EIA – final examination Chapter 6 Prediction and assessment of impact on the air environment

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Teacher: Prof. Wei Student: Dao Thi Huyen Nhung Student ID: R0005038

1. AIR POLLUTION vs. KIND OF SPECIFIC AIR POLLUTANTS

Air pollution: The presence in atmosphere of one or more contaminants
in such quantities and of such duration as is or tends to be injurious to human health, animal or plant life, or property.

List of air pollutants: Gases and particulates

+ Gases: such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen,… in liquid or solid by the changing of increased pressure or decreased temperature. + Particulates: solid or liquid in the range of size (0.0002 μm – 500 μm) in diameter.

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1. AIR POLLUTION vs. KIND OF SPECIFIC AIR POLLUTANTS

Hazardous air pollution or Air toxics: are those pollutants that are

known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental effects. Examples: benzene, methylene chloride, dioxin, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and lead compounds.

Photochemical smog: in the atmosphere as a result of the photo-induce
reaction of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen.

Acid rain: is atmospheric reaction which exhibits a pH value less than the
normal pH of rainfall (approximately 5.7 when CO2 equilibrium is considered) by sulfur dioxide emissions or possibly nitrogen oxide.

Other: influence of air pollution on atmospheric heat balances and
associated absorption or reflection of incoming solar radiation.
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2. SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTANTS
    

Point sources (stacks) Line sources (roads) Area sources (treatment ponds) Volume sources (buildings) Biogenics

Emissions from industrial stacks are regulated to protect human and environmental health Industrial facilities are required to obtain permits to emit into the atmosphere and to demonstrate their compliance with regulations

Stacks in industry, traffic

About 60% of the emissions are from point sources In the process of applying for permits, dispersion models are generally used to assess the impact of point source emission

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3. APPROACH FOR ADDRESSING AIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Determine air quality impacts of alternatives and proposed action on the mesoscale and microscale levels
 

The mesoscale level assessment: measures the contribution of the
proposed action to area and regional emission inventories.

The microscale level assessment: is a comparison of calculated
concentration levels of air pollutants at specific locations to applicable ambient air quality standards.

Both levels of impact assessment are necessary in order to adequately address the air quality impacts associated with proposed actions.
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3. APPROACH FOR ADDRESSING AIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Step 1: Identification of the types and quantities of air pollutants and of their impacts

Use techniques to find “Emission factors” information, it indicates the accuracy of factor with the level affects decrease (A-> E) and contains several conditions: Calendar year, average speed, temperature, fuel volatility, operating modes. Types and quantities of pollutants that will be released from the project sources, i.e. the emission rates of all pollutants.

6 Air quality impact assessment framework
http://www.rrcap.unep.org/male/baseline/ActnPlan/Nepal/NEPCH-B.htm

3. APPROACH FOR ADDRESSING AIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Step 2: Description of existing air quality conditions
Ambient air quality data: information on air quality – monitoring data.  Emission inventories: the compiled information on the quantities of air pollution from all the sources in a defined geographical area entering the atmosphere in a given time (1-yr period)  Determine meteorology and climatology: wind speed & direction, atmospheric stability classes, mixing heights, worse meteorology or a whole year of data

Step 3: Procurement of relevant air quality standards and regulations
Criteria and policies will be the relevant local, state, and federal agencies  Determine the significance of air quality impacts incurred during projects;  Decide between alternative actions or in assessing the need for mitigating measures for a given alternative.

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3. APPROACH FOR ADDRESSING AIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Step 4: Impact prediction
Prediction and assessment of air quality impacts identify type and quantities of air pollutants emitted from construction and operation of each alternative under consideration for a proposed action.

Identify sources of air emissions

* Constructional sources * Operational sources

Characterize air emissions:
Types of air pollutants emission rates (constant or varying) emission heights exit temperature exit velocity Pollution sources and their locations

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗

Determine air sensitive receivers (ASRs)

∗ receptor locations ∗ receptor heights (terrain heights)

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3. APPROACH FOR ADDRESSING AIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS


Mass – balance approach: a mass concentration values. pollutant on the Box-Model approaches: estimate ofbalance of the total airIt is based emissions from all sources for a pollutant in a box. or activity entering the atmosphere mass conservation of a proposed project during the construction and/or operational phase.
The reference frame is Eulerian, i.e. fixed frame, rather than Lagrangrian, i.e. Percentage Project – activity the pollutant. The box or (100) reference frame moving with the velocity of emission Inventory information volume may represent a Increase region.= city or The plan area over a city is represented by x, y and z in the Existing emission inventory information In inventory vertical dimension of the air shed.

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3. APPROACH FOR ADDRESSING AIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Mathematical model + Statistical Models: relate to air quality based on analysis of ambient air quality monitoring data.

+ Emission models: to predict emission rate from hazardous waste treatment and disposal sites. The models are based on diffusion theory and emission rates are calculated by determining the mass transfer coefficient of the pollutant. + Dispersion models: estimates of pollutant concentrations at selected locations. These points of location are called receptors, and the network of points is the receptor grid.
Adopt proven mathematical air dispersion models, for example,

∗ VALLEY or ISCST model for stationary sources such as stack emission ∗ CALINE4 model for traffic emission (line sources) ∗ FDM for construction dust emission
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3. APPROACH FOR ADDRESSING AIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Step 5: Assessment of impact significance
 

Refer to the interpretation of the significance of anticipated changes related to the proposed project. Comparison of the combined concentration (background and incremental concentrations) of the pollutant and the acceptable or allowable ambient air quality standards of that pollutant. Include publish input, professional judgment, specific effects of the types of air pollution from a proposed project or activity.

Step 6: Identification and incorporation of mitigation measures
 

Minimize the magnitude of the air quality impacts to bring the pollutants within acceptable level. Revise the design as needed in order to reduce the air pollutants expected to be emitted from the project-activity. The revised project or activity can then be reassessed to determine if the mitigation measures have eliminated or sufficiently minimized the deleterious air quality

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