# Presentation on Current Transformer

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Instrument Transformer
A transformer intended to supply measuring instruments, meters, relays and other similar apparatus.

Types Of Instrument Transformer
 Current Transformer  Voltage Transformer

Standards Referred For Current Transformer
 IEC 60044-1(current transformer)  IS 2705 (Code of practice for current

transformer)
 BS-3938 (specification for current transformer)

Definition and why we use Current Transformer?
Current transformer is an instrument transformer which secondary current follow the linearity with primary current and it is lower than the primary current in normal condition. Why we use current transformer?  The equipment, which use the out-put of the current transformer can not be rated up to the system current rating due to the cost and size will increase very much, that’s why we use current transformer

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Types Of Current Transformer (According To winding Construction).
 Window Type  Bar Type  Split core Type  Wound Type

(According to tank Type)  Live Tank Type  Dead Tank Type

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 Window Type  Bar Type

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 Split Core Type  Wound Type

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 Live Tank  Dead Tank

Some Basic Terms
 Rated Primary Current  Rated Transformation Ratio  Actual Transformation Ratio

Errors in Current Transformer
 Ratio Error

% Error = (Kn.Is-Ip)x 100 Ip Kn: rated transformation ratio Is: Actual Secondary Current Ip: Actual Primary Current

Phase error
 Phase error occur due to the excitation current,

which is not in the phase of primary current.

Composite error
 This is the difference between the actual R.M.S.

secondary current to the ideal R.M.S. secondary current. It also include the ratio error and phase error.

Why ratio Error occur?
 Secondary Ampere Turns = primary ampere

turns- Exciting ampere turns

Classes in C.T.
 Metering Class  General protection class  Special protection Class

Metering Class C.T.
 Must be accurate over a range of current .

 Desirable to saturate early to protect the meter.
 I.S.F. is important.

General Protection Class
 Need to operate at high fault current with

acceptable accuracy  Must have high excitation voltage to avoid saturation  Multiple ratios.  ALF is important. 5 P 20 at 5VA Burden

Accuracy

Protection Class ALF

Terms use for describing the characteristics of CT
1. Knee point voltage. That point on the magnetizing curve where an increase of 10% in the flux density (voltage) causes an increase of 50% in the magnetizing current. Vkp=K x If x (Rct+Rl+Rr) CTR
K : Constant If: Max. fault Current CTR: CT Ratio Rr: Relay Burden Rct: CT sec. winding res. Rl: Lead Resistance

magnetizing curve

2 . Burden
Burden is the total impedance connected to the secondary winding of the transformer.

Burden = Connected equipment impedance + connected lead impedance + Internal resistance of secondary winding

3. Exciting current
Current required to produce the flux in the secondary winding for inducing the voltage.

4. Thermal rating factor.(Current Transformer)
Current transformer continues current rating can be increased beyond the nominal rating by multiplying with the thermal rating factor without exceeding thermal limit. Such as 1200/5 CT have factor 1.33 then it’s rating can be 1200 x 1.33 = 1596.

5. Remnant flux
that value of flux which would remain in the core 3 min after the interruption of an exciting current of sufficient magnitude to induce the saturation flux (Ψs).

Questions?
 Why current transformer can’t be open

circuited? If primary current exists and the secondary circuit of a CT is closed, the winding builds and maintains a counter or back EMF to the primary magnetizing force. when the secondary is opened with current in the primary, the counter EMF is removed; and the primary magnetizing force builds up an extremely high voltage in the secondary, which is dangerous to personnel and can destroy the current transformer.

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 What will be the current rating of secondary

winding? is it 1A or 5A? Current transformer rating will 1A or 5A it also depend on the equipment distance from the current transformer for which the current transformer will be use. If the distance is short then we can use the C.T. of 5A rating. But if the distance is long then we will use 1A rating C.T. because due to the increase in distance losses also increase if we increase.

Civil input
Quantity Height (mm) Width(mm) Oil (lt.) C.T. weight(Kg) Total weight (Kg) Height from the ground(mm) 145 Kv 2810+100 450+5 100 470 670 5251+100 245 Kv 3675+100 320+3 170 740 920 6116+100 470 2100 2600 7641+100 3500 10310+40 440 Kv 5200+100 765 Kv 7869+40 1000+10

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 Short circuit forces depend on the span length.
 Dynamic forces if any will be furnished by the

manufacturer
 Weight of the conductor will be furnished from the name

plate drawing.

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Thank you