This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
If teachers need to better understand the curriculum ,
they need to retrace some of the thinking which has attempted to answer questions of WHY?. Why do we have kinder garden? Why has the method of teaching and reading has changed considerably during the past fifty years? Why has some schools substituted parent-teachers conferences for written reports?
The Filipino Nation. The weakness of the national moral character must first be remedied by the leaders of the new emerging nation through moral education HOME . Rizal’s main preoccupation was the formation of a new national community. education is indispensible to the task of nationbuilding and must occupy top priority . For Rizal. It is even higher than the political options of revolution and separation.
Hence. Rizal saw the necessity of setting up schools for his countrymen. People get the type of government they deserve : Like people. If the government is abusive it is because people allow it to be so. For Rizal. VIDEO . He envisioned the task of nation building as dependent upon education which must aim for moral regeneration. like government”. a literate society will opt for a literate leader. it is anxiomatic that a sick society will select a sick leader and a healthy society will get a healthy leader.
their private lives scrutinized . a secret society in the early days of Philippine Revolution placed a high premium on ethical behavior as a requirement for achieving its goal of union of vision and purpose and national emancipation through education. and those found to be not morally upright were excluded . Candidates were carefully screened . The Katipunan.
Noteworthy is the high dignity given to labor or blue collar jobs. It was to find expression in love of country and neighbor. one by Andres Bonifacio and the other by Emilio Jacinto. They had to abide to a code of ethics. this was similar with the code of ethics of Quezon. patience. The Katipuneros who were most farmers and laborers . Were exhorted to practice certain values such as calmness. firmness. Bonifacio’s Decalogue or KATUNGKULAN GAGAWIN NG MGA ANAK NG BAYAN was more religious in tone. . Two codes were proposed. and confidence in the daily work. Members were supposed to abandoned a disorderly life. Faith in God was the first commandment.
. Jacinto’s Kartilya on the other hand. Jacinto enshrined traditional Christian moral principles as well as the proper use of time. Work is something one has to be proud of. He condemn the excesses of the wealthy for their love of the “easy-go-lucky” lifestyle and their badhabits. keeping secrets. and the Confucian golden rule. chastity and respect for women. was more literary and emphasized the dignity of Filipino as a human being. Through the Kartilya.
A revolution which is external and internal must be grounded upon sound moral education. Mabini taught that there is a need to change the Filipinos way of behaving and thinking . Mabini saw the futility of peaceful means and joined the Revolution to become its sublime thinker and ideologue. He also emphasized that filipinos must renounced those bad habits inherited from the spaniards . The theoretical jsutificaiton of the Philippine Revolution and the articulation of the program fell upon Apolinario Mabini. Considered as the Filipino great intellectual thinker. and sound moral education must stand on solid principles.
lofe of country was second only to love of God. The individual must develop his faculties of the intellect and the will. He has to muster his talents so that he may contribute to the cause of justice. Transendings Bonifacio and Jacinto’s love of neighbor. The prosperity of the country must take precedence over one’s own welfare. According to Mabini.. This is similar to the DECS “Bayan muna bago ang sarili”. brothers and companions. This is Altruism in action. the common good and the human progress. he exhorted his countrymen to love one another not as neighbors only but as friends. .
It is also possible to trace the long tradition of moral education among the Filipinos beyond the Fillipino Urbana at Feliza. to arrive an awareness of a an even larger community. Balagtas’ Florante at Laura and the various versions of Pasyon and numerous others. Kabikolan. These concepts were inextricably connected to education with social and political consequences. The distinctive contribution of early Filipino Thinkers was that they ushered in the moral consciousness of the early Filipino beyond the borders of the family and its intricate extension and the wider limits of linguistic groups as for instance. Kapampangan. . Katagalugan.
Nonetheless. it cannot be universalized. Quezon’s philosophy of education is certainly local or Philippine in orientation. It is a reflection of the need of colonial people to upgrade themselves intellectually. . Hence. morally and economically. it is one of the most Filipino educational philosophies during the American Colonial period.
there are two objectives of Phlippine Education: (1) Education for Better citizenship and (2) Education as means of livelihood. Quezon stressed that the good of the state is paramount to the good of the individual. has the duty to mold the spirit of the youth in patriotism and sacrifice which can be done through education . According to Quezon. therefore. He emphasized that the primary objective of the government in educating filipinos is not only for the purpose of having means of livelihood but also for the purpose of enabling them to serve the nation better. The state.
He stressed compulsory education in a free public primary education and in citizenship training for adults. For higher education however. He also believed in government scholarships in all branches or learning and vocational and agricultural training in intermediate and high schools. Quezon has envisioned a complete adequate system of public education. Hence. Quezon believed that only those intellectually capable must go through a college or university education. The average student should be encourage to pursue vocational education. poor but gifted young men and women should be encouraged to develop their talents since the government could create for them a large number of scholarships . . He should not be ashamed of it because the true worth of man is not on his diploma but in his proficiency in his chosen line of work.
self control and family unity. It prescribed five traits of traditional filipino character such as: courage. chastity. It is the duty of schools to develop these virtues. Teodoro M. Kalaw wrote the “Cinco Reglas de Nuestra Moral Antigua” published in 1935 . courtesy. .
values ingrained in the ilocano character and reinforced by Protestant work ethic. preserve and respect all the fundamental freedoms guaranteed in the constiturion. attempted to articulate Filipino philosophy of education. observe the merit system in the government service. one of the early products of the philippine educational system. freedom and happiness. For the purpose of preserving the fundamentals enunciated in the constitution. Dr. and make democracy a living reality. Noteworthy among them are hard work and thrift. among others. conserve the principle of equality. develop social justice. statesman and Protestant lay leader. property. keep over aloft the torch of education. liberty and happiness of each citizen. His education is centered on what is called “tayo” concept. all schools in the country must preserve solidarity of the Filipinos. Osias believes that education must secure for every Filipino the fullest measure of efficiency. Dr. . work out for proper equilibrium in the economic order. Osias suggested that. An Ilocos born educator. promote peace and national defense. uphold the inalienable rights of life.
Apart from accidental difficulties such as money. There is a tendency which is beginning to gain some voice authority in the Philippines. its realization offers so many difficulties that until now little has been done about it. time and so on. Dalupan and Aquino realized the need for liberal education in order to offset this general unpreparedness of college students. the major reason which keeps the plan from being realized lies in the deficiency of education preparatory to college and university studies. . For this op[tion to be meaningful there is a need for the youth to be adequately educated of the elementary and high school levels. The need is evident and there seem to be a few who directly deny its desirability. This trend is that of the need for liberal education in order to produce truly educated Filipinos. Thus Sinco. but despite all the talk.
can lead to fullness of self-fulfillment. in turn. techniques. psychology.the science of teaching. content. In similar vein. That.those responsible for the education of the citizens must also educate them in the fullness of their rational nature so that he may see life steadily and as a whole. Aquino stressed that. . while there is a need to teach prospective teachers methods. pedagogy.
all around character and welladjusted personality. Therefore. it is imperative. in the parallel vein. had stressed that the Deweyan philosophy is basic in the thought and practice of most of the educational leaders today. Orata recommends that schools heavily stress on vocational education as well as language proficiency in the vernacular in the early years. This stress in vocational education is given expression in the Education Act of 1982 which mandates manpower training and also in the EDCOM Report of 1991 which recommends school training and the strengthening of the Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education. The direct aim of education. . The reason is that majority of those who enter the elementary school never finish high school and a very small number finish college education. according to Orata is the direct development. Fresnoza. declared Orata to train them for the life they will be leading after they leave school.
. The primary purpose of education according to Palma. is to develop the individual to his highest efficiency so that he can be of use to himself and to the community. Such a concept is based on the philosophy if altruism and is closely allied to citizenshop.
Gregorio crusaded for a learner-centered educative process. He also envisioned an educational environment wherein the theory of self-activity is the basis off all learning and where the development of the whole child is the primary objective of education. That is why. . Assignments are the pupil’s sailing direction toward the accomplishment of the desired goal. One of the important elements in classroom management is the assignment which is carried on outside the classroom. teachers should always give assignments to the pupils in order for them to be stimulated always to achieve certain goals.
. are the Filipino socio-cultural values and traditions. student guidance. Bocobo became president of the University of the Philippines in 1934. the spirit of nationalism and love of country must serve as the foundation of education. He was also devoutly religious. urging the students to strive for basic virtues. The Bases of education in the Philippines. urging students to always go to church. Bocobo was also a firm believer in the importance of education for women. The educand must be prepared. He implemented improvement of the teaching method. declared Bocobo. In order to arrive at a truly educated Filipino. and the formation of the alumni institute. He wanted teaching to be not only about doling out knowledge or moral principles but to inspire the students to live up to those principles. also for a democratic way of life and thinking. He was known to be a moralist and a disciplinarian. he expelled a student for printing a poem that was deemed to be immoral and even suspended a whole batch of students for violating the dance regulations. He was very strict and as a result. a reading period before the final examinations.
Laurel’s thoughts heavily influenced the establishment of the Board of national Education. he declared that a “free and sovereign country should provide for an educational system that is responsive to the needs of the people and adapted to their idiosyncrasies. Consequently. Cognizant of the urgency in establishing correct moral and educational orientation for Filipinos. traditions. and basic principles. Dr. Historical accounts showed that Jose P. . He is proponent of a truism that a progressive people must keep pace with the progress of the times. Laurel was a man of integrity and probity and of strong convictions. Committee on Education of the Senate. of which he was an ex-officio member as chairman. customs.
Emerita Quito of De la Salle University recommends certain moves to motivate philosophy professors to improve themselves . She also hopes that the repeal of Spanish law may give way to more courses of humanities. and (3) Philosophy is an open market of ideas . Quito observed that (1) Philosophy should sub serve theology. and on tapping international funding agencies for philosophical researches and international philosophy conventions in the Philippines. on using the Filipino language in teaching of philosophy and philosophy education. A distinguish woman thinker. Dr. thus advancing the cause of liberal education. (2) Philosophy reduces all arguments into mathematical language. Finally.
When American forces occupied the Philippines. so to say the stamp which it bears today. On the first steps towards the extension of democracy was the ordinance requiring the putting up of the Philippine public school system for universal education. This group remarkably did well in forming the new generation of Filipino teachers. a generation which was to be viewed differently from their Spanish trained predecessors. many American soldiers from the occupation forces stayed on to teach. Other professional teachers known as the Thomasites. They were quite radically distinct in their philosophical orientation . To hasten this educational system. were brought in from the United States and this group gave the system. they carried with them the same views with the hope that such views can be made to work elsewhere almost as easily as it had been in the United States.
and Franklin whose pragmatism and curiosity influenced American schools towards functionalism . The Philosophy of American school system was to a great degree. . Jefferson who fought hard for the universal free education. The roots of that philosophy can be traced back to the minds of Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson who laid down the basic tenets which later became part and parcel of American Education. He made his own system which was deviation from the usual classical schooling given in other colonial colleges of America. He prescribed early training for the special field in which they were to work later on. inculcated in the young teachers.
He was a well known figure who got the honor of being the Father of American Public school system. . Mann has resigned from his post as Secretary of Education of the state of Massachusetts even before the saw his ideas in realization. Because of such opposition. He introduced to the world the word “ PROGRESSIVISM” in education. Another influential American-Educator philosopher was HORACE MANN. The most influential American Educator philosopher was JOHN DEWEY. He was the author or a Move to finance schools by means of public taxes to which the religious sector vehemently opposed.
Dewey state that man in his own environment are always in the state of change. there is no such thing as a stable nature. the curriculum must be adapted to meet every new evolution and development in the society. Therefore. The general theory is that. but as conglomeration of more or less similar beings. not as an intrinsically unified group. This job Dewey did. Growth is the alpha and the Omega of education. Man can be said to belong to the human species. Darwins theories had already been accepted by anthropologists. Commencing with the principle that all reality is change. he believed that education is synonymous with continuous growth. JOHN DEWEY . Darwin’s theories pertaining to the evolutionary process did its toll. Therefore. What is lacking only was that someone should draw their conclusions and apply them to the field of knowledge affecting man.
Today. We are confronted with the problem of education which appears to be very unique. more than ever. we now meet with criticism that education is not what it used to be. Philippine education is at the crossroads. There is apparently some truth to this accusation since it is perceived that the general caliber of students today is lower than the average student of prewar days. Aside from the basic problem. .