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Introduction to Brand ManagementUnit 1

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Syllabus
Brand concept Introduction Types of brands Brand awareness Brand loyalty Brand associations Brand equity
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A Brand is any...
name... Coca-Cola term Coke

design sign symbol or combination that distinguishes a product from its competition.
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Brands
a brand identifies and differentiates the products or services of a particular company a brand name is the words, letters or, numbers that can be vocalized a brand mark involves a symbol, logo, or design that identifies a brand a trademark is the brand name and brand mark that are the legally-registered property of a specific company or organization
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A Brand is More Than a Product


Brand
Organizational associations Symbols Brand Personality Brand/customer relationships Selfexpressive benefits

Country of origin

Scope Attributes

Product
User Imagery

Uses
Quality/value Functional benefits Emotional benefits

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Why brands matter


Strong brands drive price premiums Companies with strong brands can expect to have a higher employee commitment to their firm A strong brand can out perform the market in strong economic times and protect you in weak times

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Pros and Cons of Branding


Advantages of branding for consumers:

Easier to identify products. Helps assure consistency in quality. Brands can be advertised and recognized. Price comparisons are reduced. Brands can differentiate commodities.

Advantages for sellers:

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Characteristics of a Good Brand Name


says something about the product or service is easy to pronounce, spell, and remember is distinctive is adaptable when new products are added to the companys product line is capable of registration under the Trade Marks Act and other laws

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Top Ten Global Brands


Brand
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Coca-Cola Microsoft IBM GE Intel Nokia Toyota Disney McDonalds Mercedes-Benz

2006 ($Billion)
67.00 56.93 56.20 48.91 32.32 30.13 27.94 27.85 27.50 21.80

2005 ($ Billion)
67.53 59.94 53.38 47.00 35.59 26.45 24.84 26.44 26.01 20.00

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Product brands
Products (commodities) become branded products when you win awareness in the marketplace that your product has compelling characteristics that make it different and better than others in the product category. Lux Amul Nirma
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Product brands

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Service brands
Services are products that people buy sight-unseen. People buy services purely based on their trust that the person or business theyre buying from will deliver as promised. If you sell a service or run a service business, you absolutely, positively need to develop and manage a strong, positive brand image. Jet Airways Taj group of hotels State bank of India
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Service brands

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Corporate brands Family brand


Corporate branding is the practice of using a company's name as a product brand name. It is an attempt to leverage corporate brand equity to create product brand recognition. It is a type of family branding or umbrella brand GE Sony Tata
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Corporate brands

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Iconic Brands
An iconic brand plays a valued role in a consumers life. It delivers a feeling that the consumer just cant get from any other brand. That feeling may be security, safety, familiarity, excitement, satisfaction, indulgence or many others. Iconic brands inspire an enduring form of affection that any marketer would want for his brand. Iconic brands are instantly recognizable

Apple; Coca-Cola; Corona; Mountain Dew; Nike; and Volkswagen,onida,

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People brands or Celebrity Brands


A person can establish himself or herself as a strong brand by offering his or her target consumers a set of unique, relevant and motivating associations and reasons to buy. Vercase, Ritu Kumar(Designers) Celebrity Brands Amitabh Bachchan Amir khan Shah Rukh Khan

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People brands or Celebrity Brands

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SYMBOLIC BRANDS
Here, the symbolic or emotional dimension is more prevalent than the functional dimension. The decisions would be based on more of the emotional aspect than that of rational aspect. In the circumstances where consumer buying is emotions driven, the brand must accordingly focus on symbolic or emotional aspects.E.g. ICICI Prudential has various schemes concerning childrens futures; this also stresses on the emotional aspect, caring for the child and securing his future.
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SYMBOLIC BRANDS

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FUNCTIONAL BRANDS
Here, the functional dimension of the brand is far more visible and appealing than the emotional or symbolic dimension. Niveas range of body products focuses on the functional benefit of smooth skin.

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FUNCTIONAL BRANDS

Olay Total Effects

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Entertainment brands
Disney Land Mount Opera

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Entertainment brands

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Event brands
Filmfare awards IIFA Golden Globe Oscar Femina Miss India contest.

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Event brands

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Cyber brands or E-brands

Google, Yahoo, Rediff, ebay

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Cyber brands or E-brands

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The brand name of a product that is distributed nationally under a brand name owned by the producer or distributor, as opposed to local brands (products distributed only in some areas of the country), and private label brands (products that carry the brand of the retailer rather than the producer.)

Manufacturers brand or National brand

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Private brands
Brand name placed on products marketed by wholesalers and retailers.

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Captive brands
National brands that are exclusively sold by a retail chain.

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Individual brand
Unique brand name that identifies a specific offering within a firms product line and that is not grouped under a family brand HUL : Rexona Lux Lifebuoy ITC : shampoos, conditioners ,soaps

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Places as brands
Kerala-Gods own country Malaysia-Truly Asia

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Institutions as brands
ICBM-SBE Harvard University IIT

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Charity organizations as brands


Ramakrishna Mission , CRY-Child Relief and you

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Retail brands
Lifestyle Shoppers Stop

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BRAND AWARENESS
Brand awareness is the consumers ability to recognize or recall the brand within a given product category in sufficient detail to make a purchase decision. Result is that consumers can propose, recommend, choose, purchase, or use the brand. Without brand awareness there cannot be brand preference.

Objectives of most advertising maintaining brand preference.


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creating

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BRAND AWARENESS (Cont.)


The distinction between brand recognition and brand name recall as awareness objectives can be meaningful at the pointof-purchase (POP) and prior to POP. At the point-of purchase, brand recognition is required and prior to purchase brand name recall may be required. The ideal situation for the advertiser is to accomplish both brand recognition and brand recall.

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BRAND AWARENESS (Cont.)


Awareness within brand management refers to the perception of a brand in the mind of the stakeholders. Awareness reflects earlier experiences and affects future perceptions, attitude and behaviour.

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BRAND Model David Aaker


Aaker argues that brand awareness reflects the knowledge and salience of a brand - the capacity to recognize - in the mind of customers. The level of brand awareness is heavily affected by :
the synergy of the brand name itself the attached symbols, imagery brand slogan within the given conditions.

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Levels Of Brand Awareness


Aaker defines three levels of brand 1. Brand recognition: Recognition reflects familiarity and linking acquired from past exposure. Remembering as such, one brand among others is a manner of aided recall. 2. Brand recall : Recall reflects awareness of a brand when it comes in mind as soon as its product class is mentioned. A manner of unaided recall. 3. Top of mind : The highest awareness level, the brand dominates the mind and pops up as first when ever applicable.
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Brand Model - Kapferer


Kapferer distinguishes the same order of brand awareness. On top of that Kapferer argues that each level of awareness has its own purpose and implications: 1. Aided awareness: The purpose of aided awareness is to reassure the brand. Aided awareness helps the brand to get out of the anonymity. The importance of aided awareness is at the point of purchase. 2. Unaided awareness: The purpose of unaided awareness is to position the brand on the immediate memory shortlist of brands. This is important in the decision process where the first shortlist is based on immediate memory before the brands are examined in dept. 3. Top of mind: The purpose of top of mind is to position the brand as the preferred brand in the mind of consumers. This is crucial under the circumstances where buyers have to make a decision without having a selection process and/or have a low involvement.

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BRAND ATTITUDE
Brand attitude is the consumers evaluation and expression and evaluation of inner feelings that reflect whether the consumer is favourably, or unfavorably, predisposed towards the brand . Attitudes are an outcome of psychological processes and cannot be directly observed but can be inferred only from what people say or how they behave.

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Brand Loyalty
Loyalty is a direct measure of how willing customers are to stick to a brand. Loyal customers prevent entry of potential competitors and lower the treat of substitutes

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Brand Loyalty
Aaker defines five loyalty segments which guide companies to develop their strategic and tactical market insight : Non customers: Those who use the competitors brand or are not product class users. Price switchers: Those who are price switchers. The passively loyal: Those who buy out of habit rather than reason. Fence sitters: those who are indifferent between two or more brands The committed: those who are committed to our brands. (Hard Core Loyal Customers ! These are the customers who are brands Asset ! )
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Brand Loyalty
Brand awareness, perceived brand quality, a well managed brand identity and behavioral brand loyalty programs could leverage brand loyalty among these groups

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Brand Associations are not benefits, but are images and symbols associated with a brand or a brand benefit. Brand associations is relating perceived qualities of a brand to a known entity. Brand associations are the attributes of brand which come into consumers mind when the brand is talked about. For example- The Nike Swoosh, Nokia sound, Film Stars as with Lux, Blue colour with Pepsi, etc.
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Brand Associations

Brand Associations
Brand associations are those abstract associations (attributes and benefits) that characterize the 5 to 10 most important aspects or dimensions of a brand.

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Brand Associations
Swoosh

Movie stars

Blue color

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Brand Associations
Brand associations are formed on the following basis: Customers contact with the organization and its employees Advertisements Word of mouth publicity Price at which the brand is sold Celebrity/big entity association Quality of the product Products and schemes offered by competitors Product class/category to which the brand belongs POP ( Point of purchase) displays

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Brand Association Map

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