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REFINING PROCESSES

A.DATTA

LECT04

Diagram of Refinery Units

Crude Oil
Shorter Chain Molecules

Gas treatment
H2S H2S

Sulphur Recovery

Sulphur

Desulphurisation

Platformer

Petrol Kerosine

Gas Oil

Vacuum Gas Oil


Long Residue

Diesel

Hyrdrocracker

Distillation
Long Chain Molecules

High Vacuum Separation


Waxy Distillate

Bitumen

Butane De-asphalting

Hydrogen

Hydrogen Manufacturing Unit

De-asphalted oil DAO

Roads

Asphalt

Fuel oil

The Process Units


Natural Gas Syngas and Reformates
Naphtha Refinery Gas

Plat HDT Split


RG H2

DePr
RG

RG

Fuel Gas

Sulphur

Regular Mogas

Condensates and Low Sulphur Crudes High Sulphur Crudes Imported Residues

Kero

Mogas Blend

Premium Mogas

CDU1

LGO HGO

RG H2

HDS2

Kero / Avtur CO2

Long Residue Automotive Gasoils and Marine

Naphtha

GasOil Blend RG

Low Sulphur Crudes High Sulphur Crudes

Kero

H2

HDS1

HMU
H2 RG

CDU2

LGO HGO

HCU
FuelOil Blend

Light Fuel Oil Heavy Fuel Oil Bunkers

Imported Residues

Long Residue

HVU1 BBU

HVU2 BDU

Refinery Fuel Bitumen 80/100 Bitumen 180/200 Bitumen 45/55

Approx 7 Barrels to the Tonne

7% 30% 14% 32% 17%

FUEL AND LOSS

MOGAS

JET/ KERO GASOILS FUEL OILS


A Typical Crude Barrel

Crude

The Process Units


High Vaccuum Unit

Distiller Units Platformer Hydrocracker

Bitumen Unit Gasoil Hydrotreater Depropaniser

Kerosine Hydrodesulphuriser Butane Deasphalting unit

Hydrogen Manufacturing unit Product Blending

Sulphur Recovery

Products out

The initial separation takes place in the distillation Column


The Crude is first heated in a furnace to a temperature of 360 oC

Distillation

It enters the column and vapours and liquids separate The light vapours rise to the top whilst the heavier liquids fall to the bottom

Gases +Tops + Naphtha

Kerosene

Crude

Light Gasoil Heavy Gasoil

Furnace Long Residue

Distillation Column

Lower Boiling

Crude

Higher Boiling

Distillation Column

Desulphurisation

Sour Tops + Naphtha Sour Kerosene Sour Gasoil Hydrogen

Under Pressure and Heat Reaction takes place and Hydrogen bonds with Sulphur to form H2s

H2S
Reactor
Catalyst

Desulphurised Tops + Naphtha Desulphurised Kerosene Desulphurised Gasoil

Desulphurisation Process

PLATFORMING
Increases low Octane Naphtha to high Octane Platformate Uses Heat and Pressure in a Reactor Hydrogen is evolved in the process Platinum Catalyst assists the process

PLATFORMING

Platinum Reforming

Platformer Unit
50 OCTANE

Naphtha From Splitter Furnace


Hydrogen Recycle Hydrogen To Users

520C 18 barg

40C

High Octane Platformate


Blending Tank

515C

Separator

Reactor

100 OCTANE

High Vacuum & Bitumen Units

Vacuum

Gases

Bitumen Feed Tanks

Vacuum Gas Oil

Long Residue

High Vacuum Unit - HVU 1

180 Pen Bitumen

Gases

To Refinery Gas System

Vacuum Gas Oil

To Hydrocracker for furthur Processing

Truck Loading and shipping

180 Pen Bitumen

Blowing Column

45/55 Pen Bitumen

Hydrocracking

What is Hydrocracking ??
Production of high quality light products from heavy oils, in the presence of Hydrogen.

Hydrocracker Overview
Plant gas Adip gas Butane
1400 t/d 10 t/d 70 t/d 145 t/d

Hydrogen Manufacturing Unit

Hydrogen
140 t/d 120 t/d Gas

1100 t/d

Steam

Waxy Distilate

3200 t/d

Tops/Naphtha

HCU
Hydrocracker

Kerosine Gasoil
2000 t/d

900 t/d

High Vacuum Unit 5500 t/d

HVU

VGO
200 t/d

DAO
1000 t/d

Long Residue

BUTANE

DE-ASPHALTING UNIT

BDU
Short Residue
1900 t/d

Asphalt
900 t/d

Sulphur Recovery Unit


Converts H2S into Sulphur For use by Fertiliser Companies

Sulphur Recovery Unit

H2S Feed

Main Furnace
Liquid Sulphur

A 59%

Fuel Gas

Reactor Line Burner Waste Heat Boiler Line Burner


B C Liquid Sulphur

Fuel Gas

Stack

Fuel Gas

Sulphur Pit

Incinerator Reactor

Line Burner

Liquid Sulphur

Coalescer

SCOT Unit ENVIRONMENTAL


LOWERS EMISSIONS

SCOT Feed Gas

SCOT Unit

Air FG

To SRU

SCOT Burner

Reactor

KO Drum

Upper Quench Column

Waste Heat Boiler

Blower

Lean ADIP

Quench Water KO Drum Cooler

Semi Rich ADIP

Lower Quench Column


To SWS

Absorber Colum (ADIP)