Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens

Chapter I.
Introduction
Statistical data, international associations EDANA, INDA

bonded by friction.Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens Definition of nonwoven textile (ISO 9092 1988) A manufactured sheet. a material shall be regarded as a nonwoven if 1) more than 50% by mass of its fibrous content is made up of fibres (excluding chemically digested vegetable fibres) with a length to diameter ratio greater than 300. or. or felted by wet-milling. web or batt of directionally or randomly orientated fibres. To distinguish wetlaid nonwovens from wetlaid papers. stitch-bonded incorporating binding yarns or filaments. knitted. They may be staple or continuous filaments or be formed in situ. tufted. The fibres may be of natural or man-made origin. whether or not additionally needled.40 g/cm3 . excluding paper (see note) and products which are woven. and/or cohesion and/or adhesion. if the conditions in 1) do not apply. then 2) if the following conditions are fulfilled: more than 30% by mass of its fibrous content is made up of fibres (excluding chemically digested vegetable fibres) with a length to diameter ratio greater than 300 and its density is less than 0.

Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens Mechanical technology within scheme of nonwovens Scheme of nonwovens consists of the web formation and web bonding WEB FORMATION WET LAID random layed fibers DRY LAID CARDING fibers layed in parallel. crosswise and perpendicularly AIR LAID random layed fibers SPUN LAID SPUNBOND MELTBLOWN ELECTROSPINNING mainly random layed fibers .

Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens WEB BONDING MECHANICAL NEEDLE PUNCH SPUN LACED (STITCH BONDED) (TUFTING) THERMAL CALENDERING THROUGH AIR BONDING SONIC BONDING CHEMICAL IMPREGNATING FOAM COATING SPRAYING PRINT BONDING .

Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens Statistical data from Czech Republic production of selected commodities in tons per year 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 cotton yarn flax yarn worsted wool yarn sem worsted wool i yarn nonwovens netkané textilie (tones/year) .

millions tons 1400 1200 1000 1000 Tons 800 600 400 200 0 1985 1990 1995 T ime (ye a rs ) 2000 2005 25 20 15 10 5 0 1994 2004 2009 9.1 2.Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens Nonwoven production in Europe and in the world P ro duc tio n o f N o nwo ve ns in E uro pe (s o urc e E D A N A ) Billions dollars.4 16.3 .5 6.4 B illions dollars M illions tons Worldwide Outlook for Nonwovens Production 23.2 4.

1 0 Spunlaid Carded Airlaid Wetlaid Source: EDANA 2001 2002 2003 .Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens Production of nonwovens technologies in Europe Production of Nonwovens by Web-Forming Process 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 Million tons 0.

5 illion t s) on Spu laid n 41% Carded 47% Wet laid 4% Airlaid 8% Source: INDA .Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens Production of nonwovens technologies in the world Europe Production of Nonwovens Technology in the year 2003 (1.29 m illion tons) Spunlaid 42% Carded 41% Wetlaid 8% Airlaid 9% W w e Prod ct orld id u ion of N w on oven Techn s olog y in th y r 2 0 (4 m e ea 0 4 .

Applications of nonwoven fabrics .

5. with around 190 member companies in 26 countries Activities: 1. 3. 4. Promotion and education Technical services (test standards for nonwovens) Statistics and information Public affairs Meeting and platform activities . 2.Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens European association of nonwoven producers EDANA EDANA is the international association serving the nonwovens and related industries.

1-78 Opacity 120.4-99 Tear resistance 80.4-02 Vocabulary 10.Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens EDANA test methods I.4-02 Burst 90.4-02 Absorption 20.2-99 Conditioning 70.2-89 Sampling 140.2-02 Repellency 130.4-99 Drape 100.3-90 Mass per unit area 50.2-89 Tensile strength 30.1-78 Brightness 110.2-99 Air permeability definice slovník absorbce kapaliny pevnost v tahu tloušťka plošná hmotnost ohybová délka (tuhost v ohybu) klimatizování odolnost v dalším trhání odolnost v protržení tlakem splývavost odrazivost neprůhlednost vodoodpudivost vzorkování prodyšnost vzduchu .0-89 Definition 1. 0.5-99 Thickness 40.6-02 Bending length 60.

0-02 Repeated Strike-Through time 154.5-02 Liquid strike-through time protlačení kapaliny za čas 151.dry state prášení za sucha 230.IV (in processing) 220.1-02 Dry bacterial penetration průnik suchých bakterií 200.1-02 Demand absorbency savost 300.1-99 Free formaldehyde .1-02 Wet bacterial penetration průnik mokrých bakterií 210.1-02 Linting .3-02 Coverstock .0-99 Free formaldehyde .0-84 Surface linting (useful method) . 150.1-99 Free formadehyde .II (under stressed conditions) 212.wetback odolnost vůči opětnému smočení 152.0-96 Free formaldehyde .mason jar odolnost vůči smočení 180.through time 170.0-02 Wetback after repeated strike.0-89 Bacterial filtration efficiency odlučivost pro bakterie 190.I uvolňování formaldehydu 211.1-02 Run-off 153.III (determination by HPLC) 213.1-02 Wet barrier .Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens EDANA test methods II.

In cooperation with EDANA has been published standard test methods for nonwovens industry.Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens INDA and EDANA test method for nonwovens I. Table of contents: GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS •Glossary of Terms •How to Write a Test Method •Sample and Laboratory Conditioning •Worldwide Associations •Sampling •List of Vendors •Guidance to Nonwoven Test Methods •Guidance to Highloft Test Methods USEFUL METHODS •Surface Linting •Lamination Strength . INDA is the trade association representing the nonwoven fabrics industry since 1968.

Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens INDA and EDANA test method for nonwovens II. ABSORPTION •Nonwoven Absorption •Rate of Sorption of Wiping Materials •Demand Absorbency ABRASION RESISTANCE •Inflated Diaphragm •Flexing and Abrasion •Double Rotary Platform (Tabor) •Modified Martindale BURSTING STRENGTH •Diaphragm Burst •Burst ELECTROSTATIC PROPERTIES •Surface Resistivity •Decay OPTICAL PROPERTIES •Opacity (INDA) •Brightness (INDA) •Brightness (EDANA) •Opacity (EDANA) PERMEABILITY •Air Permeability •Liquid Strike-Through •Water Vapor Transmission Rate •Mocon/INDA •Water Vapor Transmission Rate •Mocon/EDANA Part 1 •Water Vapor Transmission Rate •Lyssy/EDANA Part 2 •Repeated Liquid Strike-Through Time •Wetback after Repeated Strike-Through .

Highloft •Using Weights and Plates •Compression and Recovery. Highloft •High Temperature/High Humidity •Thickness (EDANA) .Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens INDA and EDANA test method for nonwovens III. REPELLENCY •Surface Wetting Spray •Penetration by Water (Rain Test) •Penetration by Water (Spray Impact) •Penetration by Saline Solution •(Automated Mason Jar) •Water Resistance (Hydrostatic Pressure) •Penetration by Oil (Hydrocarbon Resistance) •Alcohol Repellency •Run-Off •Coverstock Wetback •Wet Barrier Mason Jar STIFFNESS •Cantilever Bending (INDA) •Stiffness Using the Gurley •Handle-O-Meter •Cusick Drape •Bending Length (EDANA) TEAR STRENGTH • Elmendorf •Trapezoid Tear •Tongue Tear TENSILE •Grab Tensile •Strip Tensile •Ball Burst THICKNESS •Thickness (INDA) •Thickness of Highloft •Compression and Recovery. Highloft •Compression and Recovery.

Dry •Particulate Shredding.Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens INDA and EDANA test method for nonwovens IV. Wet •Fibrous Debris from Nonwovens •Fibrous Debris from Hydrophobic Nonwovens GEOTEXTILES •Conditioning •Sampling •Bursting Strength •Air Permeability •Cantilever Stiffness •Trapezoid Tear •Force and Elongation Grab •Breaking Force Strip Test •Thickness •Thickness of Highloft •Mass per Unit Area . WEIGHT •Mass per Unit Area BINDER/APPEARANCE/DRYCLEANING •Binder Distribution/Penetration •Appearance and Integrity of Highloft Batting LINTING •Particulate Shredding.

Method III •Free Formaldehyde in Processing •Method IV ABSORBENT HYGIENE PRODUCTS •Syngina Method (Tampons) •Ethanol . Gravimetric Determination •Extractable •Respirable Particles •Dust in Collection. Gravimetric Determination •Flow-rate. SUPERABSORBENT MATERIALS •pH of Polyacrylate (PA) Powders •Residual Monomers •Particle Size Distribution •Mass Loss Upon Heating •Free Swell Capacity in Saline. after Centrifugation •Absorption Under Pressure.Extractable Organotin 2 . Gravimetric Determination •Density.Mechanical technology of nonwovens Department of nonwovens INDA and EDANA test method for nonwovens V. Sodium Atomic Absorption/Emission Spectrometry BACTERIAL •Filtration Efficiency •Dry Bacterial Penetration •Wet Bacterial Penetration FORMALDEHYDE •Water Extraction Method I •Stressed Extraction Method II •Free Formaldehyde Determination •HPLC.Extractable Organotin 1 •Synthetic Urine . Gravimetric Determination •Fluid Retention Capacity in Saline.

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