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p-n Junction Fabrication

p-n Junction Fabrication


a) A bare n-type Si wafer. b) An oxidized Si wafer by dry or wet oxidation. c) Application of resist. d) Resist exposure through the mask.
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p-n Junction Fabrication

p-n Junction Fabrication


a) The wafer after the development. b) The wafer after SiO2 removal. c) The final result after a complete lithography process. d) A p-n junction is formed in the diffusion or implantation process. e) The wafer after metalization. f) A p-n junction after the compete process.
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Energy diagrams in PN junction and depletion region


The valence and conduction in n-type are slightly lower energy levels than in p-type due to the characteristics of pentavalent and trivalent impurities atom.

Minority carriers Conduction bands

Majority carriers Conduction bands

Minority carriers

Majority carriers

Valence bands
Majority carriers
P region PN junction

Valence bands
Minority carriers
N region

Majority carriers
P region PN junction and Depletion region

Minority carriers
N region

PN junction formation

At equilibrium

Depletion Region
In the p-type region there are holes and in the n-type region there are extra electrons. Filling a hole makes a negative ion and leaves behind a positive ion on the n-side. A space charge builds up, creating a depletion region which inhibits any further electron transfer.-----BARRIER POTENTIAL
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Depletion Region

Depletion Region
It has equal thickness on both sides, if both blocks are having equal no: of impurity atoms. If p type is heavily doped than the n side, the depletion layer penetrates deeply into the n side to cover equal no: impurity atoms on equal side. If n type is heavily doped than the p side, the depletion layer penetrates deeply into the p side to cover equal no: impurity atoms on equal side.
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BIAS
Bias is a potential applied to a p-n junction to get desired mode of operation. It is used to control the width of the depletion layer. Types Forward bias minimum depletion layer and resistance. Reverse bias Maximum depletion layer and resistance.
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FORWARD BIAS

Connect the diode to a source:

The conduction band electrons in n-type material are pushed by the ve terminal of the source and jump into p-type material source. The valance band holes in p-type material are pushed by the +ve terminal of the source and jump into n-type material. So, the depletion region becomes lesser/gone and electrons can pass, hence current will flows

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FORWARD BIAS
When the applied potential is greater than the barrier potential, the diode is forward biased. Bulk resistance-resistance of the n-type material + resistance of the p- type material. Typical value is 25ohms It depends on i) the dimensions of the n-type and p-type material, ii)the amount of doping and iii)the operating temperature.

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FORWARD BIAS
There are two ways. By applying a potential to the n-type material that is more ve than the p-type material. By applying a potential to the p-type material that is more +ve than the n-type material.

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REVERSE BIAS
Connect the diode to a source:

The electrons in n-type material will attracts to +ve terminal of the source. The holes in p-type material will attracts to ve terminal of the source. So, the depletion region becomes bigger and electrons cannot pass, hence no current flows.

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REVERSE BIAS
There are two ways. By applying a potential to the n-type material that is more +ve than the p-type material. By applying a potential to the p-type material that is more -ve than the n-type material.

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APPLICATIONS
Diode applications:
Rectifiers Switching diodes Zener diodes Varactor diodes (Varactor = Variable reactance)

Photodiodes
pn junction photodiodes p-i-n and avalanche photodiodes

Solar Cells Light Emitting Diodes Lasers


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