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SEM-3 630001-SOODAM

Structured & Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology

Prepared by: Manisha Jaiswal

Types of Systems:

Information systems are developed for different purposes, depending on the needs of human users and the business. Transaction processing systems (TPS) function at the operational level of the organization. Office automation systems (OAS) and knowledge work systems (KWS) support work at the knowledge level. Higher level systems include management information systems (MIS) and decision support systems (DSS). Expert systems apply the expertise of decision makers to solve specific, structured problems. On strategic level of management we fine executive support systems (ESS). Group decision support systems (GDSS) and more generally described computer-supported collaborative work systems (CSCWS) aid group-level decision making of a semistructured and unstructured problems.

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TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM (TPS):


Transaction

processing systems(TPS) are computerized information systems that were developed to process large amounts of data for routine business transactions such as payroll and inventory.
A

TPS eliminates the tedium of necessary operational transactions and reduces the time once required to perform them manually although people must still input data to computerized systems.
Transaction

processing systems are boundary-spanning systems that permit the organization to interact with external environments.
Because

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managers look to the data generated by the TPS for up-to-theminute information about what is happening in their companies, it is essential to the day-to-day operations of business that these systems function smoothly and without interruption.

OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS:


At

the knowledge level of the organization are two classes of systems.

Office

automation systems (OAS) support data workers, who do not usually create new knowledge but rather analyze information so as to transform data or manipulate it in some way before sharing it with the organization.
Knowledge

work systems (KWS) support professional workers such as scientists, engineers, and doctors by aiding them in their efforts to create new knowledge and by allowing them to contribute it to their organization or to society at large.

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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS:


MIS

are computerized information systems that work because of the purposeful interaction between people and computers.
By

requiring people, software, and hardware to function in concert, management information systems users in accomplishing a broader spectrum of organizational tasks than transaction processing systems, including decision analysis and decision making.
To

access information users of the management information systems share a common database. The database stores both data and models that help the user interact with, interpret and apply the data. Management information systems output information that is used in decision making.

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DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS: A higher-level class of computerized information systems is decision support systems (DSS).

DSS are similar to the traditional management information system because they both depend on a database as a source of data.

A decision support system departs from the traditional management information system because it emphasizes the support of decision making in all its phases, although the actual decision is still the exclusive province of the decision maker.

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Decision support systems are more closely tailored to the person or group using them than is a traditional management information system.

Sometimes they are discussed as systems that focus on business intelligence.

EXPERT SYSTEMS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: Artificial intelligence (AI) can be considered the overarching field for expert systems.

The general thrust of AI has been to develop machines that behave intelligently.

Two avenues or AI research are understanding natural language and analyzing the ability to reason through a problem to its logical conclusion.

Expert systems are a very special class of information system that have been made practicable for use by business as a result of widespread availability of hardware and software such as personal computers (PCs) and expert system shells.

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An knowledge of a human expert or experts for solving a particular problem experienced in an organization.

Notice that unlike DSS, which leave the ultimate judgment to the decision maker, an expert system selects the best solution to a problem or a specific class of problems.

GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER_SUPPORTED COLLABORATIVE WORK SYSTEMS: Organization is becoming increasingly reliant on groups or teams to make decisions together.

When groups make semistructured or unstructured decisions, a group decision support system may afford a solution.

Group decision support systems (GDSS), which are used in special rooms equipped in a number of different configurations, permit group members to interact with electronic support- often in the form of specialized software- and a special group facilitator.

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Group decision support systems are intended to bring a group together to solve a problem with the help of various supports such as polling, questionnaires, brainstorming, and scenario creation.

GDSS software can be designed to minimize typical negative group behaviors such as lack of participation due to fear of reprisal for expressing an unpopular or contested viewpoint, domination by vocal group members, and group think decision making.

Sometimes GDSS are discussed under the more general term computersupported collaborative work systems (CSCWS), which might include software support called groupware for team collaboration via networked computers.
Group

decision support systems can also be used in a virtual setting.

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EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEMS: When executives turn to the computer, they are often looking for ways to help them make decision on the strategic level.

Executive support systems (ESS) help executives organize their interactions with the external environment by providing graphics and communications technologies in accessible places such as boardrooms or personal corporate offices.

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ROLES OF THE SYSTEM ANALYST:

The

systems analyst systematically assesses how users interact with technology and business function by examining the inputting and processing of data and the outputting of information with the intent of improving organizational processes. Many improvements involve better support of users work tasks and business functions through the use of computerized information systems. The analyst must be able to work with people of all categories and be experienced in working with 11 computers. The analyst plays many roles, sometimes balancing several people at the same time.

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The

three primary roles of the systems analyst are:


1. Consultant, 2. Supporting Expert, and 3. Agent of Change. SYSTEM ANALYST AS CONSULTANT:
The
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systems analyst frequently acts as a systems consultant to humans and their businesses and, thus may be hired specifically to address information systems issues within a business.
Such

hiring can be an advantage because outside consultants can bring with them a fresh perspective that other people in an organization do not possess. It also means that outside analyst are at a disadvantage because the true organization culture can never be known to an outsider. 12
As

an outside consultant , they have to analyze and design appropriate information systems for users working in a particular business.

SYSTEMS ANALYST AS SUPPORTING EXPERT:


Another

role that is that of supporting expert within a business for which you are regularly employed in some systems capacity.

In this role the analyst draws on professional expertise concerning computer hardware and software and their uses in the business.

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This

work is often not a full-blown systems project, but rather it entails a small modification or decision affecting a single department.
As

the support expert, you are not managing the project; you are merely serving as a resource for those who are.
If

you are a systems analyst employed by a manufacturing or service organization, many of your daily activities may be handled by this role.

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SYSTEMS ANALYST AS AGENT OF CHANGE:


The

most comprehensive and responsible role that the systems analyst takes on is that of an agent of change, whether internal or external to the business.
As

an analyst, you are an agent of change so you can perform any of the activities in the systems development life cycle and present and interacting with users , the business for an extended period(From two weeks to more than a year).
An

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agent of change can be defined as a person who serves as a catalyst for change, develops a plan for change and works with others in facilitating that change.

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Your

presence in the business changes it.

Hence,

you must interact with users and management from the very beginning of you project.
Without

their help you cannot understand what they need to support their work in the organization and real change cannot take place.
If

change(that is improvements to the business that can be realized through information systems) seems warranted after analysis, the next step is to develop a plan for change along with the people who must react the change.

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As

a systems analyst acting as an agent of change, you also teach users the process of change, because changes in the information system do not occur independently but cause changes in the rest of the organization as well.

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SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)


SDLC is a systematic approach to solving business problems It is divided into seven phases Each phase has unique activities A phase is never accomplished as a separate phase

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Several activities can occur simultaneously Activities may be repeated

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Phase 1 Identifying problems, opportunities, and objectives

Phase 7 Implementing and evaluating the system

Phase 2 Determining information requirements

Phase 6 Testing and maintaining the system

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Phase 3 Analyzing systems needs

Phase 5 Developing and documenting software Phase 4 Designing the recommended system
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Personnel involved:

Analyst System designer User managers Operations workers Systems managers

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INCORPORATING HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION CONSIDERATIONS: It is a layer of the computer that is between humans and computer. the study of human-computer interaction (HCI) has become important for systems analysts. Researchers characterize HCI as the aspect of a computer that enables communications and interactions between humans and computers. HCI focusing first on organizational and system needs instead of concentrates on human needs.

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Analyst

follows HCI principles to examine a variety of user needs in the context of humans interacting with computers to complete tasks and solve problems.
Another

way to think about HCI is a human-centered approach that puts people ahead of organizational structure or culture when creating a new systems.
When

analysts employ HCI as a lens to filter the world, their work will possess a different quality than those who do not possess this perspective.

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These

HCI concerns includes (In developed systems)

a suspicion that systems analysts misunderstand the work being done;


the tasks involved, and how they can best be supported; a feeling of helplessness or lack of control when working with the system;

trouble navigating through system screens and menus;(if doesnt any idea about flow) and a general mismatch between the system designed and the way users themselves think of their work processes.

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Misjudgments

and errors in design that cause users to neglect new systems or that make systems fall into disuse soon after their implementation can be eradicated or minimized when systems analysts adopt an HCI approach.
But

Researchers in HCI see advantage to the inclusion of HCI in every phase of systems development life cycle.

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Phase 1: IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS, OPPORTUNITIES AND OBJECTIVES:


Identifying:

dont want to address the wrong problems Opportunities: situations that can be improved Objectives: how can the organization reach its objectives via computerized IS Personnel involved: Analyst User managers (client) Systems managers (Business people) Activities in this phase consist: interviewing user management, 24 summarizing the knowledge obtained, estimating the scope of the project and documenting the results.

Problems:

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In the first phase of the systems development life cycle, the analyst is concerned with identifying problems, opportunities, and objectives. This stage is critical to get success of the rest of the project, because no one wants to waste subsequent time in addressing the wrong problem. The first phase requires that the analyst look honestly at what is occurring in a business. Then, together with other organizational members, the analyst pinpoints(discuss) problems.

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Opportunities

are situations that the analyst believes can be improved through the use of computerized information systems.
Identifying First Then

objectives is also an important component of the first phase.

the analyst must discover what the business is trying to do.

the analyst will be able to see if some aspect of information systems applications can help the business reach its objectives by addressing specific problems or opportunities.
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PHASE 2: DETERMINING HUMAN INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS:


The

next phase the analyst enters is that of determining the human needs of the users involved, using a variety of tools to understand how users interact in the work context with their current information systems.
The

analyst will use interactive methods such as: interviewing, sampling and
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investigating hard data and questionnaires, other methods, such as observing decision makers behavior and their office environments.

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The

analyst will use these methods to pose and answer many questions concerning human-computer interaction, including questions such as.
What How How How

are the users physical strengths and limitations?

can the new system be designed to be easy to use, learn, and remember? can the system be made pleasing or even fun to use?
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can the system support a users individual work tasks and make them more productive in new ways?

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At

this point the analyst is examining how to make the system useful to the people involved.
How

can the system better support individual tasks that need doing?

What How

new tasks are enabled by the new system that users were unable to do without it? can the new system be created to extend a users capabilities beyond what the old system provided?
How

can the analyst create a system that is rewarding for workers to use?

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Learn

the details of the current system functions:

Who(the

people who are involved),


business activity), environment in which the work takes place), timing), and

What(the

Where(the When(the How(how

the current procedures are performed) of the business under


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study.

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PHASE 3: ANALYZING SYSTEM NEEDS:


The

next phase that the systems analyst involves in analyzing system needs. Again, special tools and techniques help the analyst make requirement determinations.

Analyzing

systems needs
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Create data

flow diagrams Document procedural logic for data flow diagram processes Complete the data dictionary Analyze structured decisions Make semistructured decisions (decisions taken under risk) 31 Prepare and present the system proposal Recommend the optimal solution to management

There

are three major methods for analysis of structured decisions:

Structured
decision decision At

English,

tables and trees.

this point in the SDLC, the systems analyst prepares a systems proposal that summarizes what has been found out about the users, usability, and usefulness of current systems; provides cost/benefit analyses of alternatives; and makes recommendations on what should be done.

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If

one of the recommendations is acceptable to management, the analyst proceeds along that course.
Each

systems problem is unique, and there is never just one correct solution.
The

manner in which a recommendation or solution is formulated depends on the individual qualities and professional training of each analyst and the analysts interaction with users in the context of their work environment.
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PHASE 4 DESIGINING THE RECOMMENDED SYSTEM:

Accomplish the logical design of the information system


Design

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the user interface

Design output Design input


Design

files and/or database Design control and backup procedures Produce decision trees or tables Produce program specifications

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In

the design phase of the systems development life cycle, the systems analyst uses the information collected earlier to accomplish the logical design of the information system.
The

analyst designs procedures for users to help them accurately enter data so that data going into the information system are correct. In addition, the analyst provides for users to complete effective input to the information system by using techniques of good form and screen design.

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The

user interface is designed with the help of users to make sure that the system is audible, legible and safe, as well as attractive and enjoyable to use.
Examples

of physical user interfaces include

a keyboard, onscreen menus, and

a variety of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) that use a mouse or touch screen.
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The

design phase also includes designing files or databases that will store much of the data needed by decision makers in the organization.

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Finally,

the analyst must design controls and backup procedures to protect the system and the data, and to produce program specification packets for programmers. Each packet should contain input and output layouts, file specifications and processing details; it may also include :

decision trees or tables, data flow diagrams, a system flowchart, and the names and functions of any prewritten code routine.
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PHASE 5: DEVELOPING AND DOCUMENTING SOFTWARE:


In

the fifth phase of the systems development life cycle, the analyst works with programmers to develop any original software that is needed.
Some

of the structured techniques for designing and documenting software include:


structure charts and pseudocode.


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The

systems analyst uses one or more devices to communicate to the programmer what needs to be programmed.

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During

this phase the analyst also works with users to develop effective documentation for software, including :

procedure manuals, online help, and web sites featuring Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), on Real Me files.
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Because

users are involved from the beginning. Phase documentation should address the questions they have raised and solved jointly with the analyst.
Documentation

tells users

how to use software and


what to do if software problems occur.

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Programmers

have a key role in this phase because they

design,
code and remove syntactical errors from computer programs.

To

ensure quality, a programmer may conduct either a design or a code walkthrough, explaining complex portions of the program to a team of other programmers.
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PHASE 6: TESTING AND MAINTAINING THE SYSTEM

System maintenance is

Removing undetected errors, and Enhancing existing software

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Personnel involved

Analyst System designer Programmers Systems management

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Before

the information system can be used, it must be tested. It is much less costly to catch problems before the system is signed over to users. Some of the testing is completed by programmers alone, some of it by systems analysis in conjunction with programmers.
A

series of tests to pinpoint problems is run first with sample data and eventually with actual data from the current system.
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Maintenance

of the system and its documentation begins in this phase and is carried out routinely throughout the life of the information system. Much of the programmers routine work consists of maintenance, and businesses spend a great deal of money on maintenance.
Some

maintenance, such as program updates, can be done automatically via a vendor site on the Web.
Many

of the systematic procedures the analyst employs throughout the systems development life cycle can help ensure that maintenance is kept to a minimum.

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PHASE 7: IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATING THE SYSTEM

Implementing and evaluating the system Plan conversion from the old system to the new one Train users Purchase and install new equipment Convert files Install system Review and evaluate system: whether the intended users are indeed using the system

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In

this last phase of systems development, the analyst helps implement the information system. This phase involves training users to handle the system. Some training is done by vendors, but oversight of training is the responsibility of the systems analyst.
In

addition, the analyst needs to plan for a smooth conversion from the old system to the new one.
This

process includes converting files from old formats to new ones, or building a database, installing equipment, and bringing the new system into production.

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Control Monitor large projects Detailed steps Evaluate costs and completion targets Documentation Well defined user input Ease of maintenance Development and design standards changes in MIS staffing

Increased development time Increased development cost Hard to estimate costs, project overruns User input is sometimes limited

Rapid Application Development

Refers to a type of software development life cycle which uses minimal planning in favor of rapid prototyping The lack of extensive pre-planning generally allowed software to be written much faster, and makes it more flexible to change in requirement

Waterfall Model

is a sequential software development process, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the 5 phases

CASE TOOLS:
COMPUTER AIDED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
Reasons for using CASE Tools:
1.
2. 3. 4.

Increasing Analyst Productivity


Improving Analyst-User Communication Integrating Life Cycle Activities Accurately Assessing Maintenance Changes
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Increasing Analyst Productivity: Visible Analyst(VA) is a case tools that enables systems analysts to do graphical planning, analysis and design in order to build complex client/server applications and databases. It allows data, processes, and objects to be modeled in multiple notations. Visible analyst generates model information in many different forms, including COBOL, C, Visual Basic , SQL and XML.

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Improving Analyst-User Communication: excellent communication among analyst and users throughout the SDLC is essential. And have capability of analyst and users to communicate in a meaningful way at every phase. Analysts and users alike report that CASE tools afford them a menus of communication about the system during its conceptualization. Through the use of automated support featuring onscreen output, clients can readily see how data flows and other system concepts that would have taken too much time with older tools. 51

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Integrating Life Cycle Activities: The third reason for using CASE tools is to integrate activities and provide continuity from one phase to the next in SDLC. CASE tools are especially useful when a particular phase of the life cycle require several limitations of feedback and modification.

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Accurately Assessing Maintenance Changes: The fourth reason is that they enable users to analyze and assess the impact of maintenance changes. For example, the size of an element such as a customer number may need to be made larger. The CASE tools can cross reference every screen, report and file in which the element is used, so for comprehensive maintenance plan.

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UPPER AND LOWE CASE: CASE tools are Classified as 1. Lower CASE, 2. Upper CASE Lower CASE tools are used by programmers and workers who must implement the systems designed via upper CASE tools. Upper CASE tools are used by analyst and designers.
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UPPER CASE TOOLS: An upper CASE tools allows the analyst to create and modify the system design. All the information about the project is stored in an encyclopedia called the CASE repository, a large collection of records, elements, diagrams, screens, reports and other information.

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LOWER CASE TOOLS:


Lower CASE tools are used to generate computer source code, eliminating the need for programming the system. Code generation has several advantages: 1. The system can be produced more quickly than by writing computer programs. E.g. Code generators. 2. The amount of time spent on maintenance decreases with code generation. 3. There is no need to modify, test and debug computer programs, instead the CASE design is modified, and the code is regenerated. 4. Code can be generated in more than one computer language, so it is easier to migrate systems from one platform, such as mainframe, to another PC.

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Code generation provides a cost-effective way purchased from third party vendors to the needs of the organization.

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Interviewing

techniques Joint Application Design (JAD) Questionnaires

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INFORMATION GATHERING:
Interactive:

talking with and listening to people in the organization through a series of carefully composed questions

Example: interviewing

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Unobtrusive:

do not require the same degree of interactivity between analysts and users
Example: observing

Our

focus: Interactive methods

Interviewing JAD (Joint Application Design) Questionnaires

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(1) INTERVIEWING
Important method for collecting data on information system requirements Directed conversation with a specific purpose that uses Q&A format Reveals information about

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Interviewee opinions Feelings about the current state of the system Organizational and personal goals Informal procedures
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PLANNING THE INTERVIEW

Five steps in planning the interview are Reading background material Establishing interview objectives Deciding whom to interview Preparing the interviewee Deciding on question types and structure

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1. Reading background material:


Read and understand background information about the interviewees and their organization. This material obtained by their websites, from a current annual reports, corporate newsletters, or any publications

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2) Establishing

interview objectives:

Establish four to six key areas concerning to HCI, Information processing, and decision making behavior about which you will ask questions. These areas include: HCI concern, Information sources, Information formats, Decision-making frequency, Qualities of information and decision-making style.

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3) Deciding

whom to interview It include key people at all levels who will be affected by the system. 4) Preparing the interviewee
Prepare the person for interview by calling or sending an email message Allowing the interviewee time. If in-depth interview, it is permissible to email your questions ahead of time to allow your interviewee. It should be kept to 45 minutes or an hour at the most.

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5) Decide on Question Types and Structure.

Two basic question types: open-ended and closed.


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BEFORE THE INTERVIEW

Contact the interviewee and confirm the interview Dress appropriately Arrive a little early Inform that you are present and ready to begin the interview

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QUESTION TYPES

There are two basic types of interview questions:

Open-ended Closed

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OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS

Allow interviewees to respond how they wish, and to what length they wish

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E.g.: Once the data is submitted via the Web site, how is it processed?

Appropriate when the analyst is interested in breadth and depth of reply

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ADVANTAGES OF OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS


Putting

the interviewee at ease Allowing the interviewer to pick up on the interviewee's vocabulary which reflects their education,values,attitudes,and beliefs. Providing richness of detail Revealing avenues of further questioning that may have gone untapped Allows more spontaneity Making phrasing easier for the interviewer

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DISADVANTAGES OF OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS


May

result in too much irrelevant detail Possibly losing control of the interview May take too much time for the amount of useful information gained Potentially seeming that the interviewer is unprepared Possibly giving the impression that the interviewer is on a "fishing expedition

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CLOSED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

In this case you are familiar with closed question through multiple-choice exam This type of question limits the interview even further by only allowing a choice on either pole ,such as yes or no, true or false, agree or disagree. For example: Bipolar interview question.

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BIPOLAR QUESTIONS

Questions that may be answered with a yes or no or agree or disagree


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E.g.:

Do you want to receive a printout of your account status every month? E.g.: Do you agree or disagree that ecommerce on the Web lacks security? E.g.: Multiple choice exams in college.

One question and five responses given but you are not allowed to write down your own response and still be counted as having correctly answered the questions.

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ADVANTAGES OF CLOSED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS


Saving

interview time Easily comparing interviews Getting to the point Keeping control of the interview Covering a large area quickly Getting to relevant data

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DISADVANTAGES OF CLOSED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS


Boring

for the interviewee Failure to obtain rich detail Missing main ideas Failing to build rapport between interviewer and interviewee

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QUESTION SEQUENCING

There are three basic ways of structuring interviews:


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Pyramid Structure. Funnel Structure. Diamond Shaped Structure.

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PYRAMID STRUCTURE
Begins with very detailed, often closed questions Expands by allowing open-ended questions and more generalized responses Is useful if interviewees need to be warmed up to the topic or seem reluctant to address the topic

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FUNNEL STRUCTURE
Begins with generalized, open-ended questions Concludes by narrowing the possible responses using closed questions Provides an easy, non-threatening way to begin an interview Is useful when the interviewee feels emotionally about the topic

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DIAMOND STRUCTURE
A diamond-shaped structure begins in a very specific way Then more general issues are examined Concludes with specific questions The interview is begin with easy, closed question that provide a warm up to interview process. In middle of the interview is asked for opinion on broad topics that have right answer. The interviewer than narrows the question again to get specific question again

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INTERVIEW REPORT
Write as soon as possible after the interview Provide an initial summary, then more detail Review the report with the respondent

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Joint Application Design (JAD)

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(2) JOINT APPLICATION DESIGN (JAD)


Can

replace a series of 1-on-1 interviews Allows the analyst to accomplish requirements analysis and design the user interface with the users in a group setting Systems analysts (SAs): passive role
SAs Should be present May give expert opinions about any disproportionate costs of solutions

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TOPICS DISCUSSED IN JAD


Requirements

analysis and user interface


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design

But could be used at any appropriate phase of SDLC

Address

topics such as

Planning, receiving, receipt processing/tacking, monitoring and assigning, processing, recording, sending, and evaluating

For

each topic, ask:

Who, what, how, where, and why

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JAD PERSONNEL

Analysts Users, executives, Observers (technical experts) A scribe: write down everything A session leader
Senior person: visible symbol of organizational commitment May be outside management consultant

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CONDITIONS THAT SUPPORT THE USE OF JAD


Users are restless and want something new The organizational culture supports joint problem-solving behaviors among multiple level of employees. Analysts forecast an increase in the number of ideas using JAD Personnel may be absent from their jobs for the length of time required

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WHERE

TO HOLD JAD

MEETINGS

Two-to-four-day sessions offsite If possible, away from the organization, in comfortable surroundings Minimize the daily distractions and responsibilities of the participants regular work Use of group decision support facilities (e.g., networked computers, projection system, ) Make use everybody will be able to attend Orientation meeting (1/2 day) a week before the workshop

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BENEFITS OF JAD

Time is saved, compared with traditional one-to-one interviewing. some organization have estimated (15%) time savings. Rapid development of systems possible via JAD. Improved user ownership of the information system Participating in JAD Creative idea production is improved

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DRAWBACKS OF USING JAD


Requires the commitment of a large block of time from all session participants If preparation is incomplete, the session may not go very well If the follow-up report is incomplete, the session may not be successful The organizational skills and culture may not be sufficiently developed to enable the concerted required to be productive.

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Questionnaires

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(3) QUESTIONNAIRES
Also

called Surveys or information gathering technique. Interviewer: person asking a questionnaire. Respondent: person answering a questionnaire (or survey) This technique allows system analyst to study different objectives like: Attitude, Belief, Behavior and Characteristics.

Attitudes: what people say they want (in the new system) Beliefs: what people think is actually true Behaviors: what organizational members do Characteristics: properties of people or things
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PLANNING FOR THE USE OF QUESTIONNAIRES

Here some guidelines to help you decide when to use questionnaires is appropriate:
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The people you need to question are widely dispersed(different branches of the same corporation) A large number of members are involved with the project,& it is meaningful to know what proportion of a given group(for e.g. Management) approves or disapproves of a particular future of the proposed system you are doing Exploratory work & want to gauge overall opinion before the system project system is given any specific direction. You wish to be certain that any problems with the current system are identified and addressed in followup interviews.

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WRITING QUESTION:

Questions are designed as either Open-ended: Try to anticipate the response you will get Well suited for getting opinions Useful in explanatory situations Useful when it is impossible to list effectively all possible responses to a question Examples: A. What are the most frequent problems you experience with computer output? 1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------B. Of the Problems you listed above, what is the single most trouble? 1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------2. -------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Closed: Use when all the options may be listed When the options are mutually exclusive (equally select). Examples: A) Below are the four software packages currently available. Please check the software packages(s) you personally use most frequently. 1) Microsoft Excel. [] 2) Microsoft Power Point [] 3) Microsoft Windows [] 4) Visible Abalyst. [True] B. My Education background can be best described as 1) High School. [] 2) Some College. [] 3) Bachelors Degree. [] 4-94 4) Masters Degree or Higher. [True]

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CHOICE OF WORDS:
System analyst has a standard set of questions concerning system development, it is wise to write them to reflect the businesss own terminology. For instance, if the business uses the term Supervisor instead of mangers, or units rather than departments, incorporating of the preferred terms in the questionnaire helps respondents relate to the meaning of questions.

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TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN THE USE OF OPEN-ENDED VS. CLOSED QUESTIONS:

Openended Slow High High Easy Difficult

Speed of completion Exploratory nature Breadth and depth Ease of preparation Ease of analysis

Closed Fast Low Low Difficult Easy


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GUIDELINES TO USE WHEN CHOOSING LANGUAGE FOR QUESTIONNAIRE:


Simple:

use the language of respondents whenever possible.(keep wording simple) Use specific wording and short questions. Free of bias(Avoiding objectionable questions) Not patronizing: avoid low-level language choices Technically accurate Right question to the right person: addressed to those who are knowledgeable Use software to check whether the reading level is appropriate for the respondent.

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USING SCALES IN QUESTIONNAIRES

Scaling is the process of assigning numbers or other symbols to an attribute/characteristic for the purpose of measuring that attribute/characteristic. Scales are often arbitrary and may not be unique. For example, temperature is measured in a number of ways: the two most common are the Fahrenheit scale and Celsius scale
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(1)MEASUREMENT SCALES

1. 2.

There are four different forms of measurement scales commonly used by system analysts: Nominal scales Interval scales

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NOMINAL SCALES
Nominal

scales are used to classify things into categories . A Question such as: What type of software do you use the most? 1 = Word Processor 2 = Spreadsheet 3 = Database 4 = An Email Program

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INTERVAL SCALES

An interval scale is used when the intervals are equal There is no absolute zero. For example:

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How useful is the support given by the Technical Support Group? NOT USEFUL EXTREMELY AT ALL USEFUL 1 2 3 4 5

If the system analyst makes this assumption, more quantitative analysis is possible.
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(2)VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY


There are two measures of performance in constructing scales: Validity and Reliability. Validity: is the degree to which the question measures what the analyst intends to measure.(calculate) for example : if the purpose of the questionnaires is to determine whether the organization is ready for major change in computer operation? Reliability: it measures consistency in response
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Getting the same results if the same questionnaire was administered again under the same conditions.
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(3) CONSTRUCTED SCALES

Leniency: caused by respondents who are easy raters A system analyst can avoid the problem of leniency by moving the average category to the left(or right)of center Central tendency: respondents rate everything as average Analyst improve scale(1)by making difference small at two ends(2)by adjusting the strength of the descriptor(3)by creating a scale with more points

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Halo effect: impression formed in one question carries into the next question
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DESIGNING THE QUESTIONNAIRE:


Many of the same principles that are relevant to the forms design for data input: Here some rules for designing a good questionnaire:
1.

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2.
3.

4.

Allow ample white space. (ample = sufficient/enough) Allow ample space for responses to be typed for openended questions Make it easy for respondents to clearly mark their answers Be consistent in style to ask questionnaire.

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ORDER OF QUESTIONS

It is important to see the questionnaire through the respondent's eyes. Here Some guidelines for ordering questions are:
Most important questions place first 2. Similar topics should be clustered together 3. Introduce less controversial(divisive) questions first. i.e.,(Controversial questions should be positioned after less controversial questions)
1.

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