Creswell Mixed Methods | Qualitative Research | Quantitative Research

      

Briefly History Why Mixed Methods? Type of Research designs Criteria for Choosing a Strategies Alternative Strategies and Visual Models Data Collection Procedures Data Analysis and Validation Procedures

Report Presentation Structure
7/30/2012

3

1959: Concept of mixing different methods by Campbell & Fiske.
(Psychologists)

 

1973: Combined the Qualitative & Quantitative data by S.D. Sieber. 1979:
Converging or triangulating different Qualitative & Quantitative data sources by Jick.

1989-2003: Expanded procedures for Mixed methods By Tashakkori
& Teddli and then Creswell.

7/30/2012

4

explanations or examples  Qualitative research provides data about meaning and context regarding the people and environments of study › Findings are often not generalizable because of the small numbers & narrow range of participants  Both methods have strengths and weaknesses › When used together. reasons. Quantitative data can reveal generalizable information for a large group of people › These data often fail to provide specific answers. these methods can be complimentary 7/30/2012 5 .

and closed-ended) in response to research questions.• The collection of both qualitative and quantitative data (open. • Persuasive and rigorous procedures for the qualitative and quantitative methods • The integration of these two data sources (merging. connecting. embedding) • An approach to research that has a philosophical foundation 7/30/2012 5 .

generalizability. validity. control. hypothesis. instruments) • Researcher reduced the inquiry to a small number of variables to study and a large number of people • • • Researcher asks specific closed-ended questions Researcher analyzes numbers Researcher places importance on reliability. and lack of bias • Researcher writes the report using a standard structure 7/30/2012 5 . replicability.• Researcher makes decisions before study (variables.

literary structure 7/30/2012 5 . context. and self- reflexivity • Researcher writes the report using a flexible.• • Researcher makes decisions based on views of participants Researcher opens the inquiry up to understand the complexity of the situation • Researcher asks open-ended questions – single phenomenon • • Researcher analyzes words and images Researcher places emphasis on individual meaning.

• The insufficient argument – either quantitative or qualitative may be insufficient by itself • Multiple angles argument – quantitative and qualitative approaches provide different “pictures” • The more-evidence-the-better argument – combined quantitative and qualitative provides more evidence • Community of practice argument – mixed methods may be the preferred approach within a scholarly community • Eager-to-learn argument – it is the latest methodology 7/30/2012 5 .

• • Is the basic definition of mixed methods research provided? Does the reader have a sense for the potential use of a mixed method strategy? • Are the criteria identified for choosing a mixed method strategy? • • • • Is the strategy identified. and are its criteria for selection given? Is a visual model presented that illustrate the research strategy? Is the proper notion used in presenting the visual model? Are procedures of data collection and analysis mentioned as they relate to the model? 7/30/2012 5 .

• Are the sampling strategies for both qualitative and quantitative data collection mentioned? Do they relate to the strategy? • Are specific data analysis procedures are indicated? Do they relate to the strategy? • Are the procedures for validating both the qualitative and quantitative data discussed? • Is the narrative structure mentioned? Does it relate to the type of mixed method strategy being used? 7/30/2012 5 .

such as survey • Narratives •Phenomenologies •Ethnographies •Grounded theory •Case Studies • Sequential •Concurrent •Transformative 7/30/2012 6 .Experimental designs. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Quantitative research Methods Qualitative research Methods Mixed Methods Research Methods • Experimental designs •Non.Quantitative.

Tashakkori and Teddlie 1998) have elaborated on the criteria that go into choosing the mixed method approach  Four decisions go into selecting a mixed methods strategy 7/30/2012 5 .   Convey the specific strategy for the data collection Identify the criteria they employ for choosing the strategy Authors(Greene and Cracelli 1997.

Four decisions go into selecting a mixed methods strategy Implementation No Sequence Concurrent SequentialQuantitative first SequentialQualitative first Priority Integration Theoretical Perspective Equal At data collection At data analysis At data interpretation With some combination Explicit Qualitative Quantitative Implicit 7/30/2012 7 .

 What is implementation sequence of the quantitative and qualitative data collection in the proposed study?  What priority will be given to the quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis?  At what stage in the research project will the quantitative and qualitative data and finding be integrated?  Will an overall theoretical perspective (e.g. gender. lifestyle. race/ ethnicity. class) be used in the study? 7/30/2012 8 ..

Sequential Explanatory Design QUAN Data Collection QUAN Data Analysis Qual Data Collection Qual Data Analysis Interpretation of Entre analysis 7/30/2012 9 .

Sequential Exploratory Design QUAL Data Collection QUAL Data Analysis Quan Data Collection Quan Data Analysis Interpretation of Entre Analysis 7/30/2012 10 .

Ideology. Framework QUAN qual Vision. Framwork 7/30/2012 11 . Advocacy.Sequential Transformative Design QUAL quan Vision. Ideology. Advocacy.

Concurrent Triangulation Strategy QUAN QUAN Data Collection QUAL QUAL Data Collection Quan Data Analysis Data Results Compared Qual Data Analysis 7/30/2012 12 .

Concurrent Nested Strategy Analysis of Findings Analysis of Findings 7/30/2012 13 .

Concurrent Transformative Strategy 7/30/2012 14 .

Research. purposeful sampling is used to that individuals are selected because they have experienced the central phenomenon. Identify and be specific about the type of data.  Recognize that quantitative data often involve random sampling. Although reduction information to numbers is the approach used in quantitative research. it is also used in qual. 7/30/2012 15 . so that each individual has no equal probability of being selected and the sample can be generalized to the larger population. Some forms of data such as interviews and observations can be either quantitative or qualitative. In qualitative data collection.

Then qualitative observations and coding and thematic analysis within an ethnographic design might be mentioned for the second phase. in a sequential explanatory model. For e.g. Relate the procedures specifically to the visual model. A discussion of this approach might include describing the use of survey data collection followed by both descriptive and inferential data analysis in the first phase. the general procedures can be detailed even further. 7/30/2012 16 .

Some of the more popular approaches: Data transformation Explore outliers Instrument development Examine multiple levels Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 7/30/2012 17 .It’s related to the type of research strategy chosen for the procedures.

then counting the number of times they occur in the text data. Elham Ahmadnezhad. For instance. This quantification of qualitative data enables a researcher to compare quantitative results with the qualitative data. in a factor analysis of data from a scale on an instrument. Mixed Methods 7/30/2012 24 . the researcher may create factors or themes that then can be compared with themes from the qualitative database.Data transformation: In the concurrent strategies involve creating codes and themes qualitatively.

Elham Ahmadnezhad. an analysis of quantitative data in the first phase can yield extreme or outlier cases. Mixed Methods 7/30/2012 18 . Follow-up qualitative interviews with these outlier cases can provide insight about why they diverged from the quantitative sample.Explore outliers: In a sequential model.

final phase might be to validate the instrument with large sample representative of a population. use these statements as specific items and the themes for scales to create a survey instrument that is grounded in the views of the participants.Instrument development: In a sequential approach. A third. obtain themes and specific statements from participants in an initial qualitative data collection. In the next phase. Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 7/30/2012 26 .

Examine multiple levels: in a concurrent  nested model. Elham Ahmadnezhad. collect qualitative interviews (e. At the same time. conduct a survey at one level (e. with individuals) to explore the phenomenon with specific individuals in families.g. with families) to gather quantitative results about a sample. Mixed Methods 7/30/2012 27 ..g.

It is necessary the validation of both qualitative  and quantitative phases of study. Mixed Methods 7/30/2012 19 . for the qualitative data. the strategies that will be used to check the accuracy of the findings need to be mentioned. Elham Ahmadnezhad. Each of methods has the specific ways.

Some of the more popular approaches:  Data transformation: In the concurrent strategies involve creating codes and themes qualitatively. For instance. then counting the number of times they occur in the text data. 7/30/2012 17 . in a factor analysis of data from a scale on an instrument. the researcher may create factors or themes that then can be compared with themes from the qualitative database.It’s related to the type of research strategy chosen for the procedures. This quantification of qualitative data enables a researcher to compare quantitative results with the qualitative data.

use these statements as specific items and the themes for scales to create a survey instrument that is grounded in the views of the participants. Follow-up qualitative interviews with these outlier cases can provide insight about why they diverged from the quantitative sample.  Instrument development: In a sequential approach. conduct a survey at one level (e. with families) to gather quantitative results about a sample. an analysis of quantitative data in the first phase can yield extreme or outlier cases. collect qualitative interviews (e. obtain themes and specific statements from participants in an initial qualitative data collection. Explore outliers: In a sequential model. with individuals) to explore the phenomenon with specific individuals in families. 7/30/2012 18 . final phase might be to representative of a population. At the same time.. A third.g.g. validate the instrument with large sample  Examine multiple levels: in a concurrent nested model. In the next phase.

the strategies that will be used to check the accuracy of the findings need to be mentioned. It is necessary the validation of both qualitative and quantitative phases of study. Each of methods has the specific ways. 7/30/2012 19 . for the qualitative data.

Thanks for the privilege of being a part of you. 7/30/2012 22 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful