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Training the Work Force

2001 by Prentice Hall 8-1

Determine when employees need training and the best type of training given a companys circumstances. Recognize the characteristics that make training programs successful. Weigh the costs and benefits of a computer-based training program. Design job aids as complements or alternatives to training.
2001 by Prentice Hall 8-2

The process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance.

2001 by Prentice Hall


An effort to provide employees with the abilities the organization will need in the future.

2001 by Prentice Hall


Training versus Development

Focus Scope Time Frame Goal Current job Individual employees Immediate Fix current skill deficit

Current and future jobs Work group organization Long term Prepare for future work demands

2001 by Prentice Hall


Challenges in Training
Is training the solution to the problem? Are the goals of training clear and realistic? Is training a good investment? Will the training work?
2001 by Prentice Hall 8-6

The Training Process

Needs Assessment Phase Organization Needs Task Needs Person Needs Development and Conduct of Training Location Presentation Type


2001 by Prentice Hall


Example of Development of Behavioral Training Objectives

Overall Objective Specific Content Dimensions

Increase Interpersonal Sensitivity Listening Skills

1. Supervisor summarizes by key points of action plan at end of discussion. 2. Supervisor does not interrupt the speech of others. 3. Supervisor provides an estimate of how long before a request can be filled.

Feedback Skills
1. Supervisor describes the issue in concrete terms. 2. Supervisor attacks the problem, not the performer. 3. Supervisor provides feedback in a timely fashion.

Example Behavioral Objectives

2001 by Prentice Hall

Guidelines for Using On-the-Job Training

Managers Should Select OJT When:
Participatory learning is essential. One-on-one training is necessary. Five or fewer employees need training. Taking employees out of the work environment for training is not cost-effective. Classroom instruction is not appropriate. Equipment and safety restrictions make other training methods ineffective. Frequent changes in standard operation procedures allow minimal time for retraining. Work in progress cannot be interrupted. The task for which the training is designed is infrequently performed. Immediate changes are necessary to meet new safety requirements.

2001 by Prentice Hall

Guidelines for Using On-the-Job Training (cont.)

Managers Should Select OJT When:
A defined proficiency level or an individual performance test is required for certification or qualification.

What OJT Should Cover:

Large or secured equipment. Delicate or calibrated instruments. Tools and equipment components of a complex system. Delicate or dangerous procedures. Classified information retained in a secured area.
2001 by Prentice Hall 8-10

Computer-based Training Benefits and Drawbacks

More cost-effective than classroom training Time efficient

Many programs do not assess employees progress so managers cannot measure the employees skill level. Many programs lack a feedback mechanism to help employees determine how much theyve learned.

Targeted at crucial skills

Allows employees to progress at their own pace Doesnt hamper productivity
2001 by Prentice Hall


Sources of Customer Dissatisfaction with IBM Telephone Service

Calls Not Returned 24.1% Voice Systems and Message Expectations 18.1% Operator Assistance 6.7% Excessive Rings 4.3% Telephone Tag 2.4%

Getting to Knowledgeable Person or Backup 44%

2001 by Prentice Hall


IBM Senior Vice Presidents Memo to All Managers


Overall, the rating of our telephone service by customers and internal users is poor. Together, we are going to fix this problem, and fix it fast.
2001 by Prentice Hall 8-13

Steps to Skill Improvement at IBM

1. Build in commitment. Gain support of management. 2. Thoroughly analyze the problem. Is it important? What is the real problem? 3. Gain line support. 4. Develop training strategies. Is there more than one group of employees that needs training? Design material appropriate to each groups needs and motivation levels. 5. Develop motivational strategies. Take steps to heighten awareness of issues. Signal importance of issue through measurement and recognition programs.
2001 by Prentice Hall 8-14

Techniques to Increase Creativity

Creativity can be learned and developed. The following techniques can be used to improve a trainees skill in generating innovative ideas and solutions to problems. 1. Analogies and Metaphors drawing comparisons or finding similarities can improve insight into a situation or problem. 2. Free Association freely associating words to describe a problem can lead to unexpected solutions. 3. Personal Analogy trying to see oneself as the problem can lead to fresh perspectives and, possibly, effective solutions. 4. Mind Mapping generating topics and drawing lines to represent the relationships among them can help to identify all the issues and their linkages.

2001 by Prentice Hall


Suggestions for the Successful Implementation of a Literacy Program

Be sensitive in your approach to skills assessment.

Tie the curriculum as closely as possible to what workers do.

Include both managers and employees in the development stage of the program. Align the program with company objectives and job requirements.

Be flexible about when and where training is held and provide incentives for participation.
Provide for self-paced learning. Use a variety of training tools.

Provide ongoing feedback.

Ensure employee confidentiality. Get the support of top management for the program.
2001 by Prentice Hall 8-16

Four Measurement Levels Employed by Garrett Engine Division

Level Type of Measurement

2 3 4

Participants reaction to the training at the time of the training. Participants learning of the content of the training. Participants use of their new skills and knowledge back on the job. Companys return on the training investment.

2001 by Prentice Hall


Performance Levels of Training and Control Groups at Garrett Engine Division

Response Time
Training Group Before training After training Control Group1 Before training After training
1 The

Completion Total Down Estimated Time Time Cost

4.8 hours 4.1 hours

13.6 hours 11.7 hours

18.4 hours 15.8 hours

$1,341 $1,156

4.4 hours 4.4 hours

11.6 hours 11.7 hours

16.0 hours 16.1 hours

$1,165 $1,211

control group was not trained. The numbers cited here for the control group were compiled before and after the training group underwent training.
2001 by Prentice Hall 8-18

ROI After Four Average Workweeks at Garrett Engine Division

$55 (average savings per job) 55 (jobs per week) 4 (number of weeks)

x x

= $12,100 (benefits) - $5,355 (cost of training) = $6,745 (net benefits)

6,745 = 1.26 = 126% ROI 5,355

2001 by Prentice Hall


SocializationDo It Yourself!
Get to know people in the organization, especially those who can tell you what it takes to succeed. Make it a goal to get to know four new people in the first two weeks on the job.

Have a meeting with your boss within the first month to get an informal sense of how you are performing so far.

Pick a reasonable project and complete it within your first two months on the job. Completing the project will not only show initiative, it will probably introduce you to other parts of the organization and further immerse you in the culture.
2001 by Prentice Hall 8-20

SocializationDo It Yourself! (cont.)

Write you own job description within the first two months on the job. Indicate what it is you really do in this job. This description can be used as a way to check with others, including your boss, as to whether that is what you should be doing. At the very least, people may be impressed with your motivation and diligence.


Treat months three and four like the first two months on the job. Commit to reenergizing yourself and renewing your enthusiasm for your new job. Get to know even more people, pick another project, and get more feedback!

2001 by Prentice Hall