1

CHAPTER 5

The Structure of
Atoms
2
Chapter Outline
Subatomic Particles
2. Fundamental Particles
3. The Discovery of Electrons
4. Canal Rays and Protons
5. Rutherford and the Nuclear Atom
6. Atomic Number
7. Neutrons
8. Mass Number and Isotopes
9. Mass spectrometry and Isotopic Abundance
3
Chapter Goals
1. The Atomic Weight Scale and Atomic
Weights
The Electronic Structures of Atoms
3. Electromagnetic radiation
4. The Photoelectric Effect
5. Atomic Spectra and the Bohr Atom
6. The Wave Nature of the Electron
7. The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the
Atom
4
Chapter Goals
1. Quantum Numbers
2. Atomic Orbitals
3. Electron Configurations
4. Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
5. The Periodic Table and Electron
Configurations
5
Fundamental Particles
Particle Mass (amu) Charge
Electron (e
-
) 0.00054858 -1
Proton (p,p
+
) 1.0073 +1
Neutron(n,n
0
) 1.0087 0


• Three fundamental particles make up atoms.  The 
following table lists these particles together with 
their masses and their charges. 
6
The Discovery of Electrons

Humphrey Davy in the early 1800’s
passed electricity through compounds and
noted:

that the compounds decomposed into
elements.

Concluded that compounds are held together
by electrical forces.

Michael Faraday in 1832-1833 realized
that the amount of reaction that occurs
during electrolysis is proportional to the
electrical current passed through the
compounds.
7
The Discovery of Electrons

Cathode Ray Tubes experiments performed in
the late 1800’s & early 1900’s.

Consist of two electrodes sealed in a glass tube
containing a gas at very low pressure.

When a voltage is applied to the cathodes a glow
discharge is emitted.
8
The Discovery of Electrons

These “rays” are emitted from cathode (-
end) and travel to anode (+ end).

Cathode Rays must be negatively charged!

J.J. Thomson modified the cathode ray
tube experiments in 1897 by adding two
adjustable voltage electrodes.

Studied the amount that the cathode ray
beam was deflected by additional electric
field.
9
The Discovery of Electrons

Modifications to the basic cathode ray
tube experiment.
10
The Discovery of Electrons

Thomson used his modification to
measure the charge to mass ratio of
electrons.
Charge to mass ratio
e/m = -1.75881 x 10
8
coulomb/g of e
-

Thomson named the cathode rays
electrons.

Thomson is considered to be the
“discoverer of electrons”.

TV sets and computer screens are
cathode ray tubes.
11
The Discovery of Electrons

Robert A. Millikan won the 1
st
American
Nobel Prize in 1923 for his famous oil-drop
experiment.

In 1909 Millikan determined the charge
and mass of the electron.
12
The Discovery of Electrons

Millikan determined that the charge on a
single electron = -1.60218 x 10
-19

coulomb.

Using Thomson’s charge to mass ratio
we get that the mass of one electron is
9.11 x 10
-28
g.

e/m = -1.75881 x 10
8
coulomb

e = -1.60218 x 10
-19
coulomb

Thus m = 9.10940 x 10
-28
g
13
Canal Rays and Protons
• Eugene Goldstein noted streams of positively charged particles in
cathode rays in 1886.
– Particles move in opposite direction of cathode rays.
– Called “Canal Rays” because they passed through holes
(channels or canals) drilled through the negative electrode.
• Canal rays must be positive.
– Goldstein postulated the existence of a positive fundamental
particle called the “proton”.
14
Rutherford and the Nuclear
Atom

Ernest Rutherford directed Hans Geiger
and Ernst Marsden’s experiment in 1910.

α- particle scattering from thin Au foils

Gave us the basic picture of the atom’s
structure.
15
Rutherford and the Nuclear
Atom

In 1912 Rutherford decoded the α-particle
scattering information.

Explanation involved a nuclear atom with
electrons surrounding the nucleus .
16
Rutherford and the Nuclear
Atom

Rutherford’s major conclusions from the α-
particle scattering experiment
1. The atom is mostly empty space.
2. It contains a very small, dense center called the
nucleus.
3. Nearly all of the atom’s mass is in the nucleus.
4. The nuclear diameter is 1/10,000 to 1/100,000
times less than atom’s radius.
17
Rutherford and the Nuclear
Atom

Because the atom’s mass is contained in
such a small volume:

The nuclear density is 10
15
g/mL.

This is equivalent to 3.72 x 10
9
tons/in
3
.

Density inside the nucleus is almost the same
as a neutron star’s density.
18
Atomic Number

The atomic number is equal to the number of
protons in the nucleus.

Sometimes given the symbol Z.

On the periodic chart Z is the uppermost number in
each element’s box.

In 1913 H.G.J. Moseley realized that the atomic
number determines the element .

The elements differ from each other by the number of
protons in the nucleus.

The number of electrons in a neutral atom is also
equal to the atomic number.
19
Neutrons

James Chadwick in 1932 analyzed the
results of α-particle scattering on thin Be
films.

Chadwick recognized existence of
massive neutral particles which he called
neutrons.

Chadwick discovered the neutron.
20
Mass Number and Isotopes

Mass number is given the symbol A.

A is the sum of the number of protons and
neutrons.

Z = proton number N = neutron number

A = Z + N

A common symbolism used to show mass and
proton numbers is
Au Ca, C, example for E
197
79
48
20
12
6
A
Z

Can be shortened to this symbolism.
etc. Ag, Cu, N,
107 63 14
21
Mass Number and Isotopes

Isotopes are atoms of the same element but with
different neutron numbers.

Isotopes have different masses and A values but are
the same element.

One example of an isotopic series is the
hydrogen isotopes.
1
H or protium is the most common hydrogen isotope.
• one proton and no neutrons

2
H or deuterium is the second most abundant hydrogen
isotope.
• one proton and one neutron
3
H or tritium is a radioactive hydrogen isotope.
• one proton and two neutrons
22
Mass Number and Isotopes

The stable oxygen isotopes provide another
example.

16
O is the most abundant stable O isotope.

How many protons and neutrons are in
16
O?
neutrons 8 and protons 8

17
O is the least abundant stable O isotope.

How many protons and neutrons are in
17
O?

18
O is the second most abundant stable O isotope.

How many protons and neutrons in
18
O?
neutrons 9 and protons 8
neutrons 10 and protons 8
23
Mass Spectrometry and
Isotopic Abundances

Francis Aston devised the first mass
spectrometer.

Device generates ions that pass down an evacuated
path inside a magnet.

Ions are separated based on their mass.
24
Mass Spectrometry and
Isotopic Abundances

There are four factors which determine a
particle’s path in the mass spectrometer.
1
accelerating voltage
2
magnetic field strength
3
masses of particles
4
charge on particles
25
Mass Spectrometry and
Isotopic Abundances

Mass spectrum of Ne
+
ions shown below.

How scientists determine the masses and
abundances of the isotopes of an element.
26
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

If we define the mass of
12
C as exactly 12 atomic
mass units (amu), then it is possible to establish
a relative weight scale for atoms.

1 amu = (1/12) mass of
12
C by definition

What is the mass of an amu in grams?

Example 5-1: Calculate the number of atomic
mass units in one gram.

The mass of one
31
P atom has been experimentally
determined to be 30.99376 amu.

1 mol of
31
P atoms has a mass of 30.99376 g.
27
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

P g 30.99376
atoms P 10 6.022
g) (1.000
31
31 23

,
`

.
|
×
28
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

Thus 1.00 g = 6.022 x 10
23
amu.

This is always true and provides the conversion
factor between grams and amu.
P amu 10 6.022
atom P
amu 30.99376

P g 30.99376
atoms P 10 6.022
g) (1.000
31 23
31
31
31 23
× ·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
×
29
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

The atomic weight of an element is the
weighted average of the masses of its
stable isotopes

Example 5-2: Naturally occurring Cu
consists of 2 isotopes. It is 69.1%
63
Cu
with a mass of 62.9 amu, and 30.9%
65
Cu,
which has a mass of 64.9 amu. Calculate
the atomic weight of Cu to one decimal
place.
30
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
amu) .9 (0.691)(62 weight atomic
isotope Cu
63
        
·
31
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
                 
isotope Cu isotope Cu
65 63
amu) .9 (0.309)(64 amu) .9 (0.691)(62 weight atomic + ·
32
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
copper for amu 63.5 weight atomic
amu) .9 (0.309)(64 amu) .9 (0.691)(62 weight atomic
isotope Cu isotope Cu
65 63
·
+ ·
                 
33
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

Example 5-3: Naturally occurring
chromium consists of four isotopes. It is
4.31%
24
50
Cr, mass = 49.946 amu,
83.76%
24
52
Cr, mass = 51.941 amu, 9.55%
24
53
Cr, mass = 52.941 amu, and 2.38%
24
54
Cr, mass = 53.939 amu. Calculate the
atomic weight of chromium.
You do it!
You do it!
34
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
( )
amu 51.998
amu 1.284 5.056 43.506 2.153
amu) 53.939 0.0238 ( amu) 52.941 (0.0955
amu) 51.941 (0.8376 amu) 49.946 (0.0431 weight atomic
·
+ + + ·
× + × +
× + × ·
35
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

Example 5-4: The atomic weight of boron
is 10.811 amu. The masses of the two
naturally occurring isotopes
5
10
B and
5
11
B,
are 10.013 and 11.009 amu, respectively.
Calculate the fraction and percentage of
each isotope.

You do it!
You do it!

This problem requires a little algebra.

A hint for this problem is x + (1-x) = 1
36
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights
( )
( )
( ) ( )
x
x
x x
x x
x x
·
·
·
+ ·
− + ·
199 . 0
-0.996 0.198 -
amu 11.009 - 10.013 amu 11.009 - 10.811
amu 11.009 - 11.009 10.013
amu) (11.009 1 amu) (10.013 amu 10.811
isotope B isotope B
11 10
               
37
The Atomic Weight Scale and
Atomic Weights

Note that because x is the multiplier for
the
10
B isotope, our solution gives us the
fraction of natural B that is
10
B.

Fraction of
10
B = 0.199 and % abundance
of
10
B = 19.9%.

The multiplier for
11
B is (1-x) thus the
fraction of
11
B is 1-0.199 = 0.811 and the
% abundance of
11
B is 81.1%.
38
The Electronic Structures of
The Electronic Structures of
Atoms
Atoms
Electromagnetic Radiation

The
wavelength
wavelength of electromagnetic radiation
has the symbol λ.

Wavelength is the distance from the top (crest)
of one wave to the top of the next wave.

Measured in units of distance such as m,cm, Å.

1 Å = 1 x 10
-10
m = 1 x 10
-8
cm

The
frequency
frequency of electromagnetic radiation has
the symbol υ.

Frequency is the number of crests or troughs
that pass a given point per second.

Measured in units of 1/time - s
-1
39
Electromagnetic Radiation

The relationship between wavelength and
frequency for any wave is velocity = λυ.

For electromagnetic radiation the velocity is 3.00
x 10
8
m/s and has the symbol c.

Thus c = λυ forelectromagnetic radiation.
40
Electromagnetic Radiation

Molecules interact with electromagnetic
radiation.

Molecules can absorb and emit light.

Once a molecule has absorbed light
(energy), the molecule can:
1. Rotate
2. Translate
3. Vibrate
4. Electronic transition
41
Electromagnetic Radiation

For water:

Rotations occur in the microwave portion of spectrum.

Vibrations occur in the infrared portion of spectrum.

Translation occurs across the spectrum.

Electronic transitions occur in the ultraviolet portion of
spectrum.
42
Electromagnetic Radiation

Example 5-5: What is the frequency of
green light of wavelength 5200 Å?
m 10 5.200
Å 1
m 10 x 1
Å) (5200
c
c
7 -
10 -
× ·

,
`

.
|
· ∴ ·
λ
ν λν
1 - 14
7 -
8
s 10 5.77
m 10 5.200
m/s 10 3.00

× ·
×
×
·
ν
ν
43
Electromagnetic Radiation

In 1900 Max Planck studied black body
radiation and realized that to explain the
energy spectrum he had to assume
that:
1. energy is quantized
2. light has particle character

Planck’s equation is
s J 10 x 6.626 constant s Planck’ h
hc
or E h E
34 -
⋅ · ·
· ·
λ
ν
44
Electromagnetic Radiation

Example 5-6: What is the energy of a
photon of green light with wavelength
5200 Å?What is the energy of 1.00 mol
of these photons?
photon per J 10 3.83 E
) s 10 s)(5.77 J 10 (6.626 E
h E
s 10 x 5.77 that know we 5, - 5 Example From
19 -
1 - 14 34 -
-1 14
× ·
× ⋅ × ·
·
·
ν
ν
kJ/mol 231 photon) per J 10 .83 photons)(3 10 (6.022
: photons of mol 1.00 For
19 - 23
· × ×
45
The Photoelectric Effect

Light can strike the surface of some
metals causing an electron to be ejected.
46
The Photoelectric Effect

What are some practical uses of the
photoelectric effect?
You do it!

Electronic door openers

Light switches for street lights

Exposure meters for cameras

Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect

Explanation involved light having particle-like
behavior.

Einstein won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for this
work.
47
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

An emission spectrum is formed by an
electric current passing through a gas in a 
vacuum tube (at very low pressure) which 
causes the gas to emit light.
– Sometimes called a bright line spectrum.
48
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

An absorption spectrum is formed by
shining a beam of white light through a 
sample of gas.
– Absorption spectra indicate the wavelengths of 
light that have been absorbed.
49
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

Every element has a unique spectrum.

Thus we can use spectra to identify
elements.

This can be done in the lab, stars,
fireworks, etc.
50
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

Atomic and molecular spectra are
important indicators of the underlying
structure of the species.

In the early 20
th
century several eminent
scientists began to understand this
underlying structure.

Included in this list are:

Niels Bohr

Erwin Schrodinger

Werner Heisenberg
51
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

Example 5-7: An orange line of
wavelength 5890 Å is observed in the
emission spectrum of sodium. What is
the energy of one photon of this orange
light?
You do it!
You do it!
( )( )
J 10 375 . 3
m 10 890 . 5
m/s 10 00 . 3 s J 10 626 . 6
hc
h E
m 10 890 . 5
Å
m 10 1
Å 5890
19
7
8 34
7
-10




× ·
×
× ⋅ ×
·
· ·
× ·

,
`

.
|
×
·
λ
ν
λ
m 10 890 . 5
Å
m 10 1
Å 5890
7
-10

× ·

,
`

.
|
×
· λ
λ
ν
λ
hc
h E
m 10 890 . 5
Å
m 10 1
Å 5890
7
-10
· ·
× ·

,
`

.
|
×
·

( ) ( )
m 10 890 . 5
m/s 10 00 . 3 s J 10 626 . 6
hc
h E
m 10 890 . 5
Å
m 10 1
Å 5890
7
8 34
7
-10



×
× ⋅ ×
·
· ·
× ·

,
`

.
|
×
·
λ
ν
λ
52
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

The Rydberg
equation is an
empirical
equation that
relates the
wavelengths of
the lines in the
hydrogen
spectrum.
hydrogen of spectrum emission
in the levels energy the of
numbers the refer to s n’
n n
m 10 1.097 R
constant Rydberg the is R

n
1
n
1
R
1
2 1
1 - 7
2
2
2
1
<
× ·

,
`

.
|
− ·
λ
53
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

Example 5-8. What is the wavelength of
light emitted when the hydrogen atom’s
energy changes from n = 4 to n = 2?

,
`

.
|
− × ·

,
`

.
|
− ·
· ·
2 2
1 - 7
2
2
2
1
1 2
4
1
2
1
m 10 1.097
1

n
1
n
1
R
1
2 n and 4 n
λ
λ

,
`

.
|
− ·
· ·
2
2
2
1
1 2
n
1
n
1
R
1
2 n and 4 n
λ

,
`

.
|
− × ·

,
`

.
|
− × ·

,
`

.
|
− ·
· ·
16
1
4
1
m 10 1.097
1
4
1
2
1
m 10 1.097
1

n
1
n
1
R
1
2 n and 4 n
1 - 7
2 2
1 - 7
2
2
2
1
1 2
λ
λ
λ
54
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom
( )
( )
m 10 4.862
m 10 2.057
1
1875 . 0 m 10 1.097
1
0625 . 0 250 . 0 m 10 1.097
1
7 -
1 - 6
1 - 7
1 - 7
× ·
× ·
× ·
− × ·
λ
λ
λ
λ
( )
( )
1 - 6
1 - 7
1 - 7
m 10 2.057
1
1875 . 0 m 10 1.097
1
0625 . 0 250 . 0 m 10 1.097
1
× ·
× ·
− × ·
λ
λ
λ
( )
( ) 1875 . 0 m 10 1.097
1
0625 . 0 250 . 0 m 10 1.097
1
1 - 7
1 - 7
× ·
− × ·
λ
λ
( ) 0625 . 0 250 . 0 m 10 1.097
1
1 - 7
− × ·
λ
Notice that the wavelength calculated from
the Rydberg equation matches the wavelength
of the green colored line in the H spectrum.
55
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

In 1913 Neils Bohr incorporated Planck’s
quantum theory into the hydrogen
spectrum explanation.

Here are the postulates of Bohr’s theory.
1. Atom has a number of definite and discrete
energy levels (orbits) in which an electron
may exist without emitting or absorbing
electromagnetic radiation.
As the orbital radius increases so does the energy
1<2<3<4<5......
56
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom
1. An electron may move from one discrete
energy level (orbit) to another, but, in so
doing, monochromatic radiation is
emitted or absorbed in accordance with
the following equation.
E E
hc
h E E - E
1 2
1 2
>
· · ∆ ·
λ
ν
Energy is absorbed when electrons jump to higher
orbits.
n = 2 to n = 4 for example
Energy is emitted when electrons fall to lower orbits.
n = 4 to n = 1 for example
57
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom
1. An electron moves in a circular orbit
about the nucleus and it motion is
governed by the ordinary laws of
mechanics and electrostatics, with the
restriction that the angular momentum
of the electron is quantized (can only
have certain discrete values).
angular momentum = mvr = nh/2π
h = Planck’s constant n = 1,2,3,4,...(energy
levels)
v = velocity of electron m = mass of electron
r = radius of orbit
58
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

Light of a characteristic wavelength (and
frequency) is emitted when electrons
move from higher E (orbit, n = 4) to lower
E (orbit, n = 1).

This is the origin of emission spectra.

Light of a characteristic wavelength (and
frequency) is absorbed when electron jumps from
lower E (orbit, n = 2) to higher E (orbit, n= 4)

This is the origin of absorption spectra.
59
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr
Atom

Bohr’s theory correctly explains the H
emission spectrum.

The theory fails for all other elements
because it is not an adequate theory.
60
The Wave Nature of the
Electron

In 1925 Louis de Broglie published his
Ph.D. dissertation.

A crucial element of his dissertation is that
electrons have wave-like properties.

The electron wavelengths are described by
the de Broglie relationship.
particle of velocity v
particle of mass m
constant s Planck’ h
mv
h

·
·
·
· λ
61
The Wave Nature of the
Electron

De Broglie’s assertion was verified by
Davisson & Germer within two years.

Consequently, we now know that
electrons (in fact - all particles) have both
a particle and a wave like character.

This wave-particle duality is a fundamental
property of submicroscopic particles.
62
The Wave Nature of the
Electron

Example 5-9. Determine the wavelength, in m, of
an electron, with mass 9.11 x 10
-31
kg, having a
velocity of 5.65 x 10
7
m/s.

Remember Planck’s constant is 6.626 x 10
-34
Js which is
also equal to 6.626 x 10
-34
kg m
2
/s
2
.
( )( )
m 10 29 . 1
m/s 10 65 . 5 kg 10 9.11
s m kg 10 626 . 6
mv
h

11
7 31 -
2 2 34


× ·
× ×
⋅ ×
·
·
λ
λ
λ
( )( ) m/s 10 65 . 5 kg 10 9.11
s m kg 10 626 . 6
mv
h

7 31 -
2 2 34
× ×
⋅ ×
·
·

λ
λ
63
The Wave Nature of the
Electron

Example 5-10. Determine the wavelength, in m, of
a 0.22 caliber bullet, with mass 3.89 x 10
-3
kg,
having a velocity of 395 m/s, ~ 1300 ft/s.
You do it!
You do it!
( )( )
m 10 31 . 4
m/s 95 3 kg 10 3.89
s m kg 10 626 . 6
mv
h

34
3 -
2 2 34


× ·
×
⋅ ×
·
·
λ
λ
λ
( )( ) m/s 95 3 kg 10 89 . 3
s m kg 10 626 . 6
mv
h

3 -
2 2 34
×
⋅ ×
·
·

λ
λ

Why is the bullet’s wavelength so small compared to the
electron’s wavelength?
64
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom

Werner Heisenberg in 1927 developed the
concept of the Uncertainty Principle.

It is impossible to determine
simultaneously both the position and
momentum of an electron (or any other
small particle).

Detecting an electron requires the use of
electromagnetic radiation which displaces the
electron!

Electron microscopes use this phenomenon
65
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom

Consequently, we must must speak of
the electrons’ position about the atom in
terms of probability functions.

These probability functions are
represented as orbitals in quantum
mechanics.
66
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom
Basic Postulates of Quantum Theory
2. Atoms and molecules can exist only in
certain energy states. In each energy
state, the atom or molecule has a definite
energy. When an atom or molecule
changes its energy state, it must emit or
absorb just enough energy to bring it to
the new energy state (the quantum
condition).
67
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom
1. Atoms or molecules emit or absorb
radiation (light) as they change their
energies. The frequency of the light
emitted or absorbed is related to the
energy change by a simple equation.
λ
ν
hc
h E · ·
68
The Quantum Mechanical
Picture of the Atom
1. The allowed energy states of atoms and
molecules can be described by sets of
numbers called quantum numbers.

Quantum numbers are the solutions of
the Schrodinger, Heisenberg & Dirac
equations.

Four quantum numbers are necessary
to describe energy states of electrons in
atoms.
Ψ · Ψ +

,
`

.
|

Ψ ∂
+

Ψ ∂
+

Ψ ∂
− E V
8
b
equation dinger o Schr
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
..
z y x m π
69
Quantum Numbers

The principal quantum number has the
symbol – n.
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...... “shells”
n = K, L, M, N, ......
The electron’s energy depends principally on n .
70
Quantum Numbers

The angular momentum quantum number
has the symbol .
 = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .......(n-1)
 = s, p, d, f, g, h, .......(n-1)

 tells us the shape of the orbitals.

These orbitals are the volume around the
atom that the electrons occupy 90-95% of
the time.
This is one of the places where Heisenberg’s
Uncertainty principle comes into play.
71
Quantum Numbers

The symbol for the magnetic quantum number
is m

.
m

= -  , (-  + 1), (-  +2), .....0, ......., (
-2), ( -1), 
• If  = 0 (or an s orbital), then m

= 0.
– Notice that there is only 1 value of m

.
This implies that there is one s orbital per n value. n ≥ 1
• If  = 1 (or a p orbital), then m

= -1,0,+1.
– There are 3 values of m

.
Thus there are three p orbitals per n value. n ≥ 2
72
Quantum Numbers
• If  = 2 (or a d orbital), then m

= -2,-
1,0,+1,+2.
– There are 5 values of m

.
Thus there are five d orbitals per n value. n ≥ 3
• If  = 3 (or an f orbital), then m

= -3,-2,-
1,0,+1,+2, +3.
– There are 7 values of m

.
Thus there are seven f orbitals per n value, n

Theoretically, this series continues on to g,h,i,
etc. orbitals.

Practically speaking atoms that have been
discovered or made up to this point in time only
have electrons in s, p, d, or f orbitals in their
ground state configurations.
73
Quantum Numbers

The last quantum number is the spin
quantum number which has the symbol m
s
.

The spin quantum number only has two
possible values.
– m
s
= +1/2 or -1/2
– m
s
= ± 1/2

This quantum number tells us the spin and
orientation of the magnetic field of the
electrons.

Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 discovered the
Exclusion Principle.

No two electrons in an atom can have the same
set of 4 quantum numbers.
74
Atomic Orbitals

Atomic orbitals are regions of space
where the probability of finding an
electron about an atom is highest.

s orbital properties:

There is one s orbital per n level.
 = 0 1 value of m

75
Atomic Orbitals

s orbitals are spherically
symmetric.
76
Atomic Orbitals

p orbital properties:

The first p orbitals appear in the n = 2 shell.

p orbitals are peanut or dumbbell shaped
volumes.

They are directed along the axes of a Cartesian
coordinate system.

There are 3 p orbitals per n level.
– The three orbitals are named p
x
, p
y
, p
z
.

They have an  = 1.
– m

= -1,0,+1 3 values of m

77
Atomic Orbitals

p orbitals are peanut or dumbbell shaped.
78
Atomic Orbitals

d orbital properties:

The first d orbitals appear in the n = 3 shell.

The five d orbitals have two different shapes:

4 are clover leaf shaped.

1 is peanut shaped with a doughnut around it.

The orbitals lie directly on the Cartesian axes or
are rotated 45
o
from the axes.
2 2 2
z y - x
xz yz xy
d , d , d , d , d

There are 5 d orbitals per n level.

The five orbitals are named

They have an  = 2.

m

= -2,-1,0,+1,+2 5 values of m

79
Atomic Orbitals

d orbital shapes
80
Atomic Orbitals

f orbital properties:

The first f orbitals appear in the n = 4 shell.

The f orbitals have the most complex
shapes.

There are seven f orbitals per n level.

The f orbitals have complicated names.

They have an  = 3
– m

= -3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2, +3 7 values of m


The f orbitals have important effects in the
lanthanide and actinide elements.
81
Atomic Orbitals

f orbital shapes
82
Atomic Orbitals

Spin quantum number effects:

Every orbital can hold up to two electrons.
• Consequence of the Pauli Exclusion Principle.

The two electrons are designated as having

one spin up ↑ and one spin down↓

Spin describes the direction of the
electron’s magnetic fields.
83
Paramagnetism and
Diamagnetism

Unpaired electrons have their spins
aligned ↑↑ or ↓↓

This increases the magnetic field of the
atom.

Atoms with unpaired electrons are called
paramagnetic .

Paramagnetic atoms are attracted to a
magnet.
84
Paramagnetism and
Diamagnetism

Paired electrons have their spins
unaligned ↑↓.

Paired electrons have no net magnetic field.

Atoms with unpaired electrons are called
diamagnetic
diamagnetic.

Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by a
magnet.
85
Paramagnetism and
Diamagnetism

Because two electrons in the same orbital
must be paired, it is possible to calculate
the number of orbitals and the number of
electrons in each n shell.

The number of orbitals per n level is given
by n
2
.

The maximum number of electrons per n
level is 2n
2
.

The value is 2n
2
because of the two paired
electrons.
86
Paramagnetism and
Diamagnetism
Energy Level # of Orbitals Max. # of e
-

n
n
n
n
2 2
2n
2

1 1 2
2 4 8

You do it!
You do it!
3 9 18
4 16 32
87
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

The principle that describes how the
periodic chart is a function of electronic
configurations is the Aufbau Principle.

The electron that distinguishes an
element from the previous element
enters the lowest energy atomic orbital
available.
88
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

The Aufbau Principle describes the electron
filling order in atoms.
89
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

There are two ways to remember the correct
filling order for electrons in atoms.
2. You can use this mnemonic.
90
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1. Or you can use the periodic chart .
91
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

Now we will use the Aufbau Principle to
determine the electronic configurations of the
elements on the periodic chart.

1
st
row elements.
2
2
1
1
1s He
1s H
ion Configurat 1s
↑↓

1
1
1s H
ion Configurat 1s

92
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

2
nd
row elements.
6 2 2
10
5 2 2
9
4 2 2
8
3 2 2
7
2 2 2
6
1 2 2
5
2 2
4
1 2
3
2p 2s 1s Ne
2p 2s 1s F
2p 2s 1s O
2p 2s 1s N
2p 2s 1s C
2p 2s 1s B
2s 1s Be
2s 1s Li
ion Configurat 2p 2s 1s
↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
5 2 2
9
4 2 2
8
3 2 2
7
2 2 2
6
1 2 2
5
2 2
4
1 2
3
2p 2s 1s F
2p 2s 1s O
2p 2s 1s N
2p 2s 1s C
2p 2s 1s B
2s 1s Be
2s 1s Li
ion Configurat 2p 2s 1s
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
4 2 2
8
3 2 2
7
2 2 2
6
1 2 2
5
2 2
4
1 2
3
2p 2s 1s O
2p 2s 1s N
2p 2s 1s C
2p 2s 1s B
2s 1s Be
2s 1s Li
ion Configurat 2p 2s 1s
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
3 2 2
7
2 2 2
6
1 2 2
5
2 2
4
1 2
3
2p 2s 1s N
2p 2s 1s C
2p 2s 1s B
2s 1s Be
2s 1s Li
ion Configurat 2p 2s 1s
↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
2 2 2
6
1 2 2
5
2 2
4
1 2
3
2p 2s 1s C
2p 2s 1s B
2s 1s Be
2s 1s Li
ion Configurat 2p 2s 1s
↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
1 2 2
5
2 2
4
1 2
3
2p 2s 1s B
2s 1s Be
2s 1s Li
ion Configurat 2p 2s 1s
↑ ↓ ↑ ↑↓
↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
2 2
4
1 2
3
2s 1s Be
2s 1s Li
ion Configurat 2p 2s 1s
↓ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
1 2
3
2s 1s Li
ion Configurat 2p 2s 1s
↑ ↑↓

Hund’s rule tells us that the electrons will fill the
p orbitals by placing electrons in each orbital
singly and with same spin until half-filled. Then
the electrons will pair to finish the p orbitals.
93
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

3
rd
row elements
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
6 2
18
5 2
17
4 2
16
3 2
15
2 2
14
1 2
13
2
12
1
11
3p s 3 Ne Ne Ar
3p s 3 Ne Ne Cl
3p s 3 Ne Ne S
3p s 3 Ne Ne P
3p s 3 Ne Ne Si
3p s 3 Ne Ne Al
s 3 Ne Ne Mg
s 3 Ne Ne Na
ion Configurat 3p 3s
↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
↑↓

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
5 2
17
4 2
16
3 2
15
2 2
14
1 2
13
2
12
1
11
3p s 3 Ne Ne Cl
3p s 3 Ne Ne S
3p s 3 Ne Ne P
3p s 3 Ne Ne Si
3p s 3 Ne Ne Al
s 3 Ne Ne Mg
s 3 Ne Ne Na
ion Configurat 3p 3s
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
↑↓

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
4 2
16
3 2
15
2 2
14
1 2
13
2
12
1
11
3p s 3 Ne Ne S
3p s 3 Ne Ne P
3p s 3 Ne Ne Si
3p s 3 Ne Ne Al
s 3 Ne Ne Mg
s 3 Ne Ne Na
ion Configurat 3p 3s
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
↑↓
↑ [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
3 2
15
2 2
14
1 2
13
2
12
1
11
3p s 3 Ne Ne P
3p s 3 Ne Ne Si
3p s 3 Ne Ne Al
s 3 Ne Ne Mg
s 3 Ne Ne Na
ion Configurat 3p 3s
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
↑↓

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
2
12
1
11
s 3 Ne Ne Mg
s 3 Ne Ne Na
ion Configurat 3p 3s
↑↓

[ ] [ ]
1
11
s 3 Ne Ne Na
ion Configurat 3p 3s

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
2 2
14
1 2
13
2
12
1
11
3p s 3 Ne Ne Si
3p s 3 Ne Ne Al
s 3 Ne Ne Mg
s 3 Ne Ne Na
ion Configurat 3p 3s
↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓
↑↓

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
1 2
13
2
12
1
11
3p s 3 Ne Ne Al
s 3 Ne Ne Mg
s 3 Ne Ne Na
ion Configurat 3p 3s
↑ ↑↓
↑↓

94
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

4
th
row elements
[ ] [ ]
1
19
4s Ar Ar K
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d

95
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
2
20
1
19
4s Ar Ar Ca
4s Ar Ar K
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓

96
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
it! do You Sc
4s Ar Ar Ca
4s Ar Ar K
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
21
2
20
1
19
↑↓

97
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
1 2
21
2
20
1
19
3d 4s Ar Ar Sc
4s Ar Ar Ca
4s Ar Ar K
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑
↑↓

98
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
it! do You Ti
3d 4s Ar Ar Sc
4s Ar Ar Ca
4s Ar Ar K
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
22
1 2
21
2
20
1
19
↑↓ ↑
↑↓

99
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
2 2
22
1 2
21
2
20
1
19
3d 4s Ar Ar Ti
3d 4s Ar Ar Sc
4s Ar Ar Ca
4s Ar Ar K
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑ ↑
↑↓ ↑
↑↓

100
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
3 2
23
2 2
22
1 2
21
2
20
1
19
3d 4s Ar Ar V
3d 4s Ar Ar Ti
3d 4s Ar Ar Sc
4s Ar Ar Ca
4s Ar Ar K
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑
↑↓ ↑ ↑
↑↓ ↑
↑↓

101
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
orbitals. filled completely and filled - half with
associated stability of measure extra an is There
3d 4s Ar Ar Cr
3d 4s Ar Ar V
3d 4s Ar Ar Ti
3d 4s Ar Ar Sc
4s Ar Ar Ca
4s Ar Ar K
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
5 1
24
3 2
23
2 2
22
1 2
21
2
20
1
19
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑
↑↓ ↑ ↑
↑↓ ↑
↑↓

102
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
5 2
25
3d 4s Ar Ar Mn
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
103
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
it! do You Fe
3d 4s Ar Ar Mn
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
26
5 2
25
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
104
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
6 2
26
5 2
25
3d 4s Ar Ar Fe
3d 4s Ar Ar Mn
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
105
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
7 2
27
6 2
26
5 2
25
3d 4s Ar Ar Co
3d 4s Ar Ar Fe
3d 4s Ar Ar Mn
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
106
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
8 2
28
7 2
27
6 2
26
5 2
25
3d 4s Ar Ar Ni
3d 4s Ar Ar Co
3d 4s Ar Ar Fe
3d 4s Ar Ar Mn
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
107
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
it! do You Cu
3d 4s Ar Ar Ni
3d 4s Ar Ar Co
3d 4s Ar Ar Fe
3d 4s Ar Ar Mn
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
29
8 2
28
7 2
27
6 2
26
5 2
25
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
108
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
reason. same y the essentiall for
and Cr like exception Another
3d 4s Ar Ar Cu
3d 4s Ar Ar Ni
3d 4s Ar Ar Co
3d 4s Ar Ar Fe
3d 4s Ar Ar Mn
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
10 1
29
8 2
28
7 2
27
6 2
26
5 2
25
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
109
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
10 2
30
10 1
29
8 2
28
7 2
27
6 2
26
5 2
25
3d 4s Ar Ar Zn
3d 4s Ar Ar Cu
3d 4s Ar Ar Ni
3d 4s Ar Ar Co
3d 4s Ar Ar Fe
3d 4s Ar Ar Mn
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
110
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
1 10 2
31
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ga
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
111
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
it! do You Ge
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ga
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
32
1 10 2
31
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
112
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
2 10 2
32
1 10 2
31
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ge
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ga
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
113
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
3 10 2
33
2 10 2
32
1 10 2
31
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar As
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ge
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ga
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
114
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
it! do You Se
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar As
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ge
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ga
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
34
3 10 2
33
2 10 2
32
1 10 2
31
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
115
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
4 10 2
34
3 10 2
33
2 10 2
32
1 10 2
31
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Se
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar As
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ge
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ga
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
116
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
5 10 2
35
4 10 2
34
3 10 2
33
2 10 2
32
1 10 2
31
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Br
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Se
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar As
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ge
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ga
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
117
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
6 10 2
36
5 10 2
35
4 10 2
34
3 10 2
33
2 10 2
32
1 10 2
31
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Kr
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Br
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Se
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar As
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ge
4p 3d 4s Ar Ar Ga
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
118
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations

Now we can write a complete set of quantum
numbers for all of the electrons in these three
elements as examples.

Na

Ca

Fe
• First for
11
Na.

When completed there must be one set of 4
quantum numbers for each of the 11 electrons in
Na
(remember Ne has 10 electrons)
[ ] [ ]
1
11
s 3 Ne Ne Na
ion Configurat 3p 3s

119
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- st
s
+


120
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
electrons s 1
1/2 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- nd
- st
s
¹
'
¹

+


121
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 0 0 2 e 3
electrons s 1
1/2 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- rd
- nd
- st
s
+
¹
'
¹

+


122
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
electrons s 2
1/2 0 0 2 e 4
1/2 0 0 2 e 3
electrons s 1
1/2 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
s
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹

+


123
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 1 - 1 2 e 5
electrons s 2
1/2 0 0 2 e 4
1/2 0 0 2 e 3
electrons s 1
1/2 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
s
+
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹

+


124
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 0 1 2 e 6
1/2 1 - 1 2 e 5
electrons s 2
1/2 0 0 2 e 4
1/2 0 0 2 e 3
electrons s 1
1/2 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- th
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
s
+
+
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹

+


125
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 1 1 2 e 7
1/2 0 1 2 e 6
1/2 1 - 1 2 e 5
electrons s 2
1/2 0 0 2 e 4
1/2 0 0 2 e 3
electrons s 1
1/2 - 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- th
- th
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
s
+ +
+
+
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹ +


126
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 1 1 2 e 8
1/2 1 1 2 e 7
1/2 0 1 2 e 6
1/2 1 - 1 2 e 5
electrons s 2
1/2 0 0 2 e 4
1/2 0 0 2 e 3
electrons s 1
1/2 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
s
− −
+ +
+
+
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹

+


127
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 0 1 2 e 9
1/2 1 1 2 e 8
1/2 1 1 2 e 7
1/2 0 1 2 e 6
1/2 1 - 1 2 e 5
electrons s 2
1/2 0 0 2 e 4
1/2 0 0 2 e 3
electrons s 1
1/2 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
s

− −
+ +
+
+
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹

+


128
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
electrons p 2
1/2 1 1 2 e 10
1/2 0 1 2 e 9
1/2 1 1 2 e 8
1/2 1 1 2 e 7
1/2 0 1 2 e 6
1/2 1 - 1 2 e 5
electrons s 2
1/2 0 0 2 e 4
1/2 0 0 2 e 3
electrons s 1
1/2 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
s
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− +

− −
+ +
+
+
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹

+


129
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
¦ electron s 3 1/2 0 0 3 e 11
electrons p 2
1/2 1 1 2 e 10
1/2 0 1 2 e 9
1/2 1 1 2 e 8
1/2 1 1 2 e 7
1/2 0 1 2 e 6
1/2 1 - 1 2 e 5
electrons s 2
1/2 0 0 2 e 4
1/2 0 0 2 e 3
electrons s 1
1/2 0 0 1 e 2
1/2 0 0 1 e 1
m m n
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
s
+
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− +

− −
+ +
+
+
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹

+


130
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
• Next we will do the same exercise for
20
Ca.

Again, when finished we must have one set of 4
quantum numbers for each of the 20 electrons in
Ca.

We represent the first 18 electrons in Ca with
the symbol [Ar].
[ ]
2
20
4s Ar [Ar] Ca
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓
131
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 ] Ar [
m m n
- th
s
+


132
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 ] Ar [
m m n
- th
- th
s
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


133
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
• Finally, we do the same exercise for
26
Fe.

We should have one set of 4 quantum numbers for
each of the 26 electrons in Fe.

To save time and space, we use the symbol
[Ar] to represent the first 18 electrons in Fe
[ ] [ ]
6 2
26
3d 4s Ar Ar Fe
ion Configurat 4p 4s 3d
↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓
134
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 ] Ar [
m m n
- th
s
+


135
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 ] Ar [
m m n
- th
- th
s
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


136
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 2 - 2 3 e 21
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 ] Ar [
m m n
- st
- th
- th
s
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


137
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
it! do You e 22
1/2 2 - 2 3 e 21
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 ] Ar [
m m n
- nd
- st
- th
- th
s
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


138
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 1 - 2 3 e 22
1/2 2 - 2 3 e 21
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 [Ar]
m m n
- nd
- st
- th
- th
s
+
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


139
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 0 2 3 e 23
1/2 1 - 2 3 e 22
1/2 2 - 2 3 e 21
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 [Ar]
m m n
- rd
- nd
- st
- th
- th
s
+
+
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


140
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 1 2 3 e 24
1/2 0 2 3 e 23
1/2 1 - 2 3 e 22
1/2 2 - 2 3 e 21
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 [Ar]
m m n
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
- th
- th
s
+ +
+
+
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


141
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
shell d filled - half
1/2 2 2 3 e 25
1/2 1 2 3 e 24
1/2 0 2 3 e 23
1/2 1 - 2 3 e 22
1/2 2 - 2 3 e 21
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 [Ar]
m m n
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
- th
- th
s
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ +
+ +
+
+
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


142
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
it! do You e 26
1/2 2 2 3 e 25
1/2 1 2 3 e 24
1/2 0 2 3 e 23
1/2 1 - 2 3 e 22
1/2 2 - 2 3 e 21
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 [Ar]
m m n
- th
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
- th
- th
s
+ +
+ +
+
+
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


143
The Periodic Table and
Electron Configurations
1/2 2 - 2 3 e 26
1/2 2 2 3 e 25
1/2 1 2 3 e 24
1/2 0 2 3 e 23
1/2 1 - 2 3 e 22
1/2 2 - 2 3 e 21
electrons s 4
1/2 0 0 4 e 20
1/2 0 0 4 e 19 [Ar]
m m n
- th
- th
- th
- rd
- nd
- st
- th
- th
s

+ +
+ +
+
+
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+


144
Synthesis Question

What is the atomic number of the element
that should theoretically be the noble gas
below Rn?

The 6 d’s are completed with element 112
and the 7p’s are completed with element
118. Thus the next noble gas (or perhaps
it will be a noble liquid) should be element
118.
145
Group Question

In a universe different from ours, the laws
of quantum mechanics are the same as
ours with one small change. Electrons in
this universe have three spin states, -1, 0,
and +1, rather than the two, +1/2 and -1
/2, that we have. What two elements in
this universe would be the first and
second noble gases? (Assume that the
elements in this different universe have
the same symbols as in ours.)
146
End of Chapter 5

The study of various
spectra is one of the
fundamental tools that
chemists apply to
numerous areas of
their work.

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