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Area: 780,580 sq. km. Cities: Capital--Ankara (pop. 4.77 million). Other cities--Istanbul (13.256 million), Izmir (3.949 million), Bursa (2.605 million), Adana (2.085 million), Gaziantep (1.701 million).
Nationality: Noun--Turk(s). Adjective-Turkish. Population (December 2010 estimate): 73.7 million. Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other. Religions: Muslim 99% (majority Sunni), Christian, Bahai, and Jewish. Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek.
Type: Republic Parliamentary Democracy Independence: October 29, 1923. National holiday: Republic Day, October 28-29.
President of the Republic: Abdullah Gul Prime Minister: Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Principal Government Officials
. but in cities women frequently work outside the home.The People Turks are extremely patriotic. Each person is dependent upon and loyal to the family. They are proud of their ancestors and of the achievements of their modern society. Rural life is still traditional. The family is the most important social unit.
thus contributing to a blend of Turkic. and introduced previously unknown Western genres. which were a result of the interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe. Literature . though towards the end of the Ottoman Empire. Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts. Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences. Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era. particularly after the Tanzimat period. The Tanzimat reforms of 1839– 1876 brought changes to the language of Ottoman written literature. the effect of both Turkish folk and European literary traditions became increasingly felt. primarily the novel and the short story.
Shake hands with elders first. When visiting a factory. Shake hands again when leaving. Shake hands with each person upon arriving at an office. shake hands with all the workers when you arrive and again when you leave. politeness. It is common for Turkish men and women to cheek-kiss one another when meeting and parting. Corporate Culture Consideration. women and children--at a business or social meeting. Culture and Practices . Decisions are made at the top.Meeting and Greeting Shake hands with everyone present--men. Turks engage in small talk before they begin business discussions. respect and courtesy are very important to the Turks.
Dining and Entertainment Be punctual for a dinner party. Dress For business. Business can be discussed at anytime during the meal Some Turks who are Muslim drink alcohol. dresses and heels. men should wear conservative suits or a sports coat and tie. When finished eating.m. Culture and Practices . leave no food on your plate. In very hot weather.m. men may go without a jacket. but they still wear a tie. If you invite someone to dine. means 7:00 p. Avoid short skirts. low-cut blouses or shorts. and place your knife and fork side by side on your plate. 7:00 p. but those Turks who are strict Muslims never do. you pay the bill. Women should wear suits. "Dutch treat" does not exist in Turkey.
Don't expect your hostess to open a gift when presented. Do not give alcohol if you are not sure whether your host drinks. candy. wine (if host drinks). Give: flowers (roses or carnations). Culture and Practices .Gifts Always bring the hostess a gift when invited to someone's home. chocolates. Do not bring a gift that is too lavish.
Tourist spots in Turkey .
. The theatre of Aspendos was built in 155 AD during the rule of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and could seat between 15. Aspedos Theatre Aspendos boasts one of the best preserved ancient theatres of antiquity.10.000 and 20.000 spectators.
Patara Beach At 14 kilometers (9 miles). . Patara is one of the longest stretches of sandy beach found anywhere in the Mediterranean.9. The beach is backed only by ancient Lycian and Roman ruins and swooping dunes with no buildings visible except of a small café.
a sedimentary rock deposited by water with a very high mineral content from the hot springs. Pamukkale Pamukkale. meaning “cotton castle” in Turkish. famous for its white terraces. The terraces are made of travertine.8. . is an unreal landscape in western Turkey.
the city of Bodrum has long been the favorite seaside retreat in Turkey.7. shop-lined streets and sophisticated restaurants. built by the Crusaders in the 15th century. Bodrum With its sandy beaches. can still be found here. Unfortunately a series of earthquakes destroyed the monument but other historical attractions such as Bodrum Castle. .
001 ft) high mountain in southeastern Turkey.6. near the city of Adiyaman. two lions. and Persian gods on the mountain top. . two eagles and various Greek.134 meter (7. King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene built a tomb-sanctuary flanked by huge statues of himself. Mount Nemrut Nemrut is a 2. In 62 BC.
. Olüdeniz Ölüdeniz is a small village located on the south west coast on the Aegean Sea.5. This beach is famous for its shades of turquoise and remains one of the most photographed beaches on the Mediterranean. on a blue lagoon. It has a secluded sandy bay at the mouth of Ölüdeniz.
. the Blue Mosque has also become one of the most popular tourist attractions in Istanbul.4. Blue Mosque With its six minarets and sweeping architecture the Sultan Ahmed or Blue Mosque in Istanbul impresses from the outside. While still used as a mosque.
The library was built around 125 AD to store 12.000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus.3. Library of Celsus The ruins of Ephesus are a popular tourist attraction on the west coast.. . the governor of Asia.
One of the best places to see these strange formations is the town of Göreme. termed fairy chimneys. which is located among a large number of tuff cones.2. Göreme Fairy Chimneys Cappadocia is famous for its weird and wonderful natural rock formations and unique historical heritage. The fairy chimneys have been formed as the result of wind and water erosion of two different volcanic layers. .
Hagia Sophia Located in Istanbul.1. The Hagia Sophia was converted into a museum in 1935 and is now one of the top attractions in Turkey. the Hagia Sophia was originally a basilica constructed for the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I in the sixth century. A masterwork of Roman engineering. the massive dome (31 meters or 102 feet in diameter) covers what was for over 1000 years the largest enclosed space in the world.. .
the South China Sea to the west. and 126° 34' E.107 islands with a total land area. Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire. longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N. and the Celebes Sea to the south. the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. Its 36. of approximately 300.289 kilometers (22. latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east. The Philippines is an archipelago of 7.000 sq mi). It is located between 116° 40'.000 square kilometers (120. including inland bodies of water.549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the 5th longest coastline in the world. Geography .
5% are Muslims (concentrated on Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. and there is a small Chinese minority. some 70 native languages are also spoken. Other groups include the Negritos (negroid pygmies) and the Dumagats (similar to the Papuans of New Guinea). based on Tagalog.The People The great majority of the people of the Philippines belong to the Malay group and are known as Filipinos. The official languages are Pilipino. . The Filipinos live mostly in the lowlands and constitute one of the largest Christian groups in Asia. however. Roman Catholicism is professed by over 80% of the population. and English.
Most of the notable literature of the Philippines was written during the Spanish period and the first half of the 20th century in Spanish language. Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of prehistory. Tagalog. English. Literature . and the colonial legacy of the Philippines. José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo (The Filibustering. also known as The Reign of Greed) and is considered a national hero. Philippine literature is written in Spanish. and/or other native Philippine languages. Francisco Balagtas the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language.
Festivals in the Philippines are celebrated to boost up tourism and to attract tourist. Festivals are celebrated in the Philippines by honoring patron saints. People in the Philippines is known to be festival lovers. Here are some of the festivals in the Philippines that are popular and known to the world. Philippine Festivals and Culture . Popular Philippine Festivals and Cultural Calendar that are world renowned. some festivals is to commemorate an event in history or show gratitude for a good harvest.
is the wildest among Philippine fiestas. held every third sunday of January in the town of Kalibo. Aklan.Ati-Atihan Festival The Ati-Atihan. Philippine Festivals and Culture .
Panagbenga Festival Also known as Baguio Flower Festival celebrates the festival in February and the highlights of the festivities includes flower. flower exhibits. garden tours. floral contest and a parade of floats. lectures. Philippine Festivals and Culture .
Philippine Festivals and Culture .Lanzones Festival Celebrated every October in Mambadjao Camiguin with a weekend street dancing. parade and beauty pageant.
thousands of devotees from all walks of life come to the district of Quiapo to take part in the procession as a way of strengthening their faith or fulfilling their "panata" (vow) to Lord.Feast of the Black Nazarene Every January 9. Philippine Festivals and Culture .
Philippine Festivals and Culture .Dinagyang Festival The Dinagyang Festival is a very colorful festival that the people are shouting the thundering words of "Hala Bira" and makes the celebration so lively. Dinagyang Festival is celebrated every fourth Sunday of January.
Flores de Mayo in Manila The Flores de Mayo tradition is an enduring expression of Filipino Catholic religiosity celebrated every year during May. Philippine Festivals and Culture .
San Fernando is tagged as Christmas Capital of the Philippines.Giant Lantern Festival An annual festival held in December (Saturday before Christmas Eve) in The City of San Fernando. It features competition of giant lanterns. Philippine Festivals and Culture .
Philippine Festivals and Culture .Higantes Festival Celebrated on the 23rd of November in Angono town. It features mache giants that were caricatures of people.
with fairs and carnivals. Philippine Festivals and Culture .MassKara Festival This festival is a Mardi Gras like celebration that masked and costumed street dancers. Bacolod City celebrates this festival in the third weekend of October that is close to October 19.
Philippine Festivals and Culture . The Moriones festival is celebrated in Marinduque every Holy Week.Moriones Festival The festival is the most unique festival in the world.
Philippine Festivals and Culture . a type of rice dough made from a traditional recipe. Quezon are are elaborately decorated with brightly colored rice wafer. the fronts of houses in Lucban.Pahiyas festival Every May 15. called kiping.
Celebrated every 29th of June.Pintados Kasadyahan Festival The Pintados festival of Tacloban City is a Filipino festival with its own unique flavor. Philippine Festivals and Culture .
The dance is performed to seek help from the Santo Niño. This popular festival is celebrated in the 3rd Sunday of January. Philippine Festivals and Culture .Sinulog Festival Sinulog is a dance ritual in honor of the miraculous image of the Santo Niño.
the event is sure to be a surefire hit for foodies and tourists alike. With Dagupenos celebrating the local bangus industry and establishing their town as the Bangus Capital of the World.Dagupan’s Bangus Festival It is one of the most well known and anticipated festivals in the country. The festival will start on April 13 and will last until May 1. Philippine Festivals and Culture .
Tourist spots in the Philippines .
A distinguishing feature of the river is that it winds through a cave before flowing directly into the South China Sea.Palawan Underground River is located about 50 km north of the city of Puerto Princesa. It includes major formations of stalactites and stalagmites. Philippines. Palawan. and several large chambers.Puerto Princesa Underground The Puerto Princesa River .2 km. It features a limestone karst mountain landscape with an 8. . navigable underground river.
It consists of nearly 1800 small cute little hills that are spread over an area of 20 square miles. The hills are located in 3 towns of Bohol namely Carmen.Bohol The Chocolate Hills of Bohol are a spectacular natural wonder in the Philippines.Chocolate Hills . Batuan and Sagbayan. . Sagbayan Peak Mountain Resort offers an alternative viewing station of the worldrenowned and popular Chocalate Hills in the town of Sagbayan. A viewing station is available in the government resort Chocolate Hills Complex in the town of Carmen. Bohol which is a distance of about 34 miles from Tagbilaran City. a distance of 47 miles from Tagbilaran City.
Philippines. Bicol reputation as the most perfectly formed volcano in the world because of its near-perfect conical shape and form. Albay. it is listed on the World's Top 10 Wonders of Nature.Mayon Volcano . Visitors traveling to Mayon Volcano from Manila would take an hour by plane getting to Legazpi City then 10 miles north of Legazpi city is the magnificent Mayon Volcano. the most popular landmark of the province of Albay. Because of its natural elegance and beauty. . Mount Fuji of Japan. Mount Taranaki of New Zealand.North of Legazpi Mayon Volcano has a worldwide City. Mount Cotopaxi of Ecuador. USA. Volcan Arenal of Costa Rica and Shishaldin Volcano of Alaska. Mayon Volcano is the champion among the best competitors for the world's most perfectly coned volcanoes like Osorno Volcano of Chile.
In 2008. the province had a dramatic 117.5 million visitors last year.Camarines Sur Better known as CamSur. Ironman 70.2 % increase in tourists. welcoming an estimated 1. more than 720. International Dragon Boat Competition and Bagasbas Summer Surf gave travelers excellent reasons to visit this tourist spot in the Bicol region. .000 went wakeboarding at the CamSur Watersports Complex. Events like the First Aqua Fest Celebrity Challenge.3 Triathlon.
Baguio City The summer capital of the Philippines experienced a 20% increase in tourists after the Kabayan mummies discovered the place after the Kabayan mummy burial caves were featured in documentaries on cable. European visitors made up the bulk of visitors to the Cordilleras where Baguio is located. .
. Shanghai Airlines flights from Shanghai and Philippine Airlines flights from Hangzhou also boosted arrivals to Boracay.Boracay Taiwanese tourists to the island paradise increased by 72% since China Airlines started chartering flights there twice a week.
. Cagayan de Oro not only boasts of splendid views but also very warm and hospitable locals.Cagayan de Oro The City of White Water Rafting and River Trekking.
wares. Within the fort is Rizal Shrine which houses the utensils. drawings. garments. housewares. books. Rajah Suleiman before the Spaniards ever set foot on Philippine soil. manuscripts. Philippines Fort Santiago is a famous historic Spanish fortress in which once stood the palace of the Muslim chieftain. shoes. documents and other historic articles. Jose Rizal. kitchen wares. The fort has a museum containing Spanish artifacts. Manila. . the national hero of the Philippines was imprisoned here and spent his last night before being executed in 1896. artifacts and other objects used and worn throughout the life of the genius and multi-talented Philippine national hero. artworks. This fort is a very significant site in the history of the Philippine independence from Spain.Fort Santiago Intramuros.
Pagsanjan Falls One of the most famous Philippines waterfalls is the Pagsanjan Falls in Laguna. . You have to ride a canoe and cruise the Pagsanjan river to get to the falls.
Mt. Indeed. from craggy rockscapes to virgin forests.MT. APO (KIDAPAWAN-MAGPET TRAIL) Kidapawan City and Magpet. and provides an experience for mountaineers that lives up to their expectations from the country’s highest. it possesses a formidable array of landscapes.956 MASL. . At 2. covering the provinces of Davao del Sur and North Cotabato. North Cotabato The highest mountain in the Philippines is Mt. Apo possesses the widest spectrum of environments. towering over Southern Mindanao. Apo. from mossy swamps to volcanic structures.