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Public Transport Network Design and Appraisal

- a case study of Porto

lvaro Costa, Pedro Abrantes and Oana Grozavu Santos Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto 19th Annual International EMME/2 Users Conference Seattle, 19-21 of September, 2005

Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction Re-designing bus network Network Appraisal Methodology Impact of LRT Network Impact of Strategic Bus Network Local vs. Global Accessibility Global Efficiency Indicators Complementarities between EMME/2,Enif and ArcView 9. Conclusions 10. Further Research

Introduction
Porto Metropolitan Area pop.: 1.2 mi New Light Rail (Metro do Porto) New integrated ticketing system (Andante)

Need to re-design the bus network to improve integration and efficiency


New network design based on professional judgment (heuristic method?)

FEUP was commissioned to: evaluate its public acceptability and efficiency suggest improvements

Introduction
Starting point: existing STCP bus network (red): 81 bus lines (to be cut down to 50) Driving force: introduction of the new light metro network (blue) Problem: Guaranteeing public acceptability and increase efficiency (heavily constrained problem, but poorly defined constraints) Solution: Iterative, piece meal, client-driven approach (trial & error) to ensure feasibility of solution = optimization in the real world Strong emphasis on GIS analysis of results.

Re-designing bus network


Design criteria:
Short lines Modal integration Homogeneous frequencies (10min) 20% veh-km reduction

Result:
Decrease in radial services Increase in orbital services
Change in bus service frequency
(blue = increase)

PT Modeling Approach
Public Transport Assignment Model (EMME/2)
Detailed zoning system: 350 zones covering an area with aprox. 1 million inhabitants (City of Porto: 105 zones and 350 000 inhabitans) Household travel survey from year 2000. Fixed demand The match between the two zoning systems was done applying a gravity-type model

PT Modeling Approach
Network Characteristics:
350 centroids 3266 regular nodes 8051 links 7 modes 9400 transit line segments 140 lines: 81 present bus lines, 50 future bus lines, 4 metro lines, 4 train lines, 1 elevator

PT Modeling Approach
Network Scenarios:
10 (Reference case): Current STCP Network + Suburban Railways 20: Reference Case + LRT 30: STCP Strategic Network + Suburban Railways + LRT 3x: Modifications of STCP Strategic Network + Suburban Railways + LRT

Accessibility analysis and efficiency analysis


Impact of LRT network (Scenario 20 vs. 10) Impact of STCP Strategic Network (Scenario 30 vs. 20) Impact of the new transport system (Scenario 30 vs. 10) Impact of the modifications on the Strategic Network

Network Appraisal Methology


Accessibility indicator (GIS plots) : Average generalized travel time by destination zone GTT ij WalkTij WaitTij TransferT ij InVehTij

GTT D

(GTT T
i i

iD

TiD )

iD

Efficiency indicators: Fleet size, Veh-kms, Total trips (operator) Pax-kms, travel time, walk time, number of interchanges (users)

Impact of the LRT Network


Mapa n 3
dTT mdia global - cenrio 20 vs cenrio 10

Change in accessibility between scenarios 10 and 20 As expected, LRT brings about significant travel time reductions (up to 12 min) Greatest benefits along LRT Large gains up to a significant distance from LRT, because of bus-LRT difference in speed (25km/h vs 13km/h)

Amp _con c.shp Linh as m etro_ a.shp dTT20 -1 0 -30 - -1 6 -16 - -8 -8 - -4 -4 - -2 -2 - -1 -1 - -0.5 -0.5 - 0 .5 -0.5 - 1 1-2 2-4 4-8 8 - 16 16 - 3 0

Impact of the LRT Network


Change in bus passenger flows between scenarios 10 and 20 General reduction in bus pax flows Small increases in certain suburban/orbital routes Potential complementary role of bus in new network

Impact of the Strategic Bus Network


Mapa n 4
dTT mdia global - cenrio 30 vs cenrio 20

Change in accessibility between scenarios 30 and 20 Significant travel time increases (8 min): poorer coverage or service transfer to private sector Significant gains in some suburban zones (10 min): improved LRT access, successful integration Gains from metro outweigh losses from new bus network in nearly all zones (special zones treated later) Policy implication Metro + SN must be introduced at same time

Amp_conc.shp Linhas metro_a.shp dT T30-20 -30 - -16 -16 - -8 -8 - -4 -4 - -2 -2 - -1 -1 - -0.5 -0.5 - 0.5 -0.5 - 1 1-2 2-4 4-8 8 - 16 16 - 30

Impact of the Strategic Bus Network


Change in bus passenger flows between scenarios 30 and 20 Reduction in radial flows, esp. around city centre, due to reduced frequency Significant increases in orbital flows, esp. towards main metro interfaces Explains gains away from LRT route bus services play an important role as feeders to LRT

Impact on the pattern of trip interchanges


Change in transfer boardings between scenarios 10 and 30 (red=increase) Concentration of interchanges around key metro stations Bus increasingly becomes a feeder mode to LRT. Bus-bus transfers decrease significantly

Policy implications:
Improve interchange facilities to take full advantage of new mode Minimize distance between bus and metro stops

Local vs. Global Accessibility


Anlise da Acessibilidade a Partir da Zona 190 (5-3)

Problem: Some zones lose accessibility from sce. 10 to 30 Further investigation showed inconsistencies in network design:
Zones furthest away from metro miss out the most with the new bus network Those zones also happen to be important centers for surrounding neighborhoods
# Y
#

Linhas metro.shp z190_53.s hp -24 - -12 -12 - -6 -6 - -3 -3 - -1 -1 - 1 1-3 3-6 6 - 12 12 - 24 Subseccoes ine.shp

190

Anlise da Acessibilidade a Partir da Zona 190 (7-3)

Linhas metro.shp Linha_39d_v.s hp Linha_39d_i.s hp z189_73.s hp -24 - -12 -12 - -6 -6 - -3 -3 - -1 -1 - 1 1-3 3-6 6 - 12 12 - 24 Subseccoes ine.shp

# Y
#

190

Local vs. Global Accessibility


Time vs Distance

Diagrams attempt to illustrate the problem The new bus network improves access to metro stations, which in turn greatly improve access to distant parts of the city Yet, reduced network coverage decreases local accessibility As we started by looking at the whole metropolitan area, this problem went nearly unnoticed Policy outcome: strengthen local bus services
Time elapsed (min)

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10

Bus Bus+Metro

Distance from Origin zone (km)

Global efficiency indicators User perspective


Scenario

3% mean travel time decrease from sc. 10 to 20 Constant travel time from 20 to 30 1.5% mean travel distance decrease from sc. 10 to 20 1.5% mean travel distance decrease from sc. 20 to 30

30 20 10
34 34.5

34.95

34.98

36.16
35 35.5 36 36.5

Average generalized travel time (min)

bus

30
Scenarios

154,650

36,352

metro

Notice significant pax-kms transfer to metro due to new bus network (+10%)

20 10
0

162,949

33,347

198,951 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000

Pax-kms

Global efficiency indicators User perspective


Scenario

Metro does not produce an increase in av. interchanges New bus network actually reduces interchanges But at the cost of greater walk access time Still, no increase in travel time

30 20 10
1.39 1.4

1.41 1.44 1.45


1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46

Average number of boardings per trip

30
Scenario

7.91

20 10
6.60 6.80 7.00

7.17

7.45

7.20

7.40

7.60

7.80

8.00

walk time (min)

Global efficiency indicators Operator perspective


6% decrease in fleet size requirements 4.2% decrease in morning peak hour veh-kms traveled Conclusion: Significant savings achieved, while maintaining or improving accessibility by applying simple network design rules
Bus_0 Bus_1 delta

Fleet size

Veh-kms
(AM peak hr)

517 485 -6.0%

7676 7350 -4.2%

Operator happy, passengers happy

EMME/2 - Enif - ArcView


ArcView is a great help in the construction of EMME/2 network files ArcView is a good tool for translating in a friendly image the results of the assignments (especially OD pairs related data) In both cases, Access is a priceless help Enif is a useful tool for analyzing data regarding interfaces, boardings, alightings, flows on links

Conclusions
The methodology is understandable to decision makers Benefits from LRT line are significant, and spread beyond the route

Scale of benefits depends on bus service design bus plays an important feeder role in the LRT network
It is possible to achieve significant gains in accessibility and productivity by re-designing the bus network for better integration with LRT network Nevertheless there is a trade-off between local and global accessibility in some areas, which is not visible when analyzing accessibility across the whole area

Future research
Schedule the implementation Incorporate elastic demand model

Introduce outstanding operators and differentiated fare system


Develop optimization algorithms to find the optimum network Test the impact of other policy measures, e.g. bus priority

Questions & comments


lvaro Costa < afcosta@fe.up.pt> Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto Oana Grozavu Santos <oana@fe.up.pt> Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto