Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Increasing / Decreasing Test: (a) If f (x) > 0 on an interval, then f is increasing on that interval. (b) If f (x) < 0 on an interval, then f is decreasing on that interval.

Example: Find where the function f (x) = x3 1.5x2 6x + 5 is increasing and where it is decreasing. Solution: f (x) = 3x2 3x 6 = 3(x + 1)(x - 2) f (x) > 0 for x < -1 and x > 2 ; thus the function is increasing on (-, -1) and (2, ) . f (x) < 0 for -1 < x < 2 ; thus the function is decreasing on (-1, 2) .

The First Derivative Test: Suppose that c is a critical number of a continuous function f. (a) If f is changing from positive to negative at c, then f has a local maximum at c. (b) If f is changing from negative to positive at c, then f has a local minimum at c. (c) If f does not change sign at c, then f has no local maximum or minimum at c.

Example(cont.): Find the local minimum and maximum values of the function f (x) = x3 1.5x2 6x + 5. Solution: f (x) = 3x2 3x 6 = 3(x + 1)(x - 2)

local maximum value ;

minimum value.

Definition: (a) If the graph of f lies above all of its tangents on an interval, then f is called concave upward on that interval. (b) If the graph of f lies below all of its tangents on an interval, then f is called concave downward on that interval.

Concave upward

Concave downward

Inflection Points

Definition: A point P on a curve y = f(x) is called an inflection point if f is continuous there and the curve changes from concave upward to concave downward or from concave downward to concave upward at P.

Inflection points

Concavity test: (a) If f (x) > 0 for all x of an interval, then the graph of f is concave upward on the interval. (b) If f (x) < 0 for all x of an interval, then the graph of f is concave downward on the interval.

Example(cont.): Find the intervals of concavity of the function f (x) = x3 1.5x2 6x + 5. Solution: f (x) = 3x2 3x 6 f (x) = 6x - 3 f (x) > 0 for x > 0.5 , thus it is concave upward on (0.5, ) . f (x) < 0 for x < 0.5 , thus it is concave downward on (-, 0.5) . Thus, the graph has an inflection point at x = 0.5 .

The second derivative test: Suppose f is continuous near c. (a) If f (c) = 0 and f (c) > 0 then f has a local minimum at c. (b) If f (c) = 0 and f (c) < 0 then f has a local maximum at c.

Example(cont.): Find the local extrema of the function f (x) = x3 1.5x2 6x + 5. Solution: f (x) = 3x2 3x 6 = 3(x + 1)(x - 2) , so f (x) =0 at x=-1 and x=2 f (x) = 6x - 3 f (-1) = 6*(-1) 3 = -9 < 0, so x = -1 is a local maximum f (2) = 6*2 3 = 9 > 0, so x = 2 is a local minimum

First derivative:

Second derivative:

Curve is concave up. Curve is concave down. Possible inflection point (where concavity changes).

Example(cont.): Sketch the curve of f (x) = x3 1.5x2 6x + 5. From previous slides, f (x) > 0 for x < -1 and x > 2 ; thus the curve is increasing on (-, -1) and (2, ) . f (x) < 0 for -1 < x < 2 ; thus the curve is decreasing on (-1, 2) . f (x) > 0 for x > 0.5 ; thus the curve is concave upward on (0.5, ) . f (x) < 0 for x < 0.5 ; thus the curve is concave downward on (-, 0.5) (-1, 8.5) is a local maximum; (2, -5) is a local minimum. (0.5, 1.75) is an inflection (-1, 8.5) point.

(0.5, 1.75)

-1

2

(2, - 5)

Guidelines for sketching a curve: Step 1 : Study of Symmetry Check for equation f(x,y)= 0 is

Symmetric about X-axis When equation is unaffected if y is changed to y i.e. equation involves only even powers of y. unaffected if x is changed to x i.e. equation involves only even powers x. unaffected if x & y are interchanged unaffected if x & -y are interchanged unchanged if replace x by x & y by -y

Y-axis

Step 2 : Study behavior of curve near origin If equation has no constant term then curve passes through origin and then find the tangent at origin by equating the lowest degree terms in the equation to zero.

Decide whether O is a node, cusp or an isolated point When there are two or more tangents at a point it is called a double point or multiple point. If the tangents at a double point are real and distinct then it is called a node. real and coincident then it is called a cusp. imaginary then it is an isolated points, which can not be traced in the graph.

Step 3 : Find points of intersection with the axes Find point of intersection with x-axis (if any) by putting y=0 in the equation of the curve.

Shift origin to this point and then using step 2 find whether this point is a node, cusp or an isolated point. If the curve is symmetric about the line y = x then find the point of intersection of the curve and the line y = x .

Shift origin to this point and then using step 2 find whether this point is a node, cusp or an isolated point.

Step 4 : Study of asymptotes Vertical Asymptote : Line of the form x = a, where a is a constant, for which f(x)-> or f(x)->- as x->a. Y-axis could be a vertical asymptote.

Horizontal Asymptotes : Lines of the form y = a, where a is a constant, for which f(x) -> a as f(x)> or f(x)->-. X-axis could be a horizontal asymptote.

Oblique Asymptotes : Lines of the form y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is any constant, such that f(x) approaches mx + b as x-> or x->-.

: Step 5: Find horizontal extent or region The horizontal extent is defined by those values of x for which y is defined. Find it from expression y = f(x). Similarly using x = g(y) find vertical extent of the curve. Eg. If y2 is negative for x > a then the curve does not lie to the right of ordinate of x = a.

: Step 6 : Study of special points Tangents parallel to axes Solve y=0 or x= 0 to get critical points Solve y= at which curve changes character Points of extremum Maximum if y changes from + to at x=c Minimum if y changes from - to + at x=c No extremum if y does not change in sign Points of inflection and concavity Concave up y > 0 Concave down y < 0

1.Symmetry :

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