called the “proton”.

13
Rutherford and the Nuclear
Atom
• Ernest Rutherford directed Hans Geiger
and Ernst Marsden’s experiment in 1910.
α- particle scattering from thin Au foils
– Gave us the basic picture of the atom’s
structure.

14
Rutherford and the Nuclear
Atom

• In 1912 Rutherford decoded the α-particle


scattering information.
– Explanation involved a nuclear atom with
electrons surrounding the nucleus .

15
Rutherford and the Nuclear
Atom

• Rutherford’s major conclusions from the α-


particle scattering experiment
1. The atom is mostly empty space.
2. It contains a very small, dense center called the
nucleus.
3. Nearly all of the atom’s mass is in the nucleus.
4. The nuclear diameter is 1/10,000 to 1/100,000
times less than atom’s radius.
16
Rutherford and the Nuclear
Atom
• Because the atom’s mass is contained in
such a small volume:
– The nuclear density is 1015g/mL.
– This is equivalent to 3.72 x 109 tons/in3.
– Density inside the nucleus is almost the same
as a neutron star’s density.

17
Atomic Number
• The atomic number is equal to the number of
protons in the nucleus.
– Sometimes given the symbol Z.
– On the periodic chart Z is the uppermost number in
each element’s box.
• In 1913 H.G.J. Moseley realized that the atomic
number determines the element .
– The elements differ from each other by the number of
protons in the nucleus.
– The number of electrons in a neutral atom is also
equal to the atomic number.

18
Neutrons
• James Chadwick in 1932 analyzed the
results of α-particle scattering on thin Be
films.
• Chadwick recognized existence of
massive neutral particles which he called
neutrons.
– Chadwick discovered the neutron.

19
Mass Number and Isotopes

• Mass number is given the symbol A.


• A is the sum of the number of protons and
neutrons.
– Z = proton number N = neutron number
– A=Z+N
• AA common symbolism12used48to show 197mass and
ZE for example C, Ca, 6 20 Au
79
proton numbers is
 Can be shortened to this symbolism.

14 63 107
N, Cu, Ag, etc. 20
Mass Number and Isotopes
• Isotopes are atoms of the same element but with
different neutron numbers.
– Isotopes have different masses and A values but are
the same element.
• One example of an isotopic series is the
hydrogen isotopes.
1
H or protium is the most common hydrogen isotope.
• one proton and no neutrons
2
H or deuterium is the second most abundant hydrogen
isotope.
• one proton and one neutron
3
H or tritium is a radioactive hydrogen isotope.
• one proton and two neutrons 21
Mass Number and Isotopes
• The stable oxygen isotopes provide another
example.
• 16O is the most abundant stable O isotope.
• How many protons and neutrons are in 16O?
8 protons and 8 neutrons
 17Ois the least abundant stable O isotope.
 How many protons and neutrons are in 17O?
8 protons and 9 neutrons
 18Ois the second most abundant stable O isotope.
How many protons and neutrons in 18O?
8 protons and 10 neutrons 22
Mass Spectrometry and
Isotopic Abundances

• Francis Aston devised the first mass


spectrometer.
– Device generates ions that pass down an evacuated
path inside a magnet.
– Ions are separated based on their mass.

23
Mass Spectrometry and
Isotopic Abundances
• There are four factors which determine a
particle’s path in the mass spectrometer.
1 accelerating voltage
2 magnetic field strength
3 masses of particles
4 charge on particles

24
Mass Spectrometry and
Isotopic Abundances
• Mass spectrum of Ne+ ions shown below.
– How scientists determine the masses and
abundances of the isotopes of an element.

25
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
• If we define the mass of 12C as exactly 12 atomic
mass units (amu), then it is possible to establish
a relative weight scale for atoms.
– 1 amu = (1/12) mass of 12C by definition
– What is the mass of an amu in grams?
• Example 5-1: Calculate the number of atomic
mass units in one gram.
– The mass of one 31P atom has been experimentally
determined to be 30.99376 amu.
– 1 mol of 31P atoms has a mass of 30.99376 g.

26
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
 6.022 ×10
23 31
P atoms 
(1.000 g)
 31


 30.99376 g P 

27
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
 6.022 × 10 23 31P atoms 
(1.000 g) 31

 30.99376 g P 
 30.99376 amu 
 = 6.022 × 10 amu P
23 31
 31
 P atom 

– Thus 1.00 g = 6.022 x 1023 amu.


– This is always true and provides the conversion
factor between grams and amu. 28
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
• The atomic weight of an element is the
weighted average of the masses of its
stable isotopes
• Example 5-2: Naturally occurring Cu
consists of 2 isotopes. It is 69.1% 63Cu
with a mass of 62.9 amu, and 30.9% 65Cu,
which has a mass of 64.9 amu. Calculate
the atomic weight of Cu to one decimal
place.
29
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

atomic weight = (0.691)(62.9 amu)


      
63
Cu isotope

30
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

atomic weight = (0.691)(62.9 amu) + (0.309)(64.9 amu)


             
63 65
Cu isotope Cu isotope

31
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

atomic weight = (0.691)(62.9 amu) + (0.309)(64.9 amu)


             
63 65
Cu isotope Cu isotope

atomic weight = 63.5 amu for copper

32
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
• Example 5-3: Naturally occurring
chromium consists of four isotopes. It is
4.31% 2450Cr, mass = 49.946 amu,
83.76% 2452Cr, mass = 51.941 amu, 9.55%
24 Cr, mass = 52.941 amu, and 2.38%
53

24 Cr, mass = 53.939 amu. Calculate the


54

atomic weight of chromium.


You do it!
33
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

atomic weight = (0.0431× 49.946 amu) + (0.8376 × 51.941 amu)


+ (0.0955 × 52.941 amu) + (0.0238 × 53.939 amu)
= ( 2.153 + 43.506 + 5.056 + 1.284 ) amu
= 51.998 amu

34
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
• Example 5-4: The atomic weight of boron
is 10.811 amu. The masses of the two
naturally occurring isotopes 510B and 511B,
are 10.013 and 11.009 amu, respectively.
Calculate the fraction and percentage of
each isotope.
You do it!
• This problem requires a little algebra.
– A hint for this problem is x + (1-x) = 1
35
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

10.811 amu = x(10.013 amu) + (1 − x ) (11.009 amu)


              
10 11
B isotope B isotope

= (10.013 x + 11.009 - 11.009 x ) amu


(10.811 - 11.009) amu = (10.013 x - 11.009 x ) amu
- 0.198 = -0.996 x
0.199 = x

36
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
• Note that because x is the multiplier for
the 10B isotope, our solution gives us the
fraction of natural B that is 10B.
• Fraction of 10B = 0.199 and % abundance
of 10B = 19.9%.
• The multiplier for 11B is (1-x) thus the
fraction of 11B is 1-0.199 = 0.811 and the
% abundance of 11B is 81.1%.
37
The Electronic Structures of
Atoms

Electromagnetic Radiation
The wavelength of electromagnetic radiation
has the symbol λ .
• Wavelength is the distance from the top (crest)
of one wave to the top of the next wave.
– Measured in units of distance such as m,cm, Å.
– 1 Å = 1 x 10-10 m = 1 x 10-8 cm
• The frequency of electromagnetic radiation has
the symbol υ.
• Frequency is the number of crests or troughs
that pass a given point per second.
– Measured in units of 1/time - s-1
38
Electromagnetic Radiation

• The relationship between wavelength and


frequency for any wave is velocity = λ υ.
• For electromagnetic radiation the velocity is 3.00
x 108 m/s and has the symbol c.
• Thus c = λ υ for electromagnetic radiation.

39
Electromagnetic Radiation
• Molecules interact with electromagnetic
radiation.
– Molecules can absorb and emit light.
• Once a molecule has absorbed light
(energy), the molecule can:
1. Rotate
2. Translate
3. Vibrate
4. Electronic transition
40
Electromagnetic Radiation

• For water:
– Rotations occur in the microwave portion of spectrum.
– Vibrations occur in the infrared portion of spectrum.
– Translation occurs across the spectrum.
– Electronic transitions occur in the ultraviolet portion of
spectrum.

41
Electromagnetic Radiation
• Example 5-5: What is the frequency of
green light of wavelength 5200 Å?

c
c = λν ∴ ν =
λ
 1 x 10 -10 m 
(5200 Å)   = 5.200 × 10-7 m
 1Å 
3.00 × 108 m/s
ν=
5.200 × 10-7 m 42
ν = 5.77 × 1014 s -1
Electromagnetic Radiation

• In 1900 Max Planck studied black body


radiation and realized that to explain the
energy spectrum he had to assume
that:
1. energy is quantized
2. light has particle characterhc
E = h ν or
• Planck’s equation is E =
λ
h = Planck’ s constant = 6.626 x 10 J ⋅ s
-34
43
Electromagnetic Radiation
• Example 5-6: What is the energy of a
photon of green light with wavelength
5200 Å? What is the energy of 1.00 mol
of these photons?
From Example 5 - 5, we know that ν = 5.77 x 1014 s -1
E = hν
E = (6.626 × 10 -34 J ⋅ s)(5.77 × 1014 s -1 )
E = 3.83 × 10 -19 J per photon
For 1.00 mol of photons :
(6.022 × 10 23 photons)(3.83 × 10-19 J per photon) = 231 kJ/mol
44
The Photoelectric Effect
• Light can strike the surface of some
metals causing an electron to be ejected.

45
The Photoelectric Effect
• What are some practical uses of the
photoelectric effect?
You do it!
• Electronic door openers
• Light switches for street lights
• Exposure meters for cameras
• Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect
– Explanation involved light having particle-like
behavior.
– Einstein won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for this
work. 46
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

• An emission spectrum is formed by an


electric current passing through a gas in a 
vacuum tube (at very low pressure) which 
causes the gas to emit light.
– Sometimes called a bright line spectrum.

47
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

• An absorption spectrum is formed by


shining a beam of white light through a 
sample of gas.
– Absorption spectra indicate the wavelengths of 
light that have been absorbed.

48
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

• Every element has a unique spectrum.


• Thus we can use spectra to identify
elements.
– This can be done in the lab, stars,
fireworks, etc.

49
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

• Atomic and molecular spectra are


important indicators of the underlying
structure of the species.
• In the early 20th century several eminent
scientists began to understand this
underlying structure.
– Included in this list are:
– Niels Bohr
– Erwin Schrodinger 50
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

• Example 5-7: An
 1 × 10 -10
orange
m  line− 7 of
λ = 5890 Å   
 = 5.890 × 10 m
wavelength -10  5890 Å Å  1is× observed
10 -10
m  in the −7
 1 × 10 m  10  = 5.890 ×10 m
λ = 5890 Å 
emission λ = 5890
 =
spectrum 5 . Å
890 × −7
m
  E = hν = of sodium.
hc Å What is
 Å   
the energy ofhcone photon λ of this orange
hc
light? E = hν = λ E = hν =
λ
=
( 6.626 × 10 − 34 J ⋅ s )( 3.(00
=− 7
6 .× You
10
626
8
×
m/s
10)
do−34 it!
J ⋅ s )( 3 . 00 × 10 8
m/s )
5.890 × 10 m 5.890 ×10 −7 m
= 3.375 ×10 −19 J 51
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

• The Rydberg 1  1 1 
= R  2 − 2 
equation is an λ  n1 n 2 
empirical R is the Rydberg constant
equation that
R = 1.097 × 107 m -1
relates the
wavelengths of n1 < n 2
the lines in the n’ s refer to the numbers
hydrogen of the energy levels in the
spectrum. emission spectrum of hydrogen
52
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom
• Example 5-8. What is the wavelength of
light emitted
n when
= 4 andthe
n nhydrogen
= =
2 4 and atom’s
n =2
n
energy changes
22 = 4 and n 1 =
2 2
from 1n = 4 to n = 2?
1

11  11 111   1 1 
=
= R
R  2 −
− = R 
2   2
− 
2 
λλ  nn1 λnn 2   n1 n 2 
2 2
 1 2 
1 1 7 -1  1 71  -1  1 1 
= 1.097 × 10 =m  ×2 10
1.097 − 2m  2 − 2 
λ λ 2 4  2 4 
1 -1  1 1
= 1.097 × 10 m  − 53
7

λ  4 16 
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

1 that the wavelength


Notice calculated from
= 1.097 × 10 7
7
m -1
-1
(
the Rydberg equation matches0.250 0.0625)
the−wavelength
λ green colored line in the H spectrum.
of the
1
= 1.097 × 10 m 1 ( 0.1875)
7
7 --1

λ
1
= 2.057 × 10 m 1
6
6 --1

λ
λ = 4.862 × 10 m-7 54
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom
• In 1913 Neils Bohr incorporated Planck’s
quantum theory into the hydrogen
spectrum explanation.
• Here are the postulates of Bohr’s theory.

1. Atom has a number of definite and discrete


energy levels (orbits) in which an electron
may exist without emitting or absorbing
electromagnetic radiation.
As the orbital radius increases so does the energy
55
1<2<3<4<5......
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

1. An electron may move from one discrete


energy level (orbit) to another, but, in so
doing, monochromatic radiation is
emitted or absorbed in accordance with
the following equation.
E - E = ∆E = hν =
hc
2 1
λ
E 2 > E1
Energy is absorbed when electrons jump to higher
orbits.
n = 2 to n = 4 for example
56
Energy is emitted when electrons fall to lower orbits.
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

1. An electron moves in a circular orbit


about the nucleus and it motion is
governed by the ordinary laws of
mechanics and electrostatics, with the
restriction that the angular momentum
of the electron is quantized (can only
have certain discrete values).
angular momentum = mvr = nh/2π
57
h = Planck’s constant n = 1,2,3,4,...(energy
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

• Light of a characteristic wavelength (and


frequency) is emitted when electrons
move from higher E (orbit, n = 4) to lower
E (orbit, n = 1).
 Light ofisa the
characteristic wavelength (and
– This origin of emission spectra.
frequency) is absorbed when electron jumps from
lower E (orbit, n = 2) to higher E (orbit, n= 4)
– This is the origin of absorption spectra.
58
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

• Bohr’s theory correctly explains the H


emission spectrum.
• The theory fails for all other elements
because it is not an adequate theory.

59
The Wave Nature of the
Electron

• In 1925 Louis de Broglie published his


h
Ph.D. dissertation.
λ =
– A crucial mv
element of his dissertation is that
electrons have wave-like properties.
h= Planck’
– The s constant
electron wavelengths are described by
the de Broglie relationship.
m = mass of particle
v = velocity of particle
60
The Wave Nature of the
Electron
• De Broglie’s assertion was verified by
Davisson & Germer within two years.
• Consequently, we now know that
electrons (in fact - all particles) have both
a particle and a wave like character.
– This wave-particle duality is a fundamental
property of submicroscopic particles.

61
The Wave Nature of the
Electron

• Example 5-9. Determine the wavelength, in m, of


h 9.11 x 10-31 kg, having a
an electron, with mass
velocity of 5.65λx=107 m/s.
mv
– Remember Planck’s constant is 6.626 x 10-34 Js which is
−34 -34
6.626 × 10 kg m ⋅/ss .
also equal to 6.626 x 10 kg 2 2 22
m
λ=
( )(
9.11× 10 kg 5.65 × 10 m/s
-31 7
)
λ = 1.29 × 10 −11 m
62
The Wave Nature of the
Electron

• Example 5-10. Determine the wavelength, in m, of


a 0.22 caliber bullet, with mass 3.89 x 10-3 kg,
having a velocity of 395 m/s, ~ 1300 ft/s.
You do it!
h
λ = so small compared to the
• Why is the bullet’s wavelength
electron’s wavelength? mv
−34
6.626 × 10 kg m ⋅ s 2 2
λ=
( )
.89 × 10 kg ( 395 m/s )
33.89 -3

63
λ = 4.31× 10 − 34
m
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom

• Werner Heisenberg in 1927 developed the


concept of the Uncertainty Principle.
• It is impossible to determine
simultaneously both the position and
momentum of an electron (or any other
small particle).
– Detecting an electron requires the use of
electromagnetic radiation which displaces the
64
electron!
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom

• Consequently, we must must speak of


the electrons’ position about the atom in
terms of probability functions.
• These probability functions are
represented as orbitals in quantum
mechanics.

65
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom
Basic Postulates of Quantum Theory
2. Atoms and molecules can exist only in
certain energy states. In each energy
state, the atom or molecule has a definite
energy. When an atom or molecule
changes its energy state, it must emit or
absorb just enough energy to bring it to
the new energy state (the quantum
condition).
66
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom

1. Atoms or molecules emit or absorb


radiation (light) as they change their
energies. The frequency of the light
emitted or absorbed is related to the
energy change by a simple equation.
hc
E =hν =
λ
67
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom

1. The allowed energy states of atoms and


molecules can be described by sets of
numbers called quantum numbers.
• Quantum numbers are the solutions of
the Schrodinger, Heisenberg & Dirac
equations.
..
• Four quantumSchr o dingernumbers
equation are necessary
to describe
b 2
 ∂ 2
Ψ energyΨstates
∂ 2
Ψ ∂ 2

− 2  2 + 2 + 2  + VΨ = EΨ
of electrons in68
8π m  ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z 
atoms.
Quantum Numbers

• The principal quantum number has the


symbol – n.
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...... “shells”
n = K, L, M, N, ......
The electron’s energy depends principally on n .

69
Quantum Numbers
• The angular momentum quantum number
has the symbol .
 = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .......(n-1)
 = s, p, d, f, g, h, .......(n-1)
 tells us the shape of the orbitals.
• These orbitals are the volume around the
atom that the electrons occupy 90-95% of
the time.
This is one of the places where Heisenberg’s
Uncertainty principle comes into play.
70
Quantum Numbers
• The symbol for the magnetic quantum number
is m .
m = -  , (-  + 1), (-  +2), .....0, ......., (
-2), ( -1), 
• If  = 0 (or an s orbital), then m = 0.
– Notice that there is only 1 value of m .
This implies that there is one s orbital per n value. n ≥ 1
• If  = 1 (or a p orbital), then m = -1,0,+1.
– There are 3 values of m .
Thus there are three p orbitals per n value. n ≥ 2
71
Quantum Numbers

• If  = 2 (or a d orbital), then m = -2,-


1,0,+1,+2.
– There are 5 values of m .
Thus there are five d orbitals per n value. n ≥ 3
• If  = 3 (or an f orbital), then m = -3,-2,-
1,0,+1,+2, +3.
– There are 7 values of m .
Thus there are seven f orbitals per n value, n
• Theoretically, this series continues on to g,h,i,
etc. orbitals. 72
Quantum Numbers

• The last quantum number is the spin


quantum number which has the symbol ms.
• The spin quantum number only has two
possible values.
– ms = +1/2 or -1/2
– ms = ± 1/2
• This quantum number tells us the spin and
orientation of the magnetic field of the
electrons.
• Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 discovered the 73
Atomic Orbitals

• Atomic orbitals are regions of space


where the probability of finding an
electron about an atom is highest.
• s orbital properties:
– There is one s orbital per n level.
 = 0 1 value of m

74
Atomic Orbitals

• s orbitals are spherically


symmetric.

75
Atomic Orbitals

• p orbital properties:
– The first p orbitals appear in the n = 2 shell.
• p orbitals are peanut or dumbbell shaped
volumes.
– They are directed along the axes of a Cartesian
coordinate system.
• There are 3 p orbitals per n level.
– The three orbitals are named px, py, pz.
– They have an  = 1. 76

m = -1,0,+1 3 values of m
Atomic Orbitals

• p orbitals are peanut or dumbbell shaped.

77
Atomic Orbitals

• d orbital properties:
– The first d orbitals appear in the n = 3 shell.
• The five d orbitals have two different shapes:
– 4 are clover leaf shaped.
– 1 is peanut shaped with a doughnut around it.
– The orbitals lie directly on the Cartesian axes or
There are 5 d orbitals per nthe
level.
are rotated 45o from axes.
–The five orbitals are named d xy , d yz , d xz , d x 2 - y 2 , d z 2
–Theyhave an  = 2.
–m = -2,-1,0,+1,+2 5 values of m  78
Atomic Orbitals

• d orbital shapes

79
Atomic Orbitals

• f orbital properties:
– The first f orbitals appear in the n = 4 shell.
• The f orbitals have the most complex
shapes.
• There are seven f orbitals per n level.
– The f orbitals have complicated names.
– They have an  = 3
– m = -3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2, +3 7 values of m80
Atomic Orbitals
• f orbital shapes

81
Atomic Orbitals

• Spin quantum number effects:


– Every orbital can hold up to two electrons.
• Consequence of the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
– The two electrons are designated as having
– one spin up ↑ and one spin down↓
• Spin describes the direction of the
electron’s magnetic fields.

82
Paramagnetism and
Diamagnetism
• Unpaired electrons have their spins
aligned ↑↑ or ↓↓
– This increases the magnetic field of the
atom.
• Atoms with unpaired electrons are called
paramagnetic .
– Paramagnetic atoms are attracted to a
magnet.

83
Paramagnetism and
Diamagnetism
• Paired electrons have their spins
unaligned ↑↓.
– Paired electrons have no net magnetic field.
• Atoms with unpaired electrons are called
diamagnetic.
diamagnetic
– Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by a
magnet.

84
Paramagnetism and
Diamagnetism

• Because two electrons in the same orbital


must be paired, it is possible to calculate
the number of orbitals and the number of
electrons in each n shell.
• The number of orbitals per n level is given
by n2.
• The maximum number of electrons per n
level is 2n2. 85

2
Paramagnetism and
Diamagnetism

Energy Level # of Orbitals Max. # of e-


n n2 2n2
1 1 2
2 4 8
You do it!
3 9 18
4 16 32
86
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

• The principle that describes how the


periodic chart is a function of electronic
configurations is the Aufbau Principle.
• The electron that distinguishes an
element from the previous element
enters the lowest energy atomic orbital
available.
87
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

• The Aufbau Principle describes the electron


filling order in atoms.

88
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

• There are two ways to remember the correct


filling order for electrons in atoms.
2. You can use this mnemonic.

89
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

1. Or you can use the periodic chart .

90
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
• Now we will use the Aufbau Principle to
determine the electronic configurations of the
elements on the periodic chart.
• 1st row elements.

1s Configuration

1 H ↑ 1s 1

2 He ↑↓ 1s 2
91
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

1s
• 2nd row 2s
2s2s2s 2p
2p2p2p Configuration
elements.
1s1s1s
1s1s 2s2s 2p
Configurat
Configuration
Configurat
2p Configurat
ion
ion
Configuration
ion
Li
33 Li ↑↓
↑↓ ↑↑ 1s
1s
22
2 2s
22s
11
2 12 1 1 1
3 3 Li
3 Li
↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↑ ↑ 1s1s1s2s2s
3 Li
2 2s 1
Li ↑↓ ↑ 1s 2s
Be
44 Be ↑↓
3
↑↓ ↑ ↓
↑↑↓↑↓↓ 1s 2
22 2s 222
1s1s1s22s
4 4 BeBe
4 4 Be
↑↓↑↓↑↓ ↑ ↓
2 2 2 2 2
1s 2s2s2s
B
55 B ↑↓
↑↓ ↑↑↓↓ ↑↑ 1s
1s
22
2 2s
2s
22
2 2p
2p
11
2 1 1 1
5 5B5B
↑↓↑↓ ↑↑↓↓ ↑↑
2
1s1s 2s2s 2p2p
2 2

•Hund’s C
66 CC rule ↑↓
↑↓ ↑↑ ↓
tells
↓ ↑↑us↑that
↑ 1s
the
1s
22
2 2s 22
electrons
2s 2 2p2p
22
2 2 will fill the
6 6 ↑↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑ 2
1s 2s 2p 2

p orbitals
77 NN ↑↓
↑↓by ↑placing
↑↓↓ ↑
↑ ↑↑ electrons

↑ 1s
1s
222 2sin
2s
22
2 each
2p
2p
33
3 orbital
7
singly O and↑↓ with
↑ ↓ same
↑↓ ↑ spin
↑ until
1s 22
2 2shalf-filled.
22
2 2p 44
4 Then
88 O ↑↓ ↑ ↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ 1s 2s 2p
the electrons
8
will pair to finish
22 the p55 orbitals.
99 F ↑↓ ↑ ↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ 22
1s 2s 2p
92
10 Ne ↑↓ ↑ ↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ 1s 2s 2p 2 2 6
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

• 3rd row elements 3s


3s 3p
3p Configuration
Configurat ion
3s 3p Configuration
Na
11 Na
11 Na
[ Ne
[
Ne ]
Ne ] ↑
↑↑ [ Ne
Ne[ Ne
] 3 s 11
3] s3s1
11
Mg
12 Mg
12 Mg
[ Ne
[
Ne Ne
] ] ↑↓
↑↓
↑↓
[ Ne
Ne[ Ne
] 3 s 22
3] s3s 2
[ ] [ ]
12
Al Ne ↑↓ ↑ Ne 3 s 22 3p11
13 Al Ne
13
13 [ Ne ] ↑↓
↑↓ ↑↑ Ne[ Ne 3] s3s 2 3p1
Si
14 Si
14
[ Ne
[ Ne
] ] ↑↓
↑↓ ↑↑ ↑ ↑
[ Ne[ Ne
] 3] s
3
2 3p 222
2
s 2
3p 2
14
15
15
P [ Ne ] ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ [ Ne ] 3 s 22 3p33

16
16
S [ Ne ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ne ] 3 s 22 3p 44

17
17
Cl [ Ne ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ne ] 3 s 22
3p 55

[ ] [ ]
93
18 Ar Ne ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ Ne 3 s 2
3p 6
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d
• 4th row elements 4s 4p Configuration

19 K [ Ar ] ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1

94
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

19 K [ Ar ] ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1
20 Ca [ Ar ] ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s 2

95
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

19 K [ Ar ] ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1
20 Ca [ Ar ] ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2
21 Sc You do it!

96
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

19 K [ Ar ] ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1
20 Ca [ Ar ] ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s 2

21 Sc [ Ar ] ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d1

97
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

19 K [ Ar ] ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1
20 Ca [ Ar ] ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2
21 Sc [ Ar ] ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d1
Ti You do it!
22

98
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

19 K [ Ar ] ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1
20 Ca [ Ar ] ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2
21 Sc [ Ar ] ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d1
Ti [ Ar ] ↑ ↑
22 ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 2

99
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

19 K [ Ar ] ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1
20 Ca [ Ar ] ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2
21 Sc [ Ar ] ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d1
Ti [ Ar ] ↑ ↑
22 ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 2
V [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑
23 ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 3
100
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

19 K [ Ar ] ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1
20 Ca [ Ar ] ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2
21 Sc [ Ar ] ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d1
Ti [ Ar ] ↑ ↑
22 ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 2
V [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑
23 ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 3
24 Cr [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1 3d5
There is an extra measure of stability associated
101
with half - filled and completely filled orbitals.
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

25 Mn [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d5

102
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

25 Mn [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe You do it!

103
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

25 Mn [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 6

104
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

25 Mn [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 6
27 Co [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 7

105
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

25 Mn [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 6
27 Co [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 7
28 Ni [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d8

106
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

25 Mn [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 6
27 Co [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 7
28 Ni [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d8
29 Cu You do it!

107
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

25 Mn [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 6
27 Co [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 7
28 Ni [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d8
29 Cu [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1 3d10
Another exception like Cr and
for essentially the same reason. 108
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

25 Mn [ Ar ] ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 6
27 Co [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 7
28 Ni [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d8
29 Cu [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s1 3d10
30 Zn [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10
109
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

31 Ga [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p1

110
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

31 Ga [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p1


32 Ge You do it!

111
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

31 Ga [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p1


32 Ge [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p2

112
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

31 Ga [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p1


32 Ge [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p2
33 As [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p3

113
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

31 Ga [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p1


32 Ge [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p2
33 As [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p3
34 Se You do it!

114
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

31 Ga [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p1


32 Ge [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p2
33 As [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p3
34 Se [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p4

115
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

31 Ga [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p1


32 Ge [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p2
33 As [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p3
34 Se [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p4
35 Br [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p5

116
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3d 4s 4p Configuration

31 Ga [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d10 4p1


32 Ge [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s 2
3d 10
4p 2

33 As [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s 2
3d 10
4p 3

34 Se [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s 2
3d 10
4p 4

35 Br [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ [ Ar ] 4s 2
3d 10
4p 5

36 Kr [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s 2
3d 10
4p 6

117
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

• Now we can write a complete set of quantum


numbers for all of the electrons in these three
elements as examples.
– Na
– Ca
– Fe
• First for 11Na.
– When completed there must be one set of 4
quantum3snumbers3p
for eachConfigurat
of the 11 electrons
ion in
Na
11 [ ]
Na Ne ↑ (remember Ne has 10 [ ]
Ne 3s 1
electrons) 118
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2

119
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e - 1 0 0 −1/2 

120
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e - 1 0 0 −1/2 
3rd e - 2 0 0 +1/2

121
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e - 1 0 0 −1/2 
3rd e - 2 0 0 +1/2 
2 s electrons
4 th e - 2 0 0 −1/2 

122
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e - 1 0 0 −1/2 
3rd e - 2 0 0 +1/2 
2 s electrons
4 th e - 2 0 0 −1/2 
5th e - 2 1 -1 +1/2

123
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e - 1 0 0 −1/2 
3rd e - 2 0 0 +1/2 
2 s electrons
4 th e - 2 0 0 −1/2 
5th e - 2 1 -1 +1/2
6 th e - 2 1 0 +1/2

124
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e - 1 0 0 - 1/2 
3rd e - 2 0 0 +1/2 
2 s electrons
4 th e - 2 0 0 −1/2 
5th e - 2 1 -1 +1/2
6 th e - 2 1 0 +1/2
7 th e - 2 1 +1 +1/2

125
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e - 1 0 0 −1/2 
3rd e - 2 0 0 +1/2 
2 s electrons
4 th e - 2 0 0 −1/2 
5th e - 2 1 -1 +1/2
6 th e - 2 1 0 +1/2
7 th e - 2 1 +1 +1/2
8th e - 2 1 −1 −1/2
126
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e - 1 0 0 −1/2 
3rd e - 2 0 0 +1/2 
2 s electrons
4 th e - 2 0 0 −1/2 
5th e - 2 1 -1 +1/2
6 th e - 2 1 0 +1/2
7 th e - 2 1 +1 +1/2
8th e - 2 1 −1 −1/2
127
th
9 e -
2 1 0 −1/2
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e- 1 0 0 −1/2 
3rd e - 2 0 0 +1/2 
2 s electrons
4 th e - 2 0 0 −1/2 
5th e- 2 1 -1 +1/2 

6 th e - 2 1 0 +1/2 
7 th e- 2 1 +1 +1/2 

2 p electrons
8th e- 2 1 −1 −1/2 
9 th e- 2 1 0 −1/2 
 128
th
10 e -
2 1 +1 −1/2 

The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
1st e - 1 0 0 +1/2 
1 s electrons
2 nd e - 1 0 0 −1/2 
3rd e - 2 0 0 +1/2 
2 s electrons
4 th e - 2 0 0 −1/2 
5th e - 2 1 -1 +1/2 

6 th e - 2 1 0 +1/2 
7 th e - 2 1 +1 +1/2 

2 p electrons
8th e - 2 1 −1 −1/2 
9 th e - 2 1 0 −1/2 

10 th e - 2 1 +1 −1/2 
 129
11th e - 3 0 0 +1/2}3 s electron
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

• Next we will do the same exercise for 20Ca.


– Again, when finished we must have one set of 4
quantum numbers for each of the 20 electrons in
Ca.
• We represent the first 18 electrons in Ca with
the symbol3d
[Ar]. 4s 4p Configuration

20 Ca [Ar] ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s 2

130
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[ Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2

131
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[Ar]19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2 

4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2

132
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

• Finally, we do the same exercise for 26Fe.


– We should have one set of 4 quantum numbers for
each of the 26 electrons in Fe.
• To save time and space, we use the symbol
[Ar] to represent
3d the first 18
4s 4pelectrons in Fe
Configuration

26 Fe [ Ar ] ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ [ Ar ] 4s2 3d 6

133
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[ Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2

134
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[ Ar]19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2 

4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2

135
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[ Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2

4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2

21st e - 3 2 -2 +1/2

136
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 + 1/2 

4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2 
21st e - 3 2 - 2 + 1/2
22 nd e - You do it!

137
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2 

4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2
21st e - 3 2 -2 +1/2
22 nd e - 3 2 -1 +1/2

138
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2 

4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2
21st e - 3 2 -2 +1/2
22 nd e - 3 2 -1 +1/2
23rd e - 3 2 0 +1/2

139
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2 

4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2
21st e - 3 2 -2 +1/2
22 nd e - 3 2 -1 +1/2
23rd e - 3 2 0 +1/2
24 th e - 3 2 +1 +1/2

140
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2
4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2 

21st e - 3 2 - 2 +1/2

22 nd e - 3 2 - 1 +1/2 

23rd e - 3 2 0 +1/2 half - filled d shell
24 th e - 3 2 +1 +1/2 
25 th e - 3 2 + 2 +1/2 

141
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2 

4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2
21st e - 3 2 -2 +1/2
22 nd e - 3 2 -1 +1/2
23rd e - 3 2 0 +1/2
24 th e - 3 2 +1 +1/2
25 th e - 3 2 +2 +1/2
142
th -
26 e You do it!
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

n  m ms
[Ar] 19 th e - 4 0 0 +1/2 

4 s electrons
20 th e - 4 0 0 −1/2
21st e - 3 2 -2 +1/2
22 nd e - 3 2 -1 +1/2
23rd e - 3 2 0 +1/2
24 th e - 3 2 +1 +1/2
25 th e - 3 2 +2 +1/2
143
th
26 e -
3 2 -2 −1/2
Synthesis Question

• What is the atomic number of the element


that should theoretically be the noble gas
below Rn?
• The 6 d’s are completed with element 112
and the 7p’s are completed with element
118. Thus the next noble gas (or perhaps
it will be a noble liquid) should be element
118.
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Group Question

• In a universe different from ours, the laws


of quantum mechanics are the same as
ours with one small change. Electrons in
this universe have three spin states, -1, 0,
and +1, rather than the two, +1/2 and -1
/2, that we have. What two elements in
this universe would be the first and
second noble gases? (Assume that the
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elements in this different universe have
End of Chapter 5
• The study of various
spectra is one of the
fundamental tools that
chemists apply to
numerous areas of
their work.

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